Introduction to NIC
Types of NIC
Verify the presence of NIC in your PC
History OF NIC
Basic functions of NIC
Working of NIC
Steps followed by NIC
Functional parts of NIC
Cost Of NIC
A network interface card (NIC) connects a system to
a network. It is a card with a connector port.
Also known as Ethernet card or Network adapter.
Network interface cards provide a dedicated, full-
time connection to a network.
It allows your computer to "talk" to the network and
the network to communicate with your computer.
As the name suggests it is an Interface between your
computer and any other network your PC/System is
Motherboard via one of the following:
Network via one of the following:
• Provides interface between computer
and the local network or the other
networks on internet.
• Wireless network adapters
enable devices to
communicate with each other
over WiFi or other wireless
This standard was developed in 1973.
The original protocol was capable of transmitting
paragraph through a coaxial cable over a distance of
about 1000 meters.
This standard was developed in 1987.
In this the telephone cables(twisted cable were used
instead of co-axial cables).
Also known as “Fast ethernet”.
Transmitted data at a very high speed .
Also reffered as 1000-Base T ethernet.
Increases the available bandwith of the network 10
Capable of transmitting 1000mbps of data.
Ethernet and token ring networks have distance
limitations on cables.
In cases where data needs to be sent over a long
distance, in some cases miles, a fiber data digital
interface (FDDI) adapter can be installed in a computer.
An FDDI adapter converts data to optical pulses and
transmits them over fiber optic lines.
FDDI is a 100 mbps distributed network that uses a
token ring-type architecture.
FDDI frames can easily re-encapsulate ethernet
data for retransmission over great distances.
To check the availability of NIC on your system we
can type the Following command in the DOS
In 1973 Robert Metcalfe
needed something that was
fast, could connect hundreds
of computers, and span a
In 1975 Xerox filed a patent
listing Metcalf, David Boggs,
Chuck Thacker and Butler
Lampson as inventors.
Metcalf left Xerox in 79 to
start the company 3com.
In mid 1980s, Tim Rock, Richard Bennett, Pat
Thaler, and others develop StarLAN, the basis for
5BASET ethernet .
In 1981, 3COM built the first 10 Mbits/sec Ethernet
MAC ADDRESS storage
Signal encoding and decoding
1. Gather the data that is to be sent from the
2. NIC gathers that data from the motherboard and
tranfers it to small buffer on the card.
3. NIC adds its own address plus the destination
address where the data is to be send.
4. NIC calculates the checksum for the data in the
5. This information is then arranged into a frame.
6. Then it transmits that frame to the network.
7. The receiving NIC calculates the checksum for the
8. IT checks it with the original checksum value attached
with the frame.
9. If no errors then the acknowledgement is sent.
retrive the data
The NIC puts
the address of
The data is
arranged into a
packet and sent
card checks for
errors, if there
are none, it
The data which we are talking about is in the form of
frames, As the NIC is the component of the physical
Module of transmitting-receiving:
It consists of various circuits of signals with data.
Module of encoding-decoding:
Allows the insertion of the synchronization bit sequence in the
data just before the transmission, in order to maintain synchronization
in receiving and transmitting, and extract the data when it receives.
Medium Access module(MAC)
Generates and stores the sender and receiver addresses.
Buffer for FRAME:
A cache in which the FRAME is entered before transmitting or kept just
Interconnection towards the bus (computer)
Presents circuits which will send data to the computer in the bus .
Therefore, they are designed for ISA, EISA, MC and other types of
This means that the card for one type of computer can not be used in
NIC has unique identifier,called Media Access
It is a 48-bit number , when written as six two-digit
hexadecimal numbers separated by colons.
First part identifies the manufacturer.
Second part is unique to each NIC.
The cards can range in price from $10 to $800.
Most cards are actually around $20.
NIC provides interface between computer and
It prepares,sends and controls data flow across the
Each NIC has a unique hardware network address.
Have profound effect on the overall network