Network interface card
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  • 1. -Nidhi Tanna Rno:85
  • 2.  Introduction to NIC  Types of NIC  Verify the presence of NIC in your PC  History OF NIC  Basic functions of NIC  Working of NIC  Steps followed by NIC  Functional parts of NIC  Major Manufacturers  Cost Of NIC
  • 3.  A network interface card (NIC) connects a system to a network. It is a card with a connector port.
  • 4.  Also known as Ethernet card or Network adapter.  Network interface cards provide a dedicated, full- time connection to a network.  It allows your computer to "talk" to the network and the network to communicate with your computer.  As the name suggests it is an Interface between your computer and any other network your PC/System is connected to.
  • 5.  Motherboard via one of the following: 1)PCI connector 2)ISA connector 3) PCI-E 4) FireWire 5)USB 6) Thunderbolt  Network via one of the following: 1)Ethernet
  • 6. 2)Wi-Fi 3)Token-Ring 4) ATM
  • 7. • Provides interface between computer and the local network or the other networks on internet. • 5baseT,10baseT,100baseT,Gigabit Ethernet NIC • Wireless network adapters enable devices to communicate with each other over WiFi or other wireless networking protocols. Wireless Network NIC
  • 8.  5-Base T  This standard was developed in 1973.  The original protocol was capable of transmitting paragraph through a coaxial cable over a distance of about 1000 meters.  10-Base T  This standard was developed in 1987.  In this the telephone cables(twisted cable were used instead of co-axial cables).
  • 9.  100-Base T  Also known as “Fast ethernet”.  Transmitted data at a very high speed .  Gigabit Ethernet  Also reffered as 1000-Base T ethernet.  Increases the available bandwith of the network 10 times.  Capable of transmitting 1000mbps of data.
  • 10.  FDDI  Ethernet and token ring networks have distance limitations on cables.  In cases where data needs to be sent over a long distance, in some cases miles, a fiber data digital interface (FDDI) adapter can be installed in a computer.  An FDDI adapter converts data to optical pulses and transmits them over fiber optic lines.  FDDI is a 100 mbps distributed network that uses a token ring-type architecture.  FDDI frames can easily re-encapsulate ethernet data for retransmission over great distances.
  • 11.  To check the availability of NIC on your system we can type the Following command in the DOS window.
  • 12. History  In 1973 Robert Metcalfe needed something that was fast, could connect hundreds of computers, and span a whole building.  In 1975 Xerox filed a patent listing Metcalf, David Boggs, Chuck Thacker and Butler Lampson as inventors.  Metcalf left Xerox in 79 to start the company 3com.
  • 13.  In mid 1980s, Tim Rock, Richard Bennett, Pat Thaler, and others develop StarLAN, the basis for 5BASET ethernet .  In 1981, 3COM built the first 10 Mbits/sec Ethernet adapter.
  • 14.  Data transfer  Buffering  Encapsulation  MAC ADDRESS storage  Signal encoding and decoding
  • 15. 1. Gather the data that is to be sent from the appication. 2. NIC gathers that data from the motherboard and tranfers it to small buffer on the card. 3. NIC adds its own address plus the destination address where the data is to be send. 4. NIC calculates the checksum for the data in the buffer. 5. This information is then arranged into a frame.
  • 16. 6. Then it transmits that frame to the network. 7. The receiving NIC calculates the checksum for the received frame. 8. IT checks it with the original checksum value attached with the frame. 9. If no errors then the acknowledgement is sent.
  • 17. Network application retrive the data being sent. The NIC puts the address of the other computer onto the data. The NIC calculates for errors. The data is arranged into a packet and sent over the network. The receiving card checks for errors, if there are none, it acknowledges the data. The data which we are talking about is in the form of frames, As the NIC is the component of the physical layer.
  • 18.  Module of transmitting-receiving: It consists of various circuits of signals with data.  Module of encoding-decoding: Allows the insertion of the synchronization bit sequence in the data just before the transmission, in order to maintain synchronization in receiving and transmitting, and extract the data when it receives.  Medium Access module(MAC) Generates and stores the sender and receiver addresses.
  • 19.  Buffer for FRAME: A cache in which the FRAME is entered before transmitting or kept just received FRAME.  Interconnection towards the bus (computer) Presents circuits which will send data to the computer in the bus . Therefore, they are designed for ISA, EISA, MC and other types of buses. This means that the card for one type of computer can not be used in another.
  • 20.  NIC has unique identifier,called Media Access Control(MAC) address.  It is a 48-bit number , when written as six two-digit hexadecimal numbers separated by colons.  First part identifies the manufacturer.  Second part is unique to each NIC. 00-04-AC-F3-1C-D4
  • 21.  The cards can range in price from $10 to $800.  Most cards are actually around $20.
  • 22.  NIC provides interface between computer and networking medium.  It prepares,sends and controls data flow across the network.  Each NIC has a unique hardware network address.  Have profound effect on the overall network performance.
  • 23.  www.newegg.com  www.techterms.com  www.computerhope.com  www.searchnetworking.techtarget.com  www.compnetworking.about.com  www.ehow.com  www.informatics.buzdo.com  www.csupomona.edu