Food Security and PDS system in IndiaPresentation Transcript
Miss Nidhi Suthar (Ph.D. Scholar) Dr. (Mrs.) Neeta Lodha (Assitt. Professor) Department of Family Resource Management, College of Home-Science, MPUAT, Udaipur (Rajasthan ).
Worldwide around 852 million people are chronically hungry due to extreme poverty, while up to 2 billion people lack food security intermittently due to varying degrees of poverty“
Six million children die of hunger every year - 17,000 every day.
India is the only country that is endowed with 14 agro climatic zones which mean any crop at any time can be grown in India.
The improper use of available natural resources has resulted in inconsistency in food grain production.
HUNGER HOTSPOTS IN INDIA
At the global level, the South Asian region is home to more chronically food insecure people than any other region in the world and India ranks 94th in the Global Hunger Index of 119 countries.
On the composite index of food insecurity of rural India, states like Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh are found in the 'very high' level of food insecurity, followed by Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Gujarat.
Even economically developed states like Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka find themselves in the category of high food insecurity
THE FOOD SECURITY SCENARIO IN SOUTH ASIA
Global Hunger Index
SOME INDICATORS FOR CHILD WELLBEING AND MALNUTRITION IN SOUTH ASIA
India’s Annual Growth Rate Year GDP Per capita income 1951-79 3.6 1.3 1980-91 5.6 3.5 1992-06 6.5 4.7
News of starvation deaths & farmers ’ suicides from many states
Stagnant agricultural production, and falling food availability
Unemployment has increased from 4 to 8% in ten years
Regional disparities are increasing
IMR stagnating around 60 per 1000, it is 46 in Bangladesh
More than 50% women are anemic
46% children are malnourished
Declining child sex ratio during 1991-2001
The World Food Summit (1996) defined food security as existing “ when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”.
Commonly, the concept of food security is defined as including both physical and economic access to food that meets people's dietary needs as well as their food preferences.
It has been described as "a condition in which people lack basic food intake to provide them with the energy and nutrients for fully productive lives”.
Food insecurity means did not have access at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life, with no need for recourse to emergency food sources or other extraordinary coping behaviors to meet their basic food needs.
The uneasy or painful sensation caused by a lack of food. The recurrent and involuntary lack of access to food. In 2001, USDA estimates among households
89% of households were food “secure”
10.7% of households experienced “food insecurity”
3.3% of households experienced “hunger” at some point during the previous year
Food sovereignty (FS) is the right of peoples and communities to safe, nutritious, culturally appropriate food, to food-producing resources, and to the ability to sustain them
THE FOOD SYSTEM
Food security is not just a poverty issue; it is a much larger issue that involves the whole food system and affects every one of us in some way.
The food system includes…
everyone who grows or catches food
the physical environment
food processors, packagers, distributors, marketers, and advertisers.
food wholesalers and the warehouses
the transportation system
places that sell food
places where food is served
the political and economic environment
the social, educational and cultural environment - the health care system, the workforce, schools, technology.
everyone - who eats!
FOOD SECURITY IS BUILT ON THREE PILLARS
Food security is a complex sustainable development issue
FOOD PRODUCTION IN INDIA
The issue of food security is very much linked with
increased agriculture productivity,
management of natural resources like land, water, weather, etc. and
Thanks to green revolution, the nation has been able to eliminate food imports almost completely and achieve near self-sufficiency in food production.
India's agriculture sector has an impressive long term record of taking the country out of serious food shortage with a record food grain production of 230.85 million tones (2008-09).
GREAT DEAL OF DEBATE
There is a great deal of debate around food security with some arguing that:
There is enough food in the world to feed everyone adequately; the problem is distribution.
Future food needs can - or cannot - be met by current levels of production.
National food security is paramount - or no longer necessary because of global trade.
Globalization may - or may not - lead to the persistence of food insecurity and poverty in rural communities.
INDIA HAS THE LARGEST FOOD SCHEMES IN THE WORLD
Entitlement Feeding Programmes
ICDS (All Children under six, Pregnant and lactating mother)
MDMS (All Primary School children)
Food Subsidy Programmes
Targeted Public Distribution System (35 kgs/ month of subsidised food grains
Annapurna (10 kgs of free food grain for destitute poor)
National Rural Employment Scheme (100 days of employment at minimum wages)
Social Safety Net Programmes
National Old Age Pension Scheme (Monthly pension to BPL)
National Family Benefit Scheme (Compensation in case of death of bread winner to BPL families)
PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM INDIA
PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM INDIA
The Indian PDS is a national food security system that distributed subsidized food to India's poor. PDS means distribution of essential commodities to a large number of people through a network of Fair Price Shops (FPS) on a recurring basis.
The commodities are as follows :-
The Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution are a government ministry of India.
The Ministry is headed by a minister of Cabinet rank.
The current minister is Sharad Pawar.
The ministry is divided into two departments ,
The Department of Food and Public Distribution
The Department of Consumer Affairs.
PDS is operated under the joint responsibility of the Central and the State Governments.
The Central Government has taken the responsibility for procurement, storage, transportation and bulk allocation of food grains, etc.
The responsibility for distributing the same to the consumers through the network of Fair Price Shops (FPSs) rests with the State Governments.
The operational responsibilities including allocation within the State, identification of families below poverty line, issue of ration cards, supervision and monitoring the functioning of FPSs rest with the State Governments.
EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Public Distribution of essential commodities had been in existence in India during the inter-war period.
PDS, with its focus on distribution of food grains in urban scarcity areas, had emanated from the critical food shortages of 1960.
As the national agricultural production had grown in the aftermath of Green Revolution, the outreach of PDS was extended to tribal blocks and areas of high incidence of poverty in the 1970s and 1980s.
PDS, till 1992, was a general entitlement scheme for all consumers without any specific target.
Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS) was launched in June 1992 in 1775 blocks throughout the country.
The Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) was introduced with effect from June 1997.
REVAMPED PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (RPDS)
RPDS was launched with a view to strengthen and streamline the PDS as well as to improve its reach in the far-flung, hilly, remote and inaccessible areas where a substantial section of the poor live. It covered 1775 blocks
wherein area specific programmes such as;
the Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP),
Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP),
Desert Development Programme (DDP) and certain
Designated Hill Areas (DHA)
The scale of issue was up to 20 kg per card.
The RPDS included area approach for ensuring
- effective reach of the PDS commodities,
- their delivery by State Governments at the doorstep of FPSs in the identified areas,
- additional ration cards to the left out families,
- additional commodities such as tea, salt, pulses, soap, etc...
for distribution through PDS outlets.
TARGETED PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (TPDS)
In June 1997, the Government of India launched the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) with focus on the poor.
Under the TPDS, States are required to formulate and implement foolproof arrangements for identification of the poor for delivery of food grains and for its distribution in a transparent and accountable manner at the FPS level.
The identification of the poor under the scheme is done by the States as per State-wise poverty estimates of the Planning Commission for 1993-94 based on the methodology of the “Expert Group on estimation of proportion and number of poor” .
The quantum of food grains in excess of the requirement of BPL families was provided to the State as ‘transitory allocation’ for which a quantum of 103 lakh tonnes of food grains was earmarked annually.
The transitory allocation was intended for continuation of benefit of subsidized food grains to the population Above the Poverty Line (APL)
Government of India increased the allocation to BPL families from 10 kg. to 20 kg of food grains per family per month at 50% of the economic cost.
The allocation of APL families was retained at the same level as at the time of introduction of TPDS but the Central Issue Prices (CIP) for APL were fixed at 100% of economic cost.
the CIPs fixed in July and December, 2000 for BPL & AAY respectively and in July, 2002 for APL, have not been revised since then even though procurement costs have gone up considerably.
The number of BPL families has been increased w.e.f. 1.12.2000 by shifting the base to the population projections of the Registrar General as on 1.3.2000 instead of the earlier population projections of 1995.
With this increase the total number of BPL families is 652.03 lakh as against 596.23 lakh families originally estimated when TPDS was introduced in June 1997.
Under the TPDS, the States were requested to issue food-grains at a difference of not more than 50 paise per kg over and above the CIP for BPL families .
CIP for distribution of food grains under TPDS except with respect to Antyodaya Anna Yojana where the end retail price is to be retained at Rs. 2/ a Kg. for wheat and Rs. 3/ a Kg. for rice.
ANTYODAYA ANNA YOJANA (AAY)
AAY is a step in the direction of making TPDS aim at reducing hunger among the poorest segments of the BPL population.
A National Sample Survey Exercise points towards the fact that about 5 % of the total population in the country sleeps without two square meals a day.
In order to make TPDS more focused and targeted towards this category of population, the “Antyodaya Anna Yojana” (AAY) was launched in December, 2000 for one crore poorest of the poor families.
AAY providing food grains at a highly subsidized rate of Rs.2/ per kg. for wheat and Rs. 3/ per kg for rice.
The entire food subsidy is being passed on to the consumers under the scheme
The scale of issue that was initially 25 kg per family per month has been increased to 35 kg per family per month with effect from 1 st April 2002. There are three expansion made in AAY, as following:
First Expansion of AAY
Second Expansion of AAY
Third Expansion of AAY
FIRST EXPANSION OF AAY
The AAY Scheme has been expanded in 2003-2004 by adding another 50 lakh BPL households headed by widows or terminally ill persons or disabled persons or persons aged 60 years or more with no assured means of subsistence or societal support. With this increase, 1.5 crore (i.e. 23% of BPL) families have been covered under the AAY.
SECOND EXPANSION OF AAY
As announced in the Union Budget 2004-05, the AAY has been further expanded by another 50 lakh BPL families by including, inter alia, all households at the risk of hunger. Orders to this effect have been issued on 3 rd August 2004.
In order to identify these households, the guidelines stipulate the following criteria: --
Landless agriculture labourers, marginal farmers, potters, tanners, weavers, carpenters, slum dwellers, and persons earning their livelihood, on daily basis in the informal sector like porters, coolies, rickshaw pullers, hand cart pullers, fruit and flower sellers, destitute and other similar categories irrespective of rural or urban areas.
Households headed by widows or terminally ill persons or disabled persons or persons aged 60 years or more with no assured means of subsistence or societal support.
Widows or terminally ill persons or disabled persons or persons aged 60 years or more or single women or single men with no family or societal support or assured means of subsistence.
All primitive tribal households.
With this increase, the number of AAY families has been increased to 2 crore (i.e. 30.66% of BPL families).
THIRD EXPANSION OF AAY
As announced in the Union Budget 2005-06, the AAY has further been expanded to cover another 50 lakh BPL households thus increasing its overage to 2.5 crore households.(i.e. 38% of BPL). As on 30.04.2009, 242.75 lakh AAY families have been covered by the States /UTs under this scheme.
The present Central Issue Price (CIP) of food grains being supplied under TPDS is as under: -
CENTRAL ISSUE PRICE (CIP)
India at present finds itself in the midst of a paradoxical situation: endemic mass-hunger coexisting with the mounting foodgrain stocks.
The foodgrain stocks available with the Food Corporation of India (FCI) stand at an all time high of 62 million tonnes against an annual requirement of around 20 million tonnes for ensuring food security.
In most developing countries, the PDS is viewed as a mechanism for price stabilization, a mean to ensure food security and also an instrument to successfully implement the food – for – work programme.
NEED OF REVITALIZING THE PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
India's food security policy has a laudable objective to ensure availability of foodgrains to the common people at an affordable price.
PDS not properly Worked APL families also use subsidized food Minimum support price Input subsidies Issue price Market demand Food-for-work scheme High Cost of Subsidy Pro Market Biased Policies Of The Government Entry Of Corporate Companies Into Agriculture Sector Major problems can be studied under following heads:
There is a need to shift from the existing expensive, inefficient and corruption ridden institutional arrangements to those that will ensure cheap delivery of requisite quality grains in a transparent manner and are self-targeting.
Citizen’s Charter PDS (Control) Order, 2001 Area Officers’ Scheme MEASURES TAKEN TO STRENGTHEN PDS
A revised Citizens’ Charter has been issued in July, 2007 for adoption and implementation by the State/UT Governments for facilitating its use by citizens as per provisions of Right to Information Act , 2005, in relation to functioning of the TPDS.
PDS (CONTROL) ORDER , 2001 In order to maintain supplies and securing availability and distribution of essential commodities, Public Distribution System (Control) Order, 2001 has been notified on August 31, 2001.
AREA OFFICERS’ SCHEME
THE BROAD FEATURES OF THE SCHEME ARE AS UNDER :-
The Area Officer is required to visit two districts of their allotted territories once in a quarter and review the functioning of TPDS as per the instructions/guidelines and a set of questionnaire;
They are also required to submit their visit report within 10 days, clearly bringing out important issues, findings along with recommendations on actionable points;
The report of the Area Officers are sent to the Food Secretaries of the concerned States/UTs for taking remedial action towards smooth functioning of TPDS.
A meeting of all State and UT Food Secretaries was held under the Chairmanship of Union Food Secretary at Hyderabad on 8.2.2008 to discuss the measures for reforming PDS. The minutes of said meeting were sent to all concerned for taking necessary action thereon.
FUTURES MARKET AND FREE TRADE SUGGESTED RECOMMENDATIONS
COMMUNITY GRAIN STORAGE BANKS
ENHANCING AGRICULTURE PRODUCTIVITY
UNIVERSAL PDS WAS THE ONLY INSTRUMENT
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
WOMEN’S ROLE IN FOOD SECURITY
Within this context, women's empowerment will be central to raising levels of nutrition, improving production and distribution of food and agricultural products, and enhancing the living conditions of rural populations.
In a global atmosphere of increasing poverty, food insecurity, rural out-migration and environmental degradation, all potential actors in development must be given the support and access to resources they need to pursue sustainable livelihoods and strategies for a better life.
THE FAO PLAN OF ACTION FOR WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT (1996-2001)
Stimulating and facilitating efforts to increase the involvement of rural women as contributors and beneficiaries of economic, social and political development.
to promote gender-based equity in the access to, and control of, productive resources;
to enhance women's participation in decision and policy-making processes at all levels;
to promote actions to reduce rural women's workload and enhance their opportunities for remunerated employment and income.
The Plan pursues three strategic objectives :
KEY ISSUES AFFECTING THE FUTURE OF RURAL WOMEN
Worldwide, women play a major role in agriculture (including fisheries, forestry and livestock) and rural development.
are recognized as critical development problems have been given highest priority in the international development agenda
Far-reaching implications for agricultural and rural development as a whole and for all initiatives aimed at raising levels of nutrition, improving production and distribution of food and agricultural products, and enhancing the living conditions of rural populations. These problems have a negative impact on rural women, due to their inferior socio-economic, legal and political status as well as their critical roles as producers and household managers.
SUSTAINABLE FOOD SECURITY: REQUIREMENTS FOR A NEW ERA
FAO studies confirm that while women are the mainstay of small-scale agriculture, farm labour force and day-to-day family subsistence, they have more difficulties than men
FAO has recommended that such measures aim to:
ensure that women have the same opportunities as men to own land;
facilitate women's access to agricultural services tailoring such services to their needs;
encourage the production of food crops through the use of incentives;
promote the adoption of appropriate inputs and technology to free up women's time for income-producing activities;
improve the nutritional status of women and children;
provide better employment and income-earning opportunities;
promote women's organizations;
review and re-orient government policies to ensure that the problems that constrain the role of women in food security are addressed.