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    1. 1. WHAT IS INSTRUMENTATION ?? NIDHIN MANOHAR nidhinmanohar4@gmail.com
    2. 2. What is Instrumentation ? ♦ An Instrumentation is the art of measuring the value of some parameters like, Pressure, Flow, Level or Temperature and supplying a signal that is proportional to the measured parameter. ♦ It makes available the necessary process information like indication, trending, status. ♦ It also controls the parameter within a specified limits at specified value. ♦ It also helps to monitor Health and performance of Equipments.
    3. 3. Parameters Measured for process control ♦ Pressure ♦ Level ♦ Flow ♦ Temperature ♦ Quality of intermediate and finished products ♦ Speed, vibration, displacements for rotary machines
    4. 4. Types of parameter interface ♦ Local Indication e.g - PG, TG, Rotameters ♦ Remote indication e.g – Indication on DCS, annunciation ♦ Recording or Trending Chart/chartless recorders, DCS trending
    5. 5. Types of signal transmission ♦ Pneumatic - 0.2 to 1.0 kg/cm2 air pressure thro’ Cu, SS, tubes. ♦ Electrical - 4 to 20 mA through copper conductor cables ♦ Digital signals through twisted / shielded pair cable ♦ Optic Fiber cables ♦ Wireless transmission through radio frequency
    6. 6. Process parameter measuring techniques
    7. 7. Pressure measurement ♦ Pressure is the actual measurement of force acting on area of surface. ♦ P= F/A ♦ The Unit of measurement of pressure is PSI (pound per square inch) or KG/Cm2.
    8. 8. Common Pressure Detectors are ♦ Bourdon Tube ♦ Bellows ♦ Diaphragms ♦ Capsules ♦ Gauge pressure Transmitters
    9. 9. Flow Measurement ♦ Various types of methods are used for flow measurement. Commonly used method is DP cell type Flow detector. ♦ Orifice plate ♦ Venturi Tube ♦ Annubar ♦ Vortex flow meter ♦ Thermal mass flow meters ♦ Micromotion Mass flow meters
    10. 10. Thermal Mass flow meter ♦ The rate of heat absorbed by a flow stream is directly proportional to its mass flow. As molecules of a moving gas come into contact with a heat source, they absorb heat and thereby cool the source. At increased flow rates, more molecules come into contact with the heat source, absorbing even more heat. The amount of heat dissipated from the heat source in this manner is proportional to the number of molecules of a particular gas (its mass),
    11. 11. Micromotion mass flow meter ♦ This meter uses the Coriolis effect to measure the amount of mass moving through the element. The substance to be measured runs through a U-shaped tube that is caused to vibrate in a perpendicular direction to the flow. Fluid forces running through the tube interact with the vibration, causing it to twist. The greater the angle of the twist, the greater the flow
    12. 12. Coriolis Flow Measurement Principal m = km x ∆t Outlet C1 Outlet C1 Inlet C2 Inlet C2 Time ∆T ∆T Time
    13. 13. Doppler Flow Meter ♦ Acoustic signals of known frequency are transmitted, reflected from particles, and are picked up by a receiver. The received signals are analyzed for frequency shifts and the resulting mean value of the frequency shifts can be directly related to the mean velocity of the particles moving with the fluid.
    14. 14. Doppler flow meter how it works
    15. 15. Level Measurement ♦ Differential Pressure type ♦ Capacitance ♦ Nucleonic ♦ Ultrasonic ♦ Radar ♦ Vibrating – tuning fork type ♦ Paddle type
    16. 16. Differential Pressure type
    17. 17. Capacitance
    18. 18. Nucleonic
    19. 19. Amplifier Sources Strip source Cells Detector Different types of Nucleonic Level Measurement
    20. 20. Ultrasonic
    21. 21. Vibrating – tuning fork type
    22. 22. Paddle type
    23. 23. Level Measurement Accuracy ♦ DP TYPE:0.1 TO 0.5 % OF SPAN ♦ CAPACITANCE TYPE: 2% OF FS ♦ NUCLEONIC: 1 % OF SPAN ♦ ULTRASONIC: 2 % OF FS ♦ RADAR TYPE:0.5 % OF FS
    24. 24. Temperature Measurement ♦ RTD ♦ Thermocouple ♦ Bimetal type ♦ Infrared type
    25. 25. Thermocouple ♦ A thermocouple is a sensor for measuring temperature. It consists of two dissimilar metals, joined together at one end. When the junction of the two metals is heated or cooled a voltage is produced that can be correlated back to the temperature
    26. 26. RTD ♦ Resistive temperature devices capitalize on the fact that the electrical resistance of a material changes as its temperature changes ♦ RTDs rely on resistance change in a metal, with the resistance rising more or less linearly with temperature.
    27. 27. Bimetal Type (TGs) ♦ Bimetallic devices take advantage of the difference in rate of thermal expansion between different metals. Strips of two metals are bonded together. When heated, one side will expand more than the other, and the resulting bending is translated into a temperature reading by mechanical linkage to a pointer.
    28. 28. Infrared Type ♦ Infrared sensors are non contacting devices. They infer temperature by measuring the thermal radiation emitted by a material ♦ Temp. range is –50 to 1000 degc. With accuracy of 3 degc.
    29. 29. Temp. Ranges for Thermocouple ♦ Type ♦J ♦K ♦E ♦T Range 0 to 750 -200 to 1250 -200 to 900 0250 to 350 Error limit 2.2 dg or 0.75 % 2.2 dg or 0.75 % 1.7 dg or 0.5 % 1 dg or 0.75 %
    30. 30. Process Control System
    31. 31. How PID control works ♦ Closed loop control means a method in which a real-time measurement of the process being controlled is constantly fed back to the controlling device to ensure that the value which is desired is, in fact, being realized. The mission of the controlling device is to make the measured value, usually known as the PROCESS VARIABLE, equal to the desired value, usually known as the SETPOINT.
    32. 32. Proportional Action ♦ Proportional Control, determines the magnitude of the difference between the SETPOINT and the PROCESS VARIABLE (known as ERROR), and then applies appropriate proportional changes to the CONTROL VARIABLE to eliminate ERROR.
    33. 33. Proportional Action ♦ Proportional mode is used to set basic Gain value of the controller. It is expressed as ♦ 1. Proportional Gain- What is the % change of the controller output relative to the % change in controller Input. Gain (Kc)=delta Output%/delta Input% ♦ 2. Proportional Band- What % of change of controller Input span will cause a 100% change in controller Output. PB=delta Input(%span) for 100% Output ♦ Relation : PB=100/Gain OR Gain (Kc)=100%/PB Small PB(% ) -- Minimize Offset, High Gain(%) -- Possible cycling Large PB (%) -- Large offset, Low
    34. 34. Proportional Action
    35. 35. Proportional Action
    36. 36. Proportional Action
    37. 37. Integral Action ♦ Integral Control examines the offset of SETPOINT and the PROCESS VARIABLE over time and corrects it when and if necessary. I.e Controller output from the integral or reset mode is function of the duration of error.
    38. 38. Integral Action
    39. 39. Integral Action ♦ Integral or reset mode is always used with the proportional mode. ♦ Integral or reset action expressed in terms of Repeats per minute- How much times the proportional action repeated in each minute. Minutes per Repeat- How many minutes are required for 1 repeat to occur. Fast Reset – High Gain, Fast return to set point, possible cycling. Slow Reset – Low Gain, Slow return to set point, Stable loop.
    40. 40. Integral Action
    41. 41. Integral Action
    42. 42. Derivative Action ♦ Derivative Control monitors the rate of change of the PROCESS VARIABLE and consequently makes changes to the OUTPUT VARIABLE to accommodate unusual changes. Some large and/or slow process do not respond well to small change in controller output.
    43. 43. Derivative Action ♦ Derivative Action is initiated whenever there is a change in the rate of change of the error. ♦ Controller first compare the current PV with the last value of the PV. If there is change in the slope of the PV the controller determines what its output would be at a future point in time. The derivative mode immediately increases the output by that amount (value of derivative setting in minutes). ♦ Large (Minutes) – High Gain, Large Output change, Possible cycling. ♦ Small (Minutes) – Low Gain, Small Output change, Stable loop.
    44. 44. Derivative Action
    45. 45. Derivative Action
    46. 46. Derivative Action
    47. 47. Control Algorithms commonly used for process parameter control
    48. 48. Cascade Control ♦ Cascade Control uses the output of the primary controller to manipulate the set point of the secondary controller as if it were the final control element.
    49. 49. Cascade Control
    50. 50. Ratio Control ♦ Ratio control is used to ensure that two or more flows are kept at the same ratio even if the flows are changing.
    51. 51. Override Control ♦ Override control is used to take control of an output from one loop to allow a more important loop to manipulate the output.
    52. 52. Programmable Logic Controller
    53. 53. Programmable Logic Controller ♦ Definition: “PLC is a digitally operating electronic system designed for use in an industrial environment which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of instruction for implementing specific functions to control various types of process”. ♦ In the earlier days, the equipment was operated by Electro-mechanical Relay mounted panel ♦ The PLC replaced Relay mounted panels
    54. 54. How does PLC works A PLC works by continually scanning a program. We can think of this scan cycle as consisting of three important steps . CHECK INPUT STATUS EXECUTE PROGRAM UPDATE OUTPUT STATUS
    55. 55. Processor Architecture
    56. 56. Processor Architecture ♦ The main parts of PLC are: 1) CPU Board 2) Memory Module 3) Inputs module 4) Outputs module 5) Power Supply 6) Programming Terminal
    57. 57. PLC System Architecture ♦ Input to the PLC are mainly of two types. - Digital Input: Proximity Switch, Pressure switch, Temperature switch etc. - Analog Input: 4 to 20 mA signals of Pressure, Level, Temperature, Flow transmitters. ♦ Output form the PLC going to I/P converter of the valve, Variable speed drives, Relay, Lamp indication, Hooter, etc. ♦ The Digital and Analog input signals comes to the Digital and Analog input card respectively
    58. 58. PLC System Architecture ♦ The Digital and Analog outputs are coming from the Digital and Analog output cards respectively. ♦ These cards are installed in Chassis called Remote I/O Chassis ♦ The Remote I/O chassis is connected with PLC thru Belden 9463 (blue Colour)
    59. 59. Signal Flow in PLC ♦ The Field Signals are connected with I/O cards in RIO chassis ♦ Processor taking data from RIO chassis thru Remote I/O link and stores in I/P image tables / memory ♦ The data is being updated on every scan of the PLC ♦ The data is processed in Processor according to the program written
    60. 60. Signal Flow in PLC ♦ The result is transferred to the output cards in RIO Chassis. ♦ The Output will be in the terms of 4-20mA or Contacts. ♦ The Processor updates the data on every scan, The scan time is in terms of milliseconds (averagely 40 mS).
    61. 61. Signal Flow in PLC ♦ The scan of the processor means processor doing input scan, then program scan, then output scan, service communication and housekeeping. The time taken for completing this activities once is call scan time
    62. 62. Signal Flow in PLC ♦ Processor Memory can be divided into two parts ♦ One part contains data files which having All Input/Output status and intermediate flags ♦ Other consists of program files in which ladder program has written
    63. 63. PLC Software ♦ The Software package can be loaded into PC or Laptop ♦ The PC requires KT card and the Laptop requires PCMK card. ♦ If KT/PCMK not available, then Processor can communicate on COM port of PC/laptop Serially thru CH0 on processor
    64. 64. Advantages of PLC ♦ The advantages of PLC over the Relay Logic are: - Less cabling - Less space requirement - Very High flexibility - High reliability - Easy diagnostic - Very fast response time
    65. 65. Man Machine Interface ♦ The Operator interface monitor for Allen- Bradley PLC is called IPDS ♦ The IPDS can - Display Program rungs - Display various digital indications - Display Data table contents - Status of Start/Stop of Motors - Status of I/O, timers, counter, flags, etc.
    66. 66. Distributed Control System (DCS)
    67. 67. What is DCS ? ♦ DCS is abbreviation for Distributed Control System ♦ As is apparent from the abbreviation, the word ‘Distributed’ supports following functionality’s – Physical Distribution - Nodes/stations or Subsystems can be Distributed i.e located physically apart – Functional Distribution - Specific Functionality is imparted for a Node basing on the combination of hardware and software used. For e.g Application work-processor with Historian, Application work-processor with control configuration software – Structural Distribution - Different Structural hardware platforms (Application Workstation processor, Workstation processor, Control processor etc.) are used to achieve the required functionality.
    68. 68. WHY DCS ? ♦ For Total Plant Automation ♦ For Higher Productivity ♦ For Optimal Process Control ♦ For Advance Process Control ♦ For Regulatory Compliance ♦ For Management Information System ♦ In Tune With Global Requirement
    69. 69. Information Processing E n te r p r is e B u s in e s s M anagem ent In fo r m a t io n & a p p lic a tio n P r o d u c t io n r e p o r t , In v e n to ry re p o rt, S p e c if ic c o n s u m p t io n r e p o r t , Y ie ld a n d A c c o u n tin g r e p o r t s a n d V a r ia n c e r e p o r ts Q u a lity in s u r a n c e r e p o r t s ( L I M S ) E n v a n d p o llu t io n r e la t e d R e p o r t s In fo r m a tio n In fo r m a tio n M a n a g e m e n t & r e p o r tin g H is to r ia n s - T r e n d s , E v e n t r e c o r d e r s D is tu r b a n c e r e c o r d e r s O p tim is a tio n O p tim is a tio n A d v a n c e P ro c e s s C o n tro l S a fe ty H a z o p / R is k M a n a g e m e n t E m e rg e n c y S h u td o w n S y s te m s C o n tro l S y s te m F IE L D A la r m , M o n ito r in g , C o n tr o l, R e g u la to r O N -O F F , In te r lo c k s S ta rt-u p P e r m is s iv e T r ip s F IE L D : S in g le L o o p C o n tr o lle r s D is tr ib u te d C o n tr o l S y s te m S u p e r v is o r y C o n tr o l A n d D a ta A c q u is itio n S y s te m P r o g r a m m a b le L o g ic C o n tr o lle r s F IE L D : T r a n s m it te r s & fie ld d e v ic e s S w itc h e s , C o n tr o l v a lv e s
    70. 70. Basic Building Blocks ♦ The constitution of DCS can be broadly divided in to three parts – Front End presentation or • MMI - ( Man Machine Interface ) • GUI Graphical User Interface - Operator Graphics – Control Algorithms and Logic. • Add Subtract, PID, ON-OFF, AND, OR , NAND , etc. – Communication
    71. 71. Control Algorithm – – – – – – – – – – – – – Analog Input / Output Block PID Block / Auto tune PID block Digital Input/Output Block Calculation Block / Advance Calculation Block Characterized Block Comparison blocks - Less than.More than, Equal to. Switch blocks Data blocks / memory blocks Sequence blocks Mathematical block General Device Block Programmable Logic Block Motor Operator Valve, Pneumatic Valve control block
    73. 73. DCS Architecture YOKOGAWA
    75. 75. Final Control Element (Control Valve)
    76. 76. What is Control Valve This is a device used to modulate flow of process fluid in line by creating a variable pressure drop in the line .
    77. 77. Control Valve Parts (Actuator)
    78. 78. Control Valve Parts (Body)
    79. 79. Control Valve Functions & Characteristics ♦ Fail-Open:A condition wherein the valve closure member moves to an open position when the actuating energy source fails. ♦ Fail-Closed: A condition wherein the valve closure member moves to a closed position when the actuating energy source fails. ♦ Fail-safe: A characteristic of a valve and its actuator, which upon loss of actuating energy supply, will cause a valve closure member to be fully closed, fully open, or remain in the last position, whichever position is defined as necessary to protect the process.
    80. 80. Valve Flow Coefficient VALVE Cv - No. Of US gallon [USG = 3.7 Liters] of water per minute passing through the valve in full open condition with 1 PSI pressure drop across the valve at 15 deg C temp. So essentially valve Cv is capacity of valve in terms of water which helps us to identify suitable size required for any fluid in any pressure / temp. condition. VALVE Kv - Quantity of water in M3/Hr. at temperature between 5 to 40C that will flow through the valve at a specified travel with a pressure drop of 1 Bar. Kv = 0.856Cv
    82. 82. Control Valve actuator Actuator - Mechanism which operates the valve by receiving the control signal. Type of Actuator Pneumatic - Spring Diaphragm, Piston Cylinder Electrical - for ROVs Hydraulic -
    84. 84. Control Valve Leakage Control Valve Leakage This is basically the fluid which passes through the valve when the valve is fully closed. This value however should not be considered as the valve Cv at NIL Opening. So this leakage shall depend on the contact of valve plug & seat with the seating force applied for holding the plug over the seat.
    85. 85. Control Valve Leakage ANSI/FCI 70-2 Class II Class III Class IV Class V Maximum Leakage 0.5% valve capacity at full travel 0.1% valve capacity at full travel 0.01% valve capacity at full travel 0.0005ml/min/psid/in. port dia Port dia. Class VI 1 1 - 1/2 2 2 - 1/2 3 4 6 Test Medium Pressure and temperature Service DP or 50 PSID Water / Air whichever is lower at 10 to 52deg C Water Service DP at 10 to 52deg C Bubbles per mL per Min. Min. 1 2 3 4 6 11 27 0.15 0.30 0.45 0.60 0.90 1.70 4.00 Air Service DP or 50 PSID whichever is lower at 10 to 52deg C
    86. 86. Control valve Characteristic
    87. 87. VALVE Characteristic Equal Percentage Characteristic:An inherent flow characteristic that, for equal increments of rated travel, will ideally give equal percentage changes of the flow. Linear Characteristic: An inherent flow characteristic that can be represented by a straight line on a rectangular plot of flow coefficient (Cv) versus rated travel. Therefore equal increments of travel provide equal increments of flow. Quick Opening Characteristic: An inherent flow characteristic in which a maximum flow coefficient is achieved with minimal closure member travel On/Off - Used mainly as Isolation valves (Pump suction and ESD valves)
    88. 88. Standard TERMS ♦ ANSI: Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute. ♦ API: American Petroleum Institute. ♦ ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ♦ ASTM: American society for testing & Materials. ♦ ISA: Instrument Society of America. ♦ OSHA: Occupational safety & Health ACT (USA) ♦ FCI: Fluid Control Institute.
    89. 89. Hazard & Its Causes/ Types ♦ Introduction: Any area in plant where manufacturing processes emit/ may emit gases, vapours or mists if mixed with air in correct proportions will produce explosive medium. ♦ For an ignition to occur there must be: – A Hazard – A Source of Energy (Ignition or Hot Surface) – Air (To Support Combustion)
    90. 90. Standards Followed: ♦ Europe: CENELEC & IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission) ♦ North America: NEC ♦ IEC : Gases and Vapours in two groups: groups – GR I : Mining (Sub-Surface) Industry – GR II : Surface Industry; Sub-Groups A,B,C. – As per NEC: – Class 1: Gases & Vapours; further divided into 4 groups: A,B,C,D. – Class 2: Combustible Dusts; further divided into 3 groups based on their resistivity: G,E,F.
    91. 91. Gas Grouping Gases belonging to IIC are most dangerous with severity decreasing to IIA. Representative Gas Methane As per IEC (EU) I As per NEC (US) D Propane IIA D Ethylene IIB C Hydrogen IIC B Carbon Disulphide IIC - Acetylene IIC A
    92. 92. Flammable Liquids Classified on basis of Flash Point. Class A : Flash Pt < 23oC. They produce large volumes of vapour Class B : 23oC<Flash Pt<65oC Class C : 65oC<Flash Pt<93oC
    93. 93. Basis Probability of presence of explosive mixture. IEC: 3 zones (Zone : 0,1,2) IEC Zone 0: Explosive Mixtures continuously present / Present for long (>1000 Hrs/Yr). e.g. Inside Tanks, Vessels etc. Zone 1: Explosive Mixtures likely to occur in normal operation / (Between 10 to 1000 Hrs/ Yr). eg Production Area, area surrounding zone 0. Zone 2: Explosive Mixtures not likely to occur /occur short duration in normal operation (<10 Hrs/ Yr).
    94. 94. NEC: 2 Divisions (Div: 1 & 2) Division I: Comprising of Area Same as Zone 0 & 1. Division II: Comprising of Area Same as Zone 2. 4. Area Classification The max surface temp. of exposed surface of equipment must always be lower than Auto-Ignition Temp of the Prevailing Gas. Temperature(oC) Class T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 450 300 200 135 100
    95. 95. Trouble shooting
    96. 96. FIELD JUCTION BOX BARRIER RACK 20 PLC CENTUM CFBS2 2 STN NO : 2 JBR 607 A B C 9 10 11 12 A R3 - 38 1 B C BARD 3 300 BCC-071-6 TI 3106 CNC A+ B CA+ B C- CR 5 R3 -9 CCO R3 -10 CN 1 CN 2 MAC2 KS1 F3 - 1 - 5 JBE 209 I/P AS + -- 7 8 9 3 R1 - 96 1 4 MTL 728 + 2 MAC2 KS1 BCC-003-7 AS TV 3106 Conventional Closed Loop HOME VIEW F3 - 2 - 5
    97. 97. FIELD JUCTION BOX BARRIER RACK PLC 20 JBR 604 A B C TE 1704 33 34 35 CENTUM CFBS2 STN NO : 3 3 CNC A R 4 - 44 C 1 A CR 5 B R 3 - 15 C CN 1 2 B BARD 300 3 BCC – 082 – 3 CN 2 KS 2 VM 1 F6-3–6 Conventional Open Loop
    98. 98. FIELD BARRIER RACK 20 LIMIT SWITCH S SHUT DOWN RACK PLC 30 CENTUM CFBS2 3 STN NO : 3 FT 1 + -- RELAY 35 36 XL 1802 2 XL 1802 F2 - 13 10 _ + 1 3 6 7 110 V DC + TB 16 FZ 2 KS 2 110 V DC 11 * 9 F1-5-6 6A 6B PLC -1 RELAY / MARSHAL RACK TERMINAL NO 1 T 1 - 53 31 RT 1A 13 I/O NO. I 000 214 DCS & PLC Interface RPC - 102 - 2 PLC -2 TERMINAL NO 1 T 3 - 53 RT 1B 13 I/O NO. I 000 214 RPC - 202 - 2 HOME VIEW ST 2
    99. 99. Troubleshooting ♦ Start with the fail mode of the valve. 1. If the valve fails closed and is leaking... • Disconnect the positioner or controller input. • If the valve has a hand wheel, check to see that it is backed out. • Check to see if the bench range is correct. • Check to see if there is trash in, or damage to, the valve seat. ♦ 2. Next check the positioner. ♦ 3. Next check the controller.
    100. 100. Bath Tub curve Analysis
    101. 101. Bath Tub Curve. ∀ The first part is a decreasing failure rate, known as early failures or infant mortality. ∀ The second part is a constant failure rate, known as random failures. ∀ The third part is an increasing failure rate, known as wear-out failures.
    102. 102. Maintenance
    103. 103. The Five stages of maintenance ♦ 1- No action until equipment fails ♦ 2- Routine service� oil and grease ♦ 3- Inspection and preventive repair ♦ 4- Equipment Re-Engineering ♦ 5- Predictive Maintenance
    104. 104. What is maintenance ♦ Maintenance is the action associated with equipment repair after it is broken. ♦ Dictionary meaning: The work of keeping something in proper condition—upkeep.
    105. 105. Reactive maintenance ♦ Reactive maintenance is basically the “run it till it breaks” maintenance mode. ♦ No actions or efforts are taken to maintain the equipment-as designer specify its life. ♦ > 55% -- Reactive ♦ 31% -- Preventative ♦ 12%-- predictive ♦ 2% --others
    106. 106. Preventative maintenance ♦ Action performed on a time or machine run based schedule that detect, preclude or mitigate degradation of component with the aim of sustaining or extending its useful life.
    107. 107. Predictive Maintenance ♦ Measurement that detect the onset of a degradation mechanism thereby allowing casual stressors to be eliminated or controlled prior to any significant deterioration in the component physical state.
    108. 108. Reliability Centered maint. ♦ A process used to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical asset in its operating context.
    109. 109. Maintenance Practices ♦ Calibration of field instruments ♦ Check sheets ♦ LLF ♦ Break down maintenance. ♦ Preventative maintenance. ♦ Chance based maintenance.
    110. 110. Maintenance Practices ♦ Calibration carried out in house in plants ♦ Utilities flow instruments calibrated from CES(I). ♦ Daily, weekly, monthly checks carried out in Bagging sections. ♦ LLFs carried out once in month. ♦ Break down carried out in house.
    111. 111. Test & Measuring Instruments. ♦ Identified Test & Measuring instrument’s calibration is carried out once in a year through external agency. ♦ Calibration, Certification & traceability certificates are maintained for record purpose.
    112. 112. PM, RM, SRA activities ♦ PM & RM for DCS & PLCs carried out through OEMs. ♦ Modification related to FCOs, Shutdown Jobs done through SRA- which includes Tubing, welding, fabrication, etc. ♦ Control valve maint. activities in mass carried out through SRA by external agency during long shutdown.
    113. 113. Statutory related activities ♦ LEL routine check carried out 3 times in a year through OEM. ♦ Statutory requirements like weight & measure, Nucleonic instruments records are maintained (half yearly as per BSC check sheet). ♦ Weight & measure- every year through external agency. ♦ Nucleonic gauges status report sent to BARC twice in a year.
    114. 114. Statutory related activities ♦ Custody meters are calibrated through FCRI flow lab & certificate are maintained for record purpose. ♦ Stamping of platform weigh scales, Net weighers, checkweighers are done by legal metrology department & coordinated by CES-I.
    115. 115. Interlock checking ♦ Plant interlocks are checked opportunity base/annual S/D/ short shutdown witnessed by operation & maint-I. Signed record kept in C/R & with Inst. dept. ♦ Alarm, trip settings, bypass are done as per BSC check sheet authorized by CTS & plant HOD.
    116. 116. CES-I coordination ♦ FIR/FAR ♦ FCO ♦ Statutory coordination ♦ Inst calibration during shutdown. ♦ Coordination of activities like seminars, presentations, involvement of S/D activities.
    117. 117. Maintenance Excellence ♦ A well executed drive towards maintenance excellence can… · · · · · Achieve Availabilities Of 90%-98% Reduce Failure Rate 50%-90% Increase Capacity 10%-30% Improve Quality Reduce Frustration
    118. 118. THANK YOU