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  2. 2. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM Real Time Executive system Basics..
  3. 3. Historical Perspective • 1959: TRW, RW300 computer, refinery control, 72 temperature, 3 pressure, 26 flow sensors • 1962: ICI, Ferranti computer, 129 valves, 224 sensors • 1963: NASA, flight control system • 1968: PDP (DEC), HP 2100, Data General Nova (MSI, LSI): interrupt based systems, real-time clock, RTOS • 1970+: VLSI, microcomputers, sensors miniaturization • 1985+: distributed real time systems
  4. 4. computer systems Computer System Interactive type Batch type Input Programe Processing Output
  5. 5. Interactive Systems •It takes, process inputs •Processes with prescribed program acts on interventions / interrupts • Issues desired Output . •The programming takes Care of the process behavior and patterns
  6. 6. Interactive systems Interactive system (real-time, reactive, embedded ) Soft real time Statistical Information for supervision only/ Info only. "Hard real-time" Where the information is processed in definite time frame with intentions to regulate the process.
  7. 7. Soft real-time system Example :. time sharing system of A statististical multiplexor Terminal Terminal Terminal Multiplexor Computer
  8. 8. Definition: hard real-time , event driven, embedded, process driven . • real-time : "(A) Pertaining to the actual time during which a physical process transpires. (B) Pertaining to the performance of a computation during the actual time that the related physical process transpires in order that the results of the computation can be used in guiding the physical process" [The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical an Electronic Terms]. • real-time system: Any system in which the time at which the output is produced is significant. This is usually because the inputs corresponds to some movement in the physical world and the output has to relate to that same movement. The lag from input time to outout time must be sufficiently small for acceptable timeliness. [The Oxford Dictionary of Computing]
  9. 9. Watchdog timer • The function of watchdog timeris to ensure that the controller receives the input signals at desired frequency or sampling rate . • If the signal is not received in defined time frame it issues interrupt command to stop issuing output to process to avoid damage due to loss of communication. Controller Interlock / interrupts Watchdog Timer Output Input (t) processor • Some time it de links controller from process ( Trip to manual/ Timed out warning ) and keeps thee system in safe mode or status quo.
  10. 10. Definition RTOS A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system that guarantees a certain capability within a specified time constraint.
  11. 11. Multitasking •It is easy to confuse multitasking with multithreading, a somewhat different idea. •In a computer operating system, multitasking is allowing a user to perform more than one computer task (such as the operation of an application program) at a time. •The operating system is able to keep track of where you are in these tasks and go from one to the other without losing information.
  12. 12. Reference model • Conceptual Realtime system has physical process whichworks in real time manner and it has inputs and outputs sent to RT for computation. Reference RTS RTS output Inputs RTS input Process Outputs
  13. 13. Function Wise • Open loop • Data acquisition :Collection od Data with Time stampings. • Closed loop
  14. 14. Open loop Open Loopm controls is unidirectional an • It either .. – reads or – Writes back to process Reference • RTS RTS output Inputs RTS input Process Outputs
  15. 15. Data acquisition • Only RTS inputs considered Reference RTS RTS output Inputs RTS input Process Outputs
  16. 16. Closed loop Closed loop control System has following components Reference •Input •Output •Reference or Set Point •Desired Control characteristic or program RTS RTS output Inputs RTS input Process Outputs
  17. 17. Real Time Events • Time Domain: – Continuous Time related – Random and irregular • Regular with certain frequency..( Frequency domain)
  18. 18. Type of event patterns • • • periodic pattern: cyclic pattern, with a fixed period bounded: next event cannot occur before a given amount of time after a previous event (interarrival time) bursty: events may occur arbitrarily close toe each other, but there is a bound on the number of events (burst size) that may occur during a specified burst interval Event Event period Event Interarrival time Event Burst interval No. of events = burst size
  19. 19. Events 2 • Irregular: interarrival intervals are not constant but are known before the event occurs • Unbounded: an arbitrary number of events can arrive during any given time window; characterization by a distribution function t1 t2 t3 t4 Interarrival time Probability Distribution function Interarrival time
  20. 20. RTS- Architecture • Real time software
  21. 21. Structure of RTS - Hardware Controller • It consists of fillowing functional controllers – Operating softwre – Communication facilities (Bus or Local Area Networking ) – Input / Output subsystem
  22. 22. Structure of RTS software • Operating system • Application tasks RTS-software application tasks application tasks operating system hardware External events physical proces
  23. 23. Role of RTS software • Communication with the environment is defined in terms of external events: Application Tasks must react to these events; • The responsibility of OS: execution of tasks in accordance to external events and prescribed schedule; • Operating System = software (hardware) to facilitate execution of application programs (tasks); • Tasks request services from the OS (make calls to OS). These are internal events. Examples: activate task, stop task perform a communication, etc. • Functions of OS: resource management (processor, memory, peripherals, data);
  24. 24. RTOS • OS-resource management + events handling, • under constraints (predefined time limits);
  25. 25. RTOS activities: uniprocessor system cycle EventHandling; TaskDispatching endcycle; or cycle EventHandling endcycle; or cycle TaskDispatching endcycle; TaskDispatching: Making a task run // denotes interleaved execution of both activities
  26. 26. RTOS activities: uniprocessor system On a uniprocessor system only one task may run a the same time; Scheduling looks at time constraints and decides which task must run; cycle EventHandling; Scheduling; TaskDispatching endcycle; Before a task can be dispatched (assigned to run) the resources i.e. memory must be assigned to it: cycle EventHandling; Scheduling; MemoryManagement; Assign; endcycle;
  27. 27. Summary • Main activities – – – – Event Handling Scheduling Memory Management Assignment
  28. 28. Scheduling issues • • • • Ordering of task executions, Assignment of tasks to processors, Security, Protection, Scheduling is crucial and distinct
  29. 29. Memory management issues • • • • • Virtual memory Swapping of tasks Sharing of memory (synchronisation, communication) ROM, RAM, Hard disks Buffers, pools, queues
  30. 30. File management issues • Standard file operations • Event handling (device management) issues: – – – – – Physical process interfacing Interfacing of devices Interfacing of non-standard devices Absence of disk -> debugging, development Host-target approach
  31. 31. Implementation of RTOS • Small executive implements a number of basic OS functions • More complex OS-functions are implemented as special (High / Low priority, memory management) tasks • The interface to OS is formed by System Calls Application task RTOS Application task System task System task System task System calls interface System task Executive (or kernel) Hardware
  32. 32. Distributed Operating Systems • • • Distributed OS control a netwerk of communicating computers; Tasks running on the different controllers (computers) have a identical / similar view of the system (Single image) Distributed OS hides the complexity of the distributed hardware to the tasks / programmer task task Controller HW task task Controller HW communication network Distributed Operating System
  33. 33. Implementation of Distributed OS • Interceptor: distinguishes between local and global operation • Global executive: coordinate global system calls • Local part: executes local Application task Application task system call interceptor and emulator System task System task System task task System Global executive task Local Executive (or kernel) Computation hardware Communication hardware
  34. 34. Type of processors •Microcomputers •Programmable logic controllers • Parallel or Multi Processors on a single board / platform ( Client - Sever architecture) •Processing through multiple processors through Networking.
  35. 35. Some examples - Foxboro Foxboro SPEC 200; Philips PCS 8000; Physical Process Controller Displays Operators S/A Sensors, Actuators
  36. 36. Some examples - TDC 2000, TDC 3000 INDEPENDENT PROCESSING Comm. 68040 Control 68040 I/O Link « No I/O capacity Common Board UCN « I/O Link IOP Field Termination Assembly Field Wiring FTA Multi-processor architecture provides guaranteed control performance. Intelligent I/O Processors (up to 40) Electrical Conditioning and Isolation « « « tradeoffs No communication tradeoffs Point execution in configured intervals Intelligent I/O processors Extensive diagnostics
  37. 37. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS) For Process plants.
  38. 38. What is DCS ? • DCS is abbreviation for Distributed Control System • As is apparent from the abbreviation, the word ‘Distributed’ supports following functionality’s – Physical Distribution - Nodes or Subsystems can be Distributed i.e located physically apart – Functional Distribution - Specific Functionality is imparted for a Node basing on the combination of hardware and software used. For e.g Application work-processor with Historian, Application work-processor with control configuration software – Structural Distribution - Different Structural hardware platforms (Application Workstation processor, Workstation processor, Control processor etc.) are used to achieve the required functionality.
  39. 39. WHY DCS ? • For Total Plant Automation • For Higher Productivity • For Optimal Process Control • For Advance Process Control • For Regulatory Compliance • For Management Information System • In Tune With Global Requirement
  40. 40. Information Processing E n te r p r is e B u s in e s s M anagem ent In fo r m a tio n & a p p lic a tio n P r o d u c tio n r e p o r t, In v e n to ry re p o rt, S p e c if ic c o n s u m p t io n r e p o r t, Y ie ld a n d A c c o u n t in g r e p o r ts a n d V a r ia n c e r e p o r ts Q u a lit y in s u r a n c e r e p o r t s ( L I M S ) E n v a n d p o llu t io n r e la t e d R e p o r t s In fo r m a tio n In fo r m a tio n M a n a g e m e n t & r e p o r tin g H is t o r ia n s - T r e n d s , E v e n t r e c o r d e r s D is t u r b a n c e r e c o r d e r s O p tim is a tio n O p tim is a tio n A d v a n c e P ro c e s s C o n tro l S a fe ty H a z o p / R is k M a n a g e m e n t E m e rg e n c y S h u td o w n S y s te m s C o n tro l S y s te m F IE L D A la r m , M o n ito r in g , C o n tr o l, R e g u la to r O N -O F F , In te r lo c k s S ta rt-u p P e r m is s iv e T r ip s F IE L D : S in g le L o o p C o n tr o lle r s D is tr ib u te d C o n tr o l S y s te m S u p e r v is o r y C o n tr o l A n d D a ta A c q u is itio n S y s te m P r o g r a m m a b le L o g ic C o n tr o lle r s F IE L D : T r a n s m itte r s & fie ld d e v ic e s S w itc h e s , C o n tr o l v a lv e s
  41. 41. The distribution of applications and business logic across multiple processing platforms Distributed processing implies that processing will occur on more than one processor in order for a transaction to be completed. In other words, processing is distributed across two or more machines and the processes are most likely not running at the same time, i.e. each process performs part of an application in a sequence. Often the data used in a distributed processing environment is also distributed across platforms.
  42. 42. Basic Building Blocks • The constitution of DCS can be broadly divided in to three parts – Front End presentation or • MMI - ( Man Machine Interface ) • GUI Graphical User Interface - Operator Graphics – Control Algorithms and Logic. • Add Subtract, PID, ON-OFF, AND, OR , NAND , etc. – Communication • • • • Star Ring Linear Bus Star Wired Ring
  43. 43. Basic Building Blocks Platforms – – – – Hewlett Packard : ABB IBM AS 400 : Honeywell, Yokogawa Sun Sparc series 30 - 80 : Foxboro Digital (VAX ) Fisher Rosemount
  44. 44. Basic Building Blocks Operating Systems – – – – HP Unix - ABB Sun Solaris - Foxboro Ultrix/ OS 2 - Honeywell VAX VMS - Fisher Rosemount
  45. 45. Types of databases • Flat file • Hierarchical data bases – Parent Child relation ship • Relational databases – Oracle – Ingress – Informix – Developer 2000 • Object linked Relational databases
  46. 46. Basic Building Blocks - Control Languages – – – – Basic Pascal C, C++ Fortran 77
  47. 47. Basic Building Blocks - Control algorithms – – – – – – – – – – – – – Analog Input / Output Block PID Block / Auto tune PID block Digital Input/Output Block Calculation Block / Advance Calculation Block Characterizer Block Comparison blocks - Less than.More than, Equal to. Switch blocks Data blocks / memory blocks Sequence blocks Mathematical block General Device Block Programmable Logic Block Motor Operator Valve, Pneumatic Valve control block
  48. 48. Communication Network Topologies Physical Logical Linear Bus Star Ring Tree Star Wired Ring Ethernet FDDI Token Ring ATM
  49. 49. Communication
  50. 50. Communication 802.3: Established the new standard for a LAN that features a Carrier Sense, Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). This "new" LAN is properly referred to as CSMA/CD, but is more commonly known as "Ethernet." 802.4: Defined a physical layer standard for a bus topology LAN with a token-passing media access method. This LAN is called Token Bus and can operate at 1, 2, 5, or 10Mbps. 802.5: Established the standards for Token Ring's access methods and physical signaling techniques.
  52. 52. DCS Design Basis  The entire design has followed the federal constitution of our country with nominal head and small assisting team like core group at the top.  Network architecture design is such that, it is functionally, geographically and administratively well distributed to have total stability at any point of time.  The DCS design architecture is distributed for:  Different business processes.  Work Breakdown Structure  Maintenance & operation organogram of RPL.
  53. 53. DCS Design Basis  Modular design  Ease of erection, commissioning and distributed operation independent of the Refinery wide LAN.  Extensive use of Fiber Optic:  Since the entire network is distributed over 50 Sq. Km of area having different earthing resistance for different soils (Rocky to Marine ), Fiber Optic cable external to the building is used extensively to facilitate distributed and local grounding of equipments to..  Avoid loop currents  Ground currents  Parasitic effect of noises like RFI, EMI and cross talks.
  54. 54. DCS Design Basis  Taking care of limitations of hardware, network and software.  All the six systems are connected through PIN for site wide integration of information.  Real- time data exchange among all the systems using Modbus device integrators.  Minimum communication load on LAN.  Each plant can be started and shutdown independently.  Expandability of the System at every level .
  55. 55. DCS Design Basis  Ease of Software upgradation at node level without disturbing complex wide operation.  Control I/Os, respective control processor and respective operator stations are on the same node, thereby minimizing the traffic on LAN and maximizing the availability of the system for operation.  RTF, RRTF and Marine Terminal systems are kept on the same LAN for the purpose of ease of data transfer for TIS/OMIS/BOSS applications.  Redundancy at all level - be it processors, communication or power supplies.
  56. 56. DCS Design Basis  Emergency Shutdown Systems are integrated with DCS and Human Interface from DCS.  All third party packages are integrated with the system through redundant serial link to achieve a single point operation from DCS i.e 100% measurements parameters are monitored and controlled from single point.  Remote diagnosis from Foxboro, USA, Holland or Singapore using dial-up networking / ISDN.
  57. 57. DCS Design Basis  Building Block Technology:  The processing is confined within at cell (CP) level so as peer to peer communication between the processors within the node bus and across nodebus is minimized. This is achieved by means of:  Proper distribution of the tags in the FBMs.  Allocations of loops within CPs.  Allocation of units at the nodebus level.  Allocation of Operator stations for specific nodebuses.  Provision of hook up for APC application, Optimizer and any third party application software at any stage of time.
  58. 58. DCS Design Basis  Plant Information Network is used for integrating information from Refinery, Aromatics, MTF, CPP, PP and Port Operations.  PIN is implemented using fast Ethernet 10/100 mbps Cisco switches and routers.  PIN is used for following.  INI51 for connecting two systems.  X-Window for interplant graphics transfer among all six systems.  X-Window anywhere on PCs connected to Reliance WAN.  Integration with third party application like Infoplus.21.  To access historian data from system to Window applications.
  59. 59. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS) Large Industrial Systems
  62. 62. Honeywell DCS System Architecture TPS Builder Uniformance Desktop Uniformance Applications Server Remote GUS Display
  63. 63. Fisher Provox DCS System Architecture
  64. 64. Yokogawa Centum DCS System Architecture
  65. 65. ABB DCS System Architecture Information Network TCP/IP OPERATOR STATION ( OS ) INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (IMS) ENGINEERING STATION ( ES ) RING 0 DUAL DCN RING RING 1 C Controller Advant Controller 460 SC Controller
  66. 66. ABB DCS System Architecture Distributed Communication Network (DCN)       Total Nodes per Ring 29 Total Nodes/Network 255 Total Rings/Network 85 Maximum end-to-end length/Ring 14 miles/ring Maximum distance between two active nodes 5280 ft* wire Fiber-optic 10,000 ft *recommend 1 mile (5280 ft, 1600 M) between 3 nodes
  68. 68. FOXBORO I/A Series DCS System Architecture A brief Introduction IEEE 1118 I/A Series Fieldbus Digital Field Link Foxboro Field Devices XXX Fieldbus Module Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX XXX Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX XXX Foxboro LBUG LBUG Intelligent & Conventional Foxboro XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX Fieldbus Cards
  69. 69. FOXBORO I/A Series DCS System Architecture IEEE I/A Series Nodebus 802.3 Workstation Processor (WP - 51) Control Processor (CP - 40) Application Processor (AW - 51) Device Integrator ( DI,MG 30 ) I/A Series Fieldbus 1118 IEEE Digital Field Link Foxboro XXX Fieldbus Module Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX XXX Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX XXX Foxboro LBUG LBUG Intelligent & Conventional Field Devices Communications Processor COM 10 XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX Fieldbus Cards Peripherals Party Devices e.g. 3rd ; PLC’s, ESD’s RTU’s B/W & Scanners Power Plant Color Scales Tank Farms Printers, Analyzers Spectrum Terminals; FoxWatch
  70. 70. FOXBORO I/A Series DCS System Architecture I/A Series LAN IEEE I/A Series Nodebus 802.3 Workstation Processor (WP - 51) Control Processor (CP - 40) Application Processor (AW - 51) Device Integrator ( DI,MG 30 ) I/A Series Fieldbus 1118 IEEE Digital Field Link Foxboro XXX Fieldbus Module Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX XXX Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX XXX Foxboro LBUG LBUG Intelligent & Conventional Field Devices Communications Processor COM 10 XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX Fieldbus Cards Peripherals Party Devices e.g. 3rd ; PLC’s, ESD’s RTU’s B/W & Scanners Power Plant Color Scales Tank Farms Printers, Analyzers Spectrum Terminals; FoxWatch
  71. 71. FOXBORO I/A Series DCS System Architecture IEEE Information Network TCP/IP 802.3 Computers, Workstations, X-Terminals, PC’s etc I/A Series LAN IEEE 802.4 I/A Series NodebusIEEE 802.3 Workstation Processor (WP - 51) Control Processor (CP - 40) Application Processor (AW - 51) I/A Series Fieldbus 1118 IEEE Digital Field Link Foxboro Field Devices XXX Fieldbus Module Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX XXX Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro XXX XXX XXX Foxboro LBUG LBUG Intelligent & Conventional Foxboro XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX Fieldbus Cards Communications Processor COM 10 RS - 232 Device Integrator ( DI,MG 30 ) RS - 232 Peripherals Party Devices e.g. 3rd ; PLC’s, ESD’s RTU’s B/W & Scanners Power Plant Color Scales Tank Farms Printers, Analyzers Spectrum Terminals; FoxWatch
  72. 72. FOXBORO I/A Series DCS System Architecture
  73. 73. Reliance Jamnagar DCS Architecture Functions of Equipment installed in PCC’s System administration and System management (AW51) File server (AW51) Human Interface for Plant Operations (WP51) Alarm management (AW51, WP51) Interface as Engineering station (AW51) Information management - Historian and Reports (AW51) Interface for System Maintenance (AW51, WP51) Functions of Equipment installed in PIB’s Interface for process inputs and outputs (FBMs and FBCs) Process Control (CP40) Interface for third party systems via serial links (INT30)
  75. 75. DCS SYSTEM RELIANCE JAMNAGAR Highlights:  Total nodes across the complex - 41 No.  LAN Length - 19.6 Km  Total panels - 1102nos.  Total I/Os - 182,375 No.  Total Stations - 1367 No.  Total FBMs - 3307 No.  Total Serial Links - 270  Total cost of DCS within complex - 300 crore (approx $60m)plus.  Fiber Optic cable used - 242 KMs
  76. 76. Reliance Jamnagar DCS Architecture World’s Longest ever Real-Time Control Network for TMS. World’s Largest System with more then 257 stations in ROS. The DCS is configured as 6 systems as listed below.  Refinery ( ROS )  Tank farms ( TMS )  Captive Power Plant  Aromatics Plant  Poly Propylene Plant  Port Operations Within each system the I/A series node buses are interconnected by Fiber Optic LAN Interface modules.
  77. 77. Reliance Jamnagar DCS Architecture Refinery 15 Node System Refinery PCC, PIB’s 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 Tank Farms 11 Node System Marine PCC and PIB’s 19, 20, 21, 23, 27, 28, 29 Captive Power Plant 3 Node System CPP PCC, and MRS 1, 2 Aromatics Plant 6 Node System ARO PCC, and PIB’s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Poly Propylene Plant 5 Node System PPP PCC A&B, and PIB’s 24, 25, 34 Port Operations Single Node System Port PCC
  79. 79. Integration of Applications: Overview IP.21 LIMS MODEBUS RTU MODEBUS ASCII Plant Information Integration Open Industrial Standard YIELD ACC. DATA RECONS X-Window AIM*Historian RIMS AB DH + INI51 IMAC Integrated Industry Solutions TIS OMIS BOSS TAS APC
  80. 80. Software Overview Operating System: Sun OS 5.5.1 based on Unix IV Human Interface: Foxdraw for Graphics Building & Configuration and Foxview for display of graphics Alarm Manager – For Current Alarm Summary, Alarm History Display. ICC – Integrated Control Configurator, provides software blocks for continuos, sequence and lader logic control. System Configurator – For system configuration of the hardware and software Historian – For collecting sample data for history and trends Report Writer – For daily, weekly, monthly reports SMDH – System Management and monitoring
  81. 81. Functionality Engineering Station (Application Workstation AW51B) : Operating system Sun OS runs on AW51B, that is main server for the system and seat on the Nodbus. All other configuration software likes Historian, ICC, and all advance applications also run on AW51B. Mainly used for Configuration, System Diagnostic and downloading configuration to all stations configured. Can be used as Operator station.
  82. 82. Functionality Integrated Control Configuartion: The Integrated Control Configurator database is the backbone of the I/A Series control subsystem and is the primary means by which real-time process variables are translated to the DCS environment The software structure of the Control and I/O (CIO) functions revolve around the "COMPOUND:BLOCK.PARAMETER" concept. A compound as a group of blocks related to a particular Plant Unit, Equipment, Subsystem etc. A block is a member of a set of predefined algorithms designed to perform mathematical, logical or boolean operations on one or more values. Both blocks and compounds have PARAMETERS. Parameters include realtime values and may be used for display, trending and other processing requirements.
  83. 83. Integrated Control Configuartor
  84. 84. Functionality Human Interface (Operator Work Station): Operator Work station processor with single or dual CRT, Annunciator Key Board, Trackball and touch screen provide human interface. The Concept of efficient process control using an operator interface is with the following basic utilities: Process Graphics ESD Graphics Group / Trend Displays Face Plate Overlays Alarm Manager
  85. 85. Process Graphics
  86. 86. Functionality Process Graphics: There are four levels of graphics used in Project. Level –1: Complex Overview Level – 2: Plant wide Overview Level –3: Based on PFDs Level – 4: Based on P&Ids In addition to above following are other graphics used for the Project. Group Display: Group of eight Face plate or four Face plate and four treads. Overlay: Faceplates, Pump START/STOP etc.
  87. 87. Functionality Work Station Access: Environments Workstation Processors provide security through access levels for different categories of system users. Password protection can be configured for each environment. The environments configured for this project are defined in next slide.
  88. 88. Functionality Environment Field_Op_Env Access Level 1 Authorisation Can view displays, Cannot change values (SP, Output, Auto-Manual etc.), Cannot acknowledge alarms Ctrl_Rm_Op_Env 2 All Field_Op_Env access, Can change values (SP, Output, Auto-Manual etc.), only for WPs Can acknowledge alarms, Cannot change alarm limits Supervisor_Env 3 All Ctrl_Rm_Op_Env access, only for WPs Can change alarm limits, Can tune controllers, Cannot access configurators or maintenance functions Maint_Engr_Env 4 All Supervisor_Env access, Can tune controllers, Can access configurators and make configuration changes, Cannot access software management Soft_Engr_Env 5 All Maint_Engr_Env access, Can access software management to write programs, Can access Password configurator and change environment menus
  89. 89. Environment
  90. 90. Functionality ESD Graphics: There are two levels of ESD system graphics: •ESD Overview (Level 1) •ESD Detail (Level 2) Facilities are provided to move from one level to the other and also sideways within level 2 graphics. The ESD Overview Level graphic lists all ESD's in the area and summarises their statuses. Each plant area has a level 1 ESD graphic. In ESD Detail Level graphics, dynamic Cause and Effect information is depicted. This includes status of the cause and the commanded and actual statuses of the effect (e.g., valve position, pump status etc.).
  91. 91. Functionality FoxAnalyst A separate application for viewing trends is is available in all Operator workstation. Operator can assign a group of 16 trends in one page and save as a scratch pad. This application can be opened from pull down menu in operator environment
  92. 92. Functionality Alarm manager Alarm manager can display alarm information in up to six distinct display windows. •Current Alarm Display ( CAD ) •Most Recent Alarm Display ( MRA ) •Alarm History Display ( AHD ) •Alarm Summary •New Alarm Display ( NEWALM ) •Acknowledged Alarm Display ( ACKED ) •Unacknowledged / Return-to-normal Alarm Display ( UNACK)
  93. 93. Alarm manager
  94. 94. Functionality Historian & Reports: The Historian collects, stores, processes, and archives process data from the control system to provide data for trends, Statistical Process Control charts, logs, reports, spreadsheets, and application programs. The Historian is a tool for collecting, organizing, and storing data for later retrieval. It contains built-in algorithms for reducing data and provides workstation displays to retrieve and display data . Typical data are process analog and/or digital points. Historian Functions  Collect process control point samples  Reduced point samples  Application-generated alarms & messages
  95. 95. Trends
  96. 96. Functionality Advance Applications: TIS : Tank Inventory System for Tank Farm Management BOSS : Blending & Optimisation Supervisory System OMIS : Oil Movement & Information System Information Management: IP.21 is interface with DCS for integration with SAP to form Refinery Information Management System. Foxhistory : Plantwide Consolidated history for generating reports. X-window configuration for remote monitoring.