The Modernist literature


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The Modernist literature

  1. 1. ‘Existentialism in the ‘waiting for Godot’ paper: ‘Modernist Literature’ S. t. d: M.A(sem-3) Roll.No:11 Year: 2013 Presented by: kunvarani Nidhi k Allotted to: Department of English Maharaja krishnakumarsinhji Bhavsinhji University . Bhavnagar.
  2. 2. What is ‘Existentialism’?  ‘Existentialism’ is a noun and it is ‘a Philosophical theory emphasizing individuals’ freedom to choose their own actions’. - ‘Oxford English Dictionary.’
  3. 3. Definition of the ‘Existentialism’  “Jean Paul Sartre and Albert Camus,to view each man as an isolated being who is cast ignominiously into an alien universe, to Conceive the universe as possessing no inherent human truh, value,or meaning, and to represent man’s life,as it moves from the nothingness cohence it came toward the nothingness where it must end, as an existence which is both anguish and absurd.” -A GLOSSARY OF LITERARY TERMS by M. H. ABRAMS .(Third Edition) Page.90
  4. 4. ‘Existentialists’ “If I do not reveal my views on justice in words, I do so by my conduct.” -socrates to xenophon. page-1 Albert Camus(Myth of Sisyphus) “The only hope know that there is no(ultimate) hope”.  Saren Kierkegaard“’Spheres’ of existence or ’Stages on life’s way’”. Jean Paul Sartre‘Free organic individual.’ Friedrich Nietzsche‘Become what you are’.
  5. 5. Conti …. Martin Heidegger“Heidegger calls man/ Dasein ‘the shepherd of Being”. Edmund Husseri(Founder of the phenomenological movement) “This was a false problem, for there is no inside/outside for consciousness”. Rene Descartes“I think there for I am”. Karl Jaspers1).Why do we exist? 2).Why is there anything at all rather than nothing? Gabriel Marcel“Metaphysically Speaking, the only Genuine hope is hope in what does not depend on ourselves, hope springing from humility and not from pride”. `
  6. 6. Themes of ‘Existentialism’ Existence precedes essence. Time is of the essence. Humanism. Freedom/responsibility Ethical considerations are paramount.
  7. 7. ‘waiting for Godot’ as an Absurd ‘Waiting for Godot’ (1949)by Samuel Beckett. Divided in to two parts. Two splendid: ESTRAGON-VLADIMIR, Pozzo LUCKY. Themes: Pessimism, nothingness, Individualism, alienat ion, anguish and rootlessness and a lot meaningless and endless ‘Waiting’.
  8. 8. ‘Existentialism’ in the ‘Waiting for Godot’ ESTRAGON: Nothing to be done.(p.39) VLADIMIR: I’m beginning to come r ound to that opinion. All my life I’ve tried to put it from me, saying, Vladimir, be reasonable you haven’t yet tried everything. And, I resumed the struggle. so there you are again. The word ‘Nothing’ and ‘haven’ t showed ‘Existentialism’ as ‘Nothinglessness’. ESTRAGON: Am I ?(p.39) In this dialogue ‘I’ represents ‘individuality’ in context of ‘Existentialism’ VLADIMIR: When I think of it…all these years ….but for me…where would you be…? You’d be nothing more than a little heap of bones at the present minute, no doubt about it.(p.39) In this dialogue ‘nothing’, ’no doubt’ shows ‘hopelessness’ and ‘meaninglessness’ of the world. ESTRAGON: Wait! VLADIMIR: Wait! POZZO: Wait! (p.71) This dialogue informs that the real theme of the ’Waiting for Godot’ is not the ’Godot’ but ‘Waiting’.
  9. 9. Conti.. ESTRAGON: Nothing happens, nobody comes nobody goes, It’s awful. (p.71) The word ‘Nothing’ represents ‘Nothingness’ and ‘nobody represents ‘Alienation’ the features of the ‘Existentialism’ Beginning to end all the dialogue in negative and passiveness, no any hope to come whom for they are ‘waiting’ VLADIMIR: Well.shall we go? ESTRAGON: Yes,let’s go They don’t move. First and second part ends with this negative sentence.’(p.124)
  10. 10.  Any Question….???
  11. 11. References: Works Cited:  Flynn.Thomas.R. 'EXISTENTIALISM'. Newyork: Oxford university press, 2006. Samuel, Beckett. 'WAITING FOR GODOT. Delhi: Oxford university Press, 1989. Class-notes