Botany an overview


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Bacteria,fungi,bryo,pteridophyta,their economic importance

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Botany an overview

  1. 1. BOTANYAN OVERVIEW - Dr Nidhi Sharma
  2. 2. BOTANY“Study of plants” Dr Nidhi Sharma
  3. 3. Includes Bacteria & viruses Fungi Algae Bryophyta Pteridophyta Gymnosperms Angiosperms Dr Nidhi Sharma
  4. 4. Bacteria Microscopic 0.2mm or less Present everywhere Dr Nidhi Sharma
  5. 5. Economic importance-Useful aspect Products in our day to day life are the result of bacteria Curd Cheese Antibiotics Streptomycin Amoxicillin Dr Nidhi Sharma
  6. 6. Economic importance-Harmful aspect Diseases in human being Tuberculosis – Mycobacterium tuberculosis Syphilis- Tryponema pallidum Gonorrhoea- Neisseria gonnorhoea Diphtheria- Corynebacterium diphtheriae Tetanus- Clostridium tetani Whooping cough- Bordetella pertussis Anthrax-Bacillus anthracis Dr Nidhi Sharma
  7. 7.  Food poisoning (Botulism)- Clostridium botulinum Diseases in plants Citrus canker- Xanthomonas citri Dr Nidhi Sharma
  8. 8. Viruses Causes diseases only in plants & humans In humans –e.g. cough & cold (caused by 100 different viruses), measles, mumps, AIDS etc In plants- e.g. yellow vein mosaic of bhindi, Papaya mosaic, leaf roll of papaya etc Dr Nidhi Sharma
  9. 9. FUNGI Non green plants Grow on dead & decaying organic matter and absorb food from it Microscopic form to large ones with big fruiting bodies Common example is mushroom Microscopic form Macroscopic form Dr Nidhi Sharma
  10. 10. Forms which you have seen Edible mushroom Poisonous mushroom like toadstool Bread mould-Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor etc On the leaves of sarso, muli etc as black rounded spots Yeast –baking, brewing (bread, beer, wine) Antibiotics- Penicillin & Cephalosporin Cheese- Roquefort & Camembert Dr Nidhi Sharma
  11. 11. Economic importance- useful aspect In market different forms of mushroom are available which are edible Packed button mushroom Truffles Dr Nidhi Sharma
  12. 12. Economic importance- useful aspect Soy sauce , tofu, tofu tempeh , miso tempeh Dr Nidhi Sharma
  13. 13. Economic importance- useful aspectGanoderma lucidumtea, powder, tooth pasteUsed in cancer treatment Dr Nidhi Sharma
  14. 14. Economic importance- harmful aspect Crop diseases- e.g. potato blight (cause of irish famine in 1845) Dandruff in human beings-Malassezia furfur Dr Nidhi Sharma
  15. 15. Economic importance- harmful aspectAthelets foot-Trichophyton sp. Ring worm-Trichophyton sp. Dr Nidhi Sharma
  16. 16. ALGAE Largest producer of carbohydrate Range from microscopic to giant forms Some forms are edible like Ulva (sea lettuce) Agar agar extracted from algae Gelidium- used as a solidifying agent in culture medium Dr Nidhi Sharma
  17. 17.  Sometimes colour of sea & snow shows the colour of algae (Chamydomonas nivalis) Dr Nidhi Sharma
  18. 18.  Causes water bloom (Forms a layer on the surface of dirty water) Dr Nidhi Sharma
  19. 19. BRYOPHYTA Marcantia Amphibious plant Grows on land Anthoceros as well as water Dr Nidhi Sharma
  20. 20. PTERIDOPHYTA Grows in moist and shady places.e.g. Ferns Lycopodium Dr Nidhi Sharma
  21. 21. GYMNOSPERMS Do not produce flowers but form seeds Seeds are naked. Fruits not formed E.g. Cycas, Pinus, Ephedra Terpentine oil is extracted from Pinus Chilgoza is the seed of Pinus gerardiana Cycas (sago palm) is a source of sago Ephedra is a source of medicine Ephedrine Dr Nidhi Sharma
  22. 22. ANGIOSPERMS Flowering plants Produce seeds in fruit Dr Nidhi Sharma
  23. 23. BRANCHES OF BOTANY Taxonomy- science that finds, describes, classifies, identifies, and names plants on the basis of external features, internal features & showing relatedness Anatomy- study of the internal structure of plants. Embryology- the science of the origin and formation of new plants Genetics- studies heredity and variation in plants. Dr Nidhi Sharma
  24. 24.  Ecology- deals with the distribution and abundance of plants, the interactions among and between members of plant species and their interaction with their environment. Physiology- concerned with the functioning or physiology of plants. Biochemistry- Deals with the structure, function and interaction of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules Dr Nidhi Sharma
  25. 25. APPLIED BRANCHES Microbiology- The study of microorganisms. Plant pathology- The scientific study of disease and its causes, processes and effects in plants Experimental embryology Environmental sciences Molecular genetics Biotechnology- Application of scientific and technical advances in life science to develop commercial products Soil science- Study of soil, its formation, classification, physical, chemical, biological and fertility properties of soils Dr Nidhi Sharma
  26. 26. Dr Nidhi Sharma