ppt. on life processes

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ppt. on life processes

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. Life ProcessesThe word life processes means theprocesses take place in the human body which are needed for the existence of life on Earth. For example – Digestion, respiration, excretion, reproduction, etc.
  4. 4. Nutrition
  5. 5. Autotrophic Nutrition• Synthesis of food by photosynthesis• Photosynthesis equation- 6CO2+6H2O (sunlight and chlorophyll)C6H12O6 + 6O2• Two phases of photosynthesis- light and dark reactions• Light reaction- light energy absorbed, H2O split into H2 and O2, ATP and NADPH2 synthesized• Dark reaction- CO2 reduced to carbohydrates
  6. 6. Heterotrophic Nutrition Generally derive energy from plants and animal sources• Mainly of three types— holozoic (Obtaining nourishment as animals do by ingesting complex organic matter) , parasitic (having the nature or habits of a parasite or leech), and saprophytic (feeding on dead or decaying organic matter)• Digestion- mechanical and chemical reduction of ingested nutrients
  7. 7. Photosynthesis• Meaning – the process of the synthesis of carbohydrates or food in presence of carbon dioxide and light is called photosynthesis• The ways: 1. Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll. 2. Conversion of light energy to chemical energy and splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen 3. Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates.
  8. 8. Stomata• Meaning - A minute epidermal pore in a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor can pass• The opening and closing of stomata is controlled by guard cells• When the guard cells absorb water the stoma open and when guard cells don’t have water, the stoma close.
  9. 9. Nutrition in Amoeba• Amoeba takes in food using temporary finger like extensions of cell surface which fuse over food particle forming food vacuole .• Inside the food vacuole, complex substances are broken down into simpler ones which then diffuse into the cytoplasm.• The remaining undigested food is moves to the surface of the cell and thrown out.
  10. 10. Nutrition in Human Beings • The nutrition in human beings takes place in the human alimentary canal. • The food in taken in through mouth which is mixed with the saliva and passed to oesophagus. Saliva contains salivary amylase that breaks down starch which is a complex molecule to give sugar. • The food then goes to the stomach where the digestion process starts. • The food is then passed to the small and then large intestine where it is reabsorbed and then is thrown out through Anus.
  11. 11. Respiration• Respiration involves the exchange of gases and oxidation of food in the presence of air to release energy.• Inhalation and exhalation of air occur due to change in air pressure in lungs• Diffusion helps in exchange of gases in lungs and tissues.
  12. 12. Transportation in humans tissue that• Blood is a fluid connective circulates through heart and blood vessels.• Blood consists of plasma with RBC, WBC and platelets. Arteries transport blood from heart to the tissues.• Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel. Lymphatic system circulates Lymph or tissue fluid.
  13. 13. Circulatory system in humans• Human heart is a 4 chambered muscular pump located in our chest caviy.• In humans the blood flows through 2 loops -Pulmonary and systemic circulation.• The heartbeat is initiated and regulated by cardiac muscles.• The fish and amphibians have 2 and 3 chambered heart respectively.
  14. 14. Transportation in plants plants works • The transport system in with the help of conducting tubes known as xylem and phloem. • The rise of water and dissolved minerals in the xylem vessels against the force of gravity is known as Ascent of sap. • Transpiration is the process by which water vapor escapes from the stomata in the leaves of living plants.
  15. 15. The Digestive System
  16. 16. Digestion• Processing of food• Types – Mechanical (physical) • Chew • Tear • rind • Mash • Mix – Chemical • Catabolic reactions • Enzymatic hydrolysis – Carbohydrate – Protein 19 – Lipid
  17. 17. Digestion•Phases –Ingestion –Movement –Digestion –Absorption –Further digestion
  18. 18. Digestive System Organization• Gastrointestinal (Gl) tract (Alimentary canal) – Tube within a tube – Direct link/path between organs – Structures • Mouth • Oral Cavity • Pharynx • Esophagus • Stomach • Duodenum • Jejenum • kIleum • Cecum 21 • Ascending colon
  19. 19. Digestive system OrganizatiOn • Descending colon • Sigmoid colon • Rectum • Anus• Accessory structures – Not in tube path – Organs • Teeth • Tongue • Salivary glands • Liver • Gall bladder • Pancreas 22
  20. 20. Anatomy of theMouth and Throat 23
  21. 21. Human Deciduous and Permanent Teeth 24
  22. 22. Dorsal Surface of the Tongue 25
  23. 23. The Major Salivary Glands 26
  24. 24. Deglutition (swallowing)• Sequence – Voluntary stage • Push food to back of mouth – Pharyngeal stage • Raise – Soft palate – Larynx + hyoid – Tongue to soft palate – Esophageal stage • Contract pharyngeal muscles • Open esophagus • Start peristalsis 27
  25. 25. Esophagus• Usually collapsed (closed)• 3 constrictions – Aortic arch – Left primary bronchus – Diaphragm• Surrounded by – SNS plexus – Blood vessels• Functions – Secrete mucous – Transport food 28
  26. 26. Peristalsis and Segmentation
  27. 27. Esophagus• Sphincters – Upper – Lower• Abnormalities – Achalasia – Atresia – Hernia – Barret’s esophagus – Esophageal varices
  28. 28. Stomach• Usually “J” shaped• Left side, anterior to the spleen• Mucous membrane – G cells – make gastric – Goblet cells – make mucous – Gastric pit – Oxyntic gland – Parietal cells – Make HCl – Chief cells – Zymogenic cells • Pepsin • Gastric lipase 31
  29. 29. Anatomy of the Stomach
  30. 30. Stomach• 3 muscle layers – Oblique – Circular – Longitudinal• Regions – Cardiac sphincter – Fundus – Antrum (pylorus) – Pyloric sphincter• Vascular• Inner surface thrown into folds – Rugae• Contains enzymes that work best at pH 1-2
  31. 31. Small Intestine• Extends from pyloric sphincter  valve• Regions – Duodenum – Jejenum – Ileum• Movements – Segmentation – Peristalsis
  32. 32. Small Intestine• Histology – Intestinal glands – Intestinal enzymes – Duodenal glands – Alkaline mucous – Paneth cells – Lysozyme – Microvilli – Lacteals – Plica circularis – Smooth muscle – Lymphatic tissue – GALT – Vascular
  33. 33. Structure of the Villi in the Small Intestine
  34. 34. Small Intestine• Control• Requires pancreatic enzymes & bile to complete digestion 37
  35. 35. Large Intestine• Extends from ileocecal valve to anus• Regions – Cecum – Appendix – Colon • Ascending • Transverse • Descending – Rectum – Anal canal .
  36. 36. Anatomy of the Large Intestine
  37. 37. Large Intestine• Functions – Mechanical digestion – Absorbs • Haustral churning • Peristalsis •More water • Reflexes •Vitamins – Gastroileal –B –K – Gastrocolic – Chemical digestion – – Bacterial digestion Concentrate/elim • Ferment carbohydrates inate wastes • Protein/amino acid breakdown
  38. 38. Feces Formation and Defecation• Chyme dehydrated to form feces • Control• Feces composition – Parasympathetic – Water – Voluntary – Inorganic salts – Epithelial cells – Bacteria – Byproducts of digestion• Defecation – Peristalsis pushes feces into rectum – Rectal walls stretch 41
  39. 39. • Location Liver – R. Hypochondrium – Epigastric region• 4 Lobes – Left – Quadrate – Caudate – Right• Each lobe has lobules – Contains hepatocytes – Surround sinusoids – Feed into central vein
  40. 40. Liver• Fun ctions – Makes bile •Detergent – emulsifies fats •Release promoted by: – Vagus n. – CCK – Secretin •Contains – Water – Bile salts – Bile pigments
  41. 41. – Detoxifies/removes Liver • Drugs • Alcohol– Stores • Gycolgen • Vitamins (A, D, E, K) • Fe and other minerals • Cholesterol– Activates vitamin D– Fetal RBC production– Phagocytosis– Metabolizes absorbed food molecules • Carbohydrates • Proteins 44
  42. 42. The Duodenum and Related Organs
  43. 43. The Organs and Positionsin the Abdominal Cavity 46
  44. 44. Structures of the Alimentary Canal
  45. 45. Excretion• Biological process of eliminating metabolic waste substances is called excretion.• Human excretory system consists of pair of kidney and ureter, a Urinary bladder and a urethra.• Nephrons are structural and functional units of kidney. Ultra filtration, Tubular reabsorption, and Tubular secretion are the steps of Urine formation inside a nephron.
  46. 46. PRESENTED BY NIDHICHOURASIA X D
  47. 47. The End 50

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