Presentation 04.09.2012


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Presentation 04.09.2012

  1. 1. American Public Policy:Promise and Performance - B. Guy Peters Presented by: mohammad REZAul Karim
  2. 2. Issues to be discussedDefining Public PolicyInstruments of Public Policy - Law, Services, Money, tax, Other Economic Instruments. SuasionEffects of ToolsThe Environment of Public Policy - Conservatism, Participation, Pragmatism, Wealth, Diversity, World Leadership
  3. 3. What is Public Policy ?Public Policy is the sum of governmentactivities, whether pursued directly orthrough agents, as those have influenceon the lives of citizens. -Guy, Peters B. 2007, pp13Public Policy is whatever governmentschoose to do or not do. -Dye, Thomas R. 2008, pp1
  4. 4. Three levels ofAmerican Public PolicyPublic ChoicesPolicy OutputsPolicy Impacts
  5. 5. Some aspects of American Public PolicyDifferent levels of governments often experience conflicts over policy. For example, role the US department of Agriculture and the Office of Surgeon General regarding tobacco contradicts.Government policies are also implemented by private or individuals.A number of steps is required to put the legislation into an operating program to see the effects of policies
  6. 6. Instruments of Public PolicyA number of government mechanism for implementing Public PolicyHave effects on socio-economic conditions of citizensEffectiveness depends on the circumstances
  7. 7. LawEasy to issue for compliance but monitoring and enforcement are still crucialLaws are used as the means of producing government outputs, rights. ….The US uses laws to regulate economic and social conditions.Laws can be used as benefits as well as burdens
  8. 8. Features of ServiceEducation service is the largest one of all public services directly provided to the citizens.pressure to control expenditure and to privatize.Contracting outUse of quasi-government organizationsThe George W. Bush Administration has pushed to use not-profit organization
  9. 9. MoneyApproximately 74% tax money is returned to public for social security, unemployment benefits Categorical grants channel resources are directly to problem identified by the federal governmentThe federal government has less control over the block grants which allows greater autonomy for state and local government to determine their own priorities
  10. 10. Tax• Tax holes or tax expenditure(granting tax relief for an activity is the same assubsidizing that actively directly through anexpenditure program)For example, in 1999 the federal governmentdid not collect &54.5 billion in incomepayments because of mortgage interestdeduction.• Taxes are used more directly to implement policy decisions.
  11. 11. Other Economic InstrumentsCredits activities of purchasing land and suppliesGuarantee loans for students loansGovernment insure certain activities such as federal food insurance made possible the development of some lands along with coasts of the United States
  12. 12. SuasionIt is used when all instruments failIt is an effective instrument because people believe government is legitimately doing for their interestsSuasion declines when government loses legitimacy for Vietnam, Watergate, the savings-and-loan crisis, Iran contra but reverse in war on terror
  13. 13. The Effects of ToolsInfluence the economy and societyGovernment confer the rights of citizensGovernments distribute goods and servicesGovernment distribute burdens and benefits
  14. 14. The Environment of PP: Conservatism• Social and economic services are less developed than those in Europe.• The government of the US regulates and controls the economy, such as consumer product safety• But it gives the opposite picture regarding the defense expenditure.• ‘ideological conservatives’ and operational liberals
  15. 15. Participation• People’s desire to participate in government• No taxation without representation• Effective participation is difficult• Government fosters participation• Citizens tend to demand local control and regard federal government as less benevolent
  16. 16. PragmatismPolicies in the US tend to change slowly and incrementallyThe pragmatism seems to be declining ( abortion issue, or issue of religious or ethnic basis)
  17. 17. Wealth• Great wealth of the country• Federal government provides huge funding for programs• The US economy depends on the rest of the world• Wealth is threatened by the capital investment and slow productivity
  18. 18. DiversityDiverse economyUneven distribution of wealth between Rich and poorRacial and linguistic diversity affects public policySocio-economic characteristics are also diverse
  19. 19. World LeadershipEconomic, political and military world leaderHuge impact on world economy and politicsThis position creates burden on policy makersThis issue makes the policy large and extremely complex
  20. 20. ConclusionAmerican policy emerges through complex interaction among various organizationsThis process involves a wide range of values and ideasPublic policy is also affected by the complex society and diverse economyInvolvement of public sectors is increasing
  21. 21. Any question?
  22. 22. Thank you very muchfor you kind attention
  23. 23. American Public Policy Taken by Politicians, Civil servants, governmentStep 1 Policy Choices- authority, Congressmen, Decisions President, governor, administration, pressure groups Policy outputs-Step 2 Programs being put into Policy choices action putting into action Policy impacts- Impacts on lives of citizensStep 3 Impact of choices & outputs
  24. 24. Expenditure in Defense 194 195 199 8 7 9Total public 37 8%expenditure 29 % % Expenditure in Social ServicesFederal health, social welfare, housing) (Education, 36 62 14expenditure % 194 199 % % 8 9
  25. 25. Poverty in California