PhD research Nico Rutten Simulations in school practice professors: Prof. dr. Wouter van Joolingen Prof. dr. Jules Pieters...
<ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Literature review </li></ul>Computer Simulations in Scienc...
COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
<ul><li>Computer simulations are programs based on a scientific model of a system or process. </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer ...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
<ul><li>Good  sims  can actually be pedagogically more effective than apparently similar classroom demonstrations and labo...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference:  Finkelstein, N., 2006, High-tech tools for teaching physics...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference:  Finkelstein, N., 2006, High-tech tools for teaching physics...
<ul><li>Why use them? </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul...
<ul><li>Because simulations are simplified versions of the natural world, they have the potential to facilitate learning b...
<ul><li>In comparison with alternatives such as textbooks, lectures, and tutorial courseware, a simulation-based approach ...
<ul><li>Visualizations may be especially useful for helping students see structure in phenomena and processes that are tra...
<ul><li>Visualizations may be especially useful for helping students see structure in phenomena and processes that are tra...
<ul><li>Visualizations may be especially useful for helping students see structure in phenomena and processes that are tra...
<ul><li>Visualizations may be especially useful for helping students see structure in phenomena and processes that are tra...
<ul><li>Visualizations may be especially useful for helping students see structure in phenomena and processes that are tra...
<ul><li>Features that are of particular help in the teaching of science: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They free up teacher time s...
COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION THEORY
<ul><li>Three trends nowadays dominate the field of learning and instruction. Learners are encouraged to:   </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Learners experiment and construct knowledge as ‘scientists’: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They provide the simulation wit...
<ul><li>discovery teaching: “All forms of obtaining knowledge for oneself by the use of one’s own mind.” </li></ul>10-01-1...
<ul><li>Scientific discovery is usually interpreted as the processes of mindful coordination between hypothesized theories...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education DISCOVERY LEARNING reference:  Hulshof, C.D., 2006, Using just-in-time ...
<ul><li>transformative processes: learners’ activities in these phases are performed for the sole purpose of yielding know...
<ul><li>Difficulties learners may have in dealing with discovery learning processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulties in...
<ul><li>The goal of scientific discovery learning is not only to help subjects acquire domain knowledge… </li></ul>10-01-1...
COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION LITERATURE REVIEW
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
 
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
<ul><ul><li>Literature review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kinds of visualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer collaborat...
<ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulati...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference:  Ploetzner, R., 2009, Students' difficulties in learning fro...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference:  Ploetzner, R., 2009, Students' difficulties in learning fro...
Computer Simulations in Science Education 10-01-12 Ploetzner, R., 2009, Students' difficulties in learning from dynamic vi...
<ul><li>Many have argued that interactive 3D virtual environments have great educational potential… </li></ul>10-01-12 Com...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference:  Dalgarno, B., 2009, Effectiveness of a Virtual Laboratory a...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education Dalgarno, B., 2009, Effectiveness of a Virtual Laboratory as a Preparat...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
<ul><li>Nevertheless, based on various researchers, it is found that 3D models may lead to cognitive overload problems in ...
<ul><li>Since Physics and Chemistry deal with three-dimensional (3-D) objects, the ability to visualize and mentally manip...
<ul><li>Virtual reality  is a computer interface characterized by a high degree of immersion, plausibility, and interactio...
Computer Simulations in Science Education 10-01-12 Trindade, J., 2002, Science learning in virtual environments a descript...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference:  Mitnik, R., 2009, Collaborative robotic instruction - A gra...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference:  Mitnik, R., 2009, Collaborative robotic instruction - A gra...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference:  Mitnik, R., 2009, Collaborative robotic instruction - A gra...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education Mitnik, R., 2009, Collaborative robotic instruction - A graph teaching ...
<ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulati...
<ul><li>Kewley reported that children’s peer collaboration promotes… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>their higher level of reasoning...
<ul><li>Collaboration increases the likelihood that learners engage in the type of talk that supports learning,  </li></ul...
Computer Simulations in Science Education 10-01-12 Manlove, S., 2009, Collaborative versus individual use of regulative so...
<ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulati...
<ul><li>How simulations may be combined with instructional support to overcome difficulties that learners may encounter:  ...
<ul><li>Heuristics  are rules of thumb that can help to reach a certain goal in a complex problem-solving situation, for e...
<ul><li>Heuristics  are rules of thumb that can help to reach a certain goal in a complex problem-solving situation, for e...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education Veermans, K., 2006, Use of heuristics to facilitate scientific discover...
<ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulati...
<ul><li>The motivation of games could be combined with curricular contents into what Prensky (2003) calls ‘Digital Game-Ba...
Computer Simulations in Science Education 10-01-12 Papastergiou, M., 2009, Digital Game-Based Learning in high school Comp...
<ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulati...
<ul><li>According to Hansen, students retain… </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference:  Bra...
<ul><li>Engagement  is a multifaceted construct and implies behavioral, emotional, and cognitive participation in learning...
Computer Simulations in Science Education 10-01-12 Wu, H.K., 2007, Ninth-grade student engagement in teacher-centered and ...
COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION TEACHING
<ul><li>One concern is that instructors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>will simply show students which simulation parameters to set...
<ul><li>A novel software-based interactive method is designed to achieve learner satisfaction, using virtual scenarios for...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education Duran, M.J., 2007, A learning methodology using Matlab/Simulink for und...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
<ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul>LITERATURE REVIEW review article published, titled: The Learni...
10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education http://slidesha.re/simrevEN (case sensitive)
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Computer simulations in science education

  1. 2. PhD research Nico Rutten Simulations in school practice professors: Prof. dr. Wouter van Joolingen Prof. dr. Jules Pieters supervisor: Dr. Jan van der Veen
  2. 3. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Literature review </li></ul>Computer Simulations in Science Education <ul><li>Teaching </li></ul>
  3. 4. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
  4. 5. <ul><li>Computer simulations are programs based on a scientific model of a system or process. </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: de Jong, T., 1998, Scientific discovery learning with computer simulations of conceptual domains
  5. 6. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
  6. 7. <ul><li>Good sims can actually be pedagogically more effective than apparently similar classroom demonstrations and laboratory exercises with real equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>PhET sims have two main goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased student interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and improved learning . </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Wieman, C.E., 2006, A powerful tool for teaching science
  7. 8. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Finkelstein, N., 2006, High-tech tools for teaching physics - The physics education technology project
  8. 9. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Finkelstein, N., 2006, High-tech tools for teaching physics - The physics education technology project
  9. 10. <ul><li>Why use them? </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
  10. 11. <ul><li>Because simulations are simplified versions of the natural world, they have the potential to facilitate learning by focusing students’ attention more directly on the targeted phenomena. </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: de Jong, T., 1998, Scientific discovery learning with computer simulations of conceptual domains
  11. 12. <ul><li>In comparison with alternatives such as textbooks, lectures, and tutorial courseware, a simulation-based approach offers the opportunity… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to learn in a relatively realistic problem-solving context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to practise task performance without stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to systematically explore both realistic and hypothetical situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to change the time-scale of events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to interact with simplified versions of the process or system being simulated. </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: van Berkum, J.A., 1991, Instructional environments for simulations
  12. 13. <ul><li>Visualizations may be especially useful for helping students see structure in phenomena and processes that are traditionally “invisible” to students. A process can be invisible if it is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too small (bacterial reproduction) </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Lindgren, R., 2009, Spatial Learning and Computer Simulations in Science
  13. 14. <ul><li>Visualizations may be especially useful for helping students see structure in phenomena and processes that are traditionally “invisible” to students. A process can be invisible if it is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too small (bacterial reproduction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>too big (tectonic shifting) </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Lindgren, R., 2009, Spatial Learning and Computer Simulations in Science
  14. 15. <ul><li>Visualizations may be especially useful for helping students see structure in phenomena and processes that are traditionally “invisible” to students. A process can be invisible if it is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too small (bacterial reproduction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>too big (tectonic shifting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>too fast (chemical reactions) </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Lindgren, R., 2009, Spatial Learning and Computer Simulations in Science
  15. 16. <ul><li>Visualizations may be especially useful for helping students see structure in phenomena and processes that are traditionally “invisible” to students. A process can be invisible if it is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too small (bacterial reproduction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>too big (tectonic shifting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>too fast (chemical reactions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or too slow (evolution). </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Lindgren, R., 2009, Spatial Learning and Computer Simulations in Science
  16. 17. <ul><li>Visualizations may be especially useful for helping students see structure in phenomena and processes that are traditionally “invisible” to students. A process can be invisible if it is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too small (bacterial reproduction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>too big (tectonic shifting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>too fast (chemical reactions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or too slow (evolution). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visualizations can make these processes accessible so learners can perceive the important structures. </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Lindgren, R., 2009, Spatial Learning and Computer Simulations in Science
  17. 18. <ul><li>Features that are of particular help in the teaching of science: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They free up teacher time so that they can interact with students instead of dealing with the management of the experimental setup/apparatus and supervision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations offer an easy way of controlling experimental variables, opening up the possibility of exploration and hypothesizing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenting a variety of representational formats including diagrams, graphics, animations, sound and video that can facilitate understanding. </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Blake, C., 2007, Reconsidering simulations in science education at a distance - Features of effective use
  18. 19. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION THEORY
  19. 20. <ul><li>Three trends nowadays dominate the field of learning and instruction. Learners are encouraged to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>construct their own knowledge (instead of copying it from an authority be it a book or a teacher): constructivism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in realistic situations (instead of merely decontextualised, formal situations such as the classroom): situationism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>together with others (instead of on their own): collaborative learning . </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: de Jong, T., 2003, Learning complex domains and complex tasks, the promise of simulation based training
  20. 21. <ul><li>Learners experiment and construct knowledge as ‘scientists’: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They provide the simulation with input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>observe the output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>draw their conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and go to the next experiment . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISCOVERY LEARNING </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: de Jong, T., 1998, Self-directed learning in simulation-based discovery environments
  21. 22. <ul><li>discovery teaching: “All forms of obtaining knowledge for oneself by the use of one’s own mind.” </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education <ul><li>expository teaching: The teacher presents knowledge to a student recipient. </li></ul>reference: Swaak, J., 2001, Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive knowledge
  22. 23. <ul><li>Scientific discovery is usually interpreted as the processes of mindful coordination between hypothesized theories and evidence collected by experiments. </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Reid, D.J., 2003, Supporting scientific discovery learning in a simulation environment
  23. 24. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education DISCOVERY LEARNING reference: Hulshof, C.D., 2006, Using just-in-time information to support scientific discovery learning in a computer-based simulation
  24. 25. <ul><li>transformative processes: learners’ activities in these phases are performed for the sole purpose of yielding knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>regulatory processes: serve to manage and control the inquiry learning process </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: van Joolingen, W.R., 2005, Co-Lab - research and development of an online learning environment for collaborative scientific discovery learning
  25. 26. <ul><li>Difficulties learners may have in dealing with discovery learning processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulties in generating and adapting hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poorly designed experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulties in data interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problems regarding the regulation of discovery learning . </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Reid, D.J., 2003, Supporting scientific discovery learning in a simulation environment
  26. 27. <ul><li>The goal of scientific discovery learning is not only to help subjects acquire domain knowledge… </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education … but also to enable them to apply their knowledge in new situations. reference: van der Meij, J., 2006, Supporting students' learning with multiple representations in a dynamic simulation-based learning environment
  27. 28. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION LITERATURE REVIEW
  28. 29. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
  29. 31. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
  30. 32. <ul><ul><li>Literature review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kinds of visualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kinds of support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>level of engagement </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education kinds of visualization
  32. 34. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Ploetzner, R., 2009, Students' difficulties in learning from dynamic visualisations and how they may be overcome
  33. 35. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Ploetzner, R., 2009, Students' difficulties in learning from dynamic visualisations and how they may be overcome
  34. 36. Computer Simulations in Science Education 10-01-12 Ploetzner, R., 2009, Students' difficulties in learning from dynamic visualisations and how they may be overcome
  35. 37. <ul><li>Many have argued that interactive 3D virtual environments have great educational potential… </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education <ul><li>due to their ability to engage learners in the exploration, construction and manipulation of virtual objects, structures and metaphorical representations of ideas. </li></ul>reference: Dalgarno, B., 2009, Effectiveness of a Virtual Laboratory as a Preparatory Resource for Distance Education Chemistry Students
  36. 38. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Dalgarno, B., 2009, Effectiveness of a Virtual Laboratory as a Preparatory Resource for Distance Education Chemistry Students
  37. 39. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education Dalgarno, B., 2009, Effectiveness of a Virtual Laboratory as a Preparatory Resource for Distance Education Chemistry Students
  38. 40. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
  39. 41. <ul><li>Nevertheless, based on various researchers, it is found that 3D models may lead to cognitive overload problems in hypermedia-learning environments in particular, </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education as such environments are assumed to generate a heavy cognitive load. reference: Korakakis, G., 2009, 3D visualization types in multimedia applications for science learning - A case study for 8th grade students in Greece
  40. 42. <ul><li>Since Physics and Chemistry deal with three-dimensional (3-D) objects, the ability to visualize and mentally manipulate shapes is very helpful in their learning. In fact, much of what Physics and Chemistry students know takes the form of images. </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Trindade, J., 2002, Science learning in virtual environments a descriptive study
  41. 43. <ul><li>Virtual reality is a computer interface characterized by a high degree of immersion, plausibility, and interaction, making the user believe that he is actually inside the artificial environment. </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Trindade, J., 2002, Science learning in virtual environments a descriptive study
  42. 44. Computer Simulations in Science Education 10-01-12 Trindade, J., 2002, Science learning in virtual environments a descriptive study
  43. 45. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
  44. 46. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Mitnik, R., 2009, Collaborative robotic instruction - A graph teaching experience
  45. 47. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Mitnik, R., 2009, Collaborative robotic instruction - A graph teaching experience
  46. 48. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Mitnik, R., 2009, Collaborative robotic instruction - A graph teaching experience
  47. 49. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education Mitnik, R., 2009, Collaborative robotic instruction - A graph teaching experience
  48. 50. <ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education peer collaboration
  49. 51. <ul><li>Kewley reported that children’s peer collaboration promotes… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>their higher level of reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical and flexible thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and clearer understanding of the problems. </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Powell, J.V., 2004, Teaching Techniques and Computerized Simulation in Early Childhood Classrooms
  50. 52. <ul><li>Collaboration increases the likelihood that learners engage in the type of talk that supports learning, </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education such as asking and answering of questions, reasoning and conflict resolution. reference: van Joolingen, W.R., 2005, Co-Lab - research and development of an online learning environment for collaborative scientific discovery learning
  51. 53. Computer Simulations in Science Education 10-01-12 Manlove, S., 2009, Collaborative versus individual use of regulative software scaffolds during scientific inquiry learning
  52. 54. <ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education kinds of support
  53. 55. <ul><li>How simulations may be combined with instructional support to overcome difficulties that learners may encounter: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct access to domain knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support for hypothesis generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support for the design of experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support for making predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support for regulative learning processes. </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Blake, C., 2007, Reconsidering simulations in science education at a distance - Features of effective use
  54. 56. <ul><li>Heuristics are rules of thumb that can help to reach a certain goal in a complex problem-solving situation, for example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simplify problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slightly modify hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>set expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vary one thing at a time (VOTAT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simple values </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Veermans, K., 2006, Use of heuristics to facilitate scientific discovery learning in a simulation learning environment in a physics domain
  55. 57. <ul><li>Heuristics are rules of thumb that can help to reach a certain goal in a complex problem-solving situation, for example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>equal increments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>confirm hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extreme values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make a graph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>present evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keep track. </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Veermans, K., 2006, Use of heuristics to facilitate scientific discovery learning in a simulation learning environment in a physics domain
  56. 58. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education Veermans, K., 2006, Use of heuristics to facilitate scientific discovery learning in a simulation learning environment in a physics domain
  57. 59. <ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education gaming
  58. 60. <ul><li>The motivation of games could be combined with curricular contents into what Prensky (2003) calls ‘Digital Game-Based Learning’ (DGBL). Games that encompass education objectives and subject matter are believed to hold the potential to render learning of academic subjects… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more learner-centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>easier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more enjoyable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more interesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and thus, more effective. </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Papastergiou, M., 2009, Digital Game-Based Learning in high school Computer Science education - Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation
  59. 61. Computer Simulations in Science Education 10-01-12 Papastergiou, M., 2009, Digital Game-Based Learning in high school Computer Science education - Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation
  60. 62. <ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education level of engagement
  61. 63. <ul><li>According to Hansen, students retain… </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Bravo, C., 2006, Modeling and simulation in inquiry learning - Checking solutions and giving intelligent advice
  62. 64. <ul><li>Engagement is a multifaceted construct and implies behavioral, emotional, and cognitive participation in learning experiences. </li></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education <ul><ul><li>Behavioral engagement …refers to involvement in classroom and extracurricular activities, such as positive classroom behaviors and the amount of time spending on homework. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional engagement …includes positive and negative emotions to school, teachers, or academic activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive engagement …involves students’ intellectual investment and effort to understand complex ideas and use thoughtful strategies. </li></ul></ul>reference: Wu, H.K., 2007, Ninth-grade student engagement in teacher-centered and student-centered technology-enhanced learning environments
  63. 65. Computer Simulations in Science Education 10-01-12 Wu, H.K., 2007, Ninth-grade student engagement in teacher-centered and student-centered technology-enhanced learning environments
  64. 66. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION TEACHING
  65. 67. <ul><li>One concern is that instructors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>will simply show students which simulation parameters to set and ask the students to record the answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or they may use the simulation as a demonstration experiment at the front of the class. </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education These practices undermine the potential of simulations for supporting authentic inquiry practices that include formulating questions, hypothesis development, data collection, and theory revision. reference: Lindgren, R., 2009, Spatial Learning and Computer Simulations in Science
  66. 68. <ul><li>A novel software-based interactive method is designed to achieve learner satisfaction, using virtual scenarios for the theoretical explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>The following steps are followed in the proposed method : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brief explanation of the chapter structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presentation of the scenario </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explanation of the main concepts of the chapter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>challenge the students to predict the scenario evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brainstorming and collection of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simulation visualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discussion and theoretical explanation. </li></ul></ul>10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education reference: Duran, M.J., 2007, A learning methodology using Matlab/Simulink for undergraduate electrical engineering courses attending to learner satisfaction outcomes
  67. 69. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education Duran, M.J., 2007, A learning methodology using Matlab/Simulink for undergraduate electrical engineering courses attending to learner satisfaction outcomes
  68. 70. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
  69. 71. <ul><li>COMPUTER SIMULATIONS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION </li></ul>LITERATURE REVIEW review article published, titled: The Learning Effects of Computer Simulations in Science Education 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education
  70. 72. 10-01-12 Computer Simulations in Science Education http://slidesha.re/simrevEN (case sensitive)
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