Sanitation:  Preventative Disease Management in Kentucky Vineyards
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Sanitation: Preventative Disease Management in Kentucky Vineyards

  • 294 views
Uploaded on

Disease management begins with cultural practices, especially sanitation. This presentation discusses pathogen biology and overwintering of disease-causing fungi. Most importantly, we address......

Disease management begins with cultural practices, especially sanitation. This presentation discusses pathogen biology and overwintering of disease-causing fungi. Most importantly, we address methods for removing overwintering and sporulating pathogens from vineyards before pathogens are able to reinfect. When combined with preventative fungicide applications, sanitation become a vital component to disease management in grape.

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
294
On Slideshare
294
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • You understand sanitation, right?

Transcript

  • 1. SANITATION: PREVENTATIVE DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN KENTUCKY VINEYARDS NICOLE WARD GAUTHIER, UK PLANT PATHOLOGY
  • 2. WHY WASH YOUR HANDS? Shopping carts Door knobs Money Escalator rails
  • 3. WHAT ARE PLANT PATHOGENS? • Fungi • Bacteria • Viruses • Nematodes • Water-molds
  • 4. HOW ARE DISEASES MANAGED? DISEASE TRIANGLE
  • 5. OBJECTIVES What should you learn? • Basic biology of major grape pathogens • Understand overwintering of these pathogens • Methods for preventing inoculum build-up and overwintering
  • 6. PREVENTATIVE FUNGICIDE APPLICATIONS Early season • Powdery mildew • Downy mildew • Black rot • Phomopsis cane and leaf spot • 1-3” green through 3-4 weeks after bloom Late season • Powdery mildew • Downy mildew • 3-4 wks after bloom through harvest
  • 7. EARLY SEASON DISEASES Early season infections • Powdery mildew • Downy mildew • Black rot • Phomopsis Most critical phase Pathogens break dormancy Begins with prevention What if pathogens weren’t there in the first place?
  • 8. PHOMOPSIS Phomopsis • Cool weather disease 34˚F/74˚F • Pre-bloom sprays • Fruit infected before and during bloom • Fungus remains dormant • No symptoms development on fruit until ripening • Cane and leaf spot symptoms all season • Fungus sporulates through full-bloom • Early season control
  • 9. PHOMOPSIS
  • 10. PHOMOPSIS
  • 11. POWDERY MILDEW Powdery Mildew • Infections begin pre-bloom • Pre-bloom sprays • Arid conditions • .01” rain and 50˚F ascospore discharge • Repeating disease cycle • Control of initial infections • Berries become resistant 2-4 weeks after bloom • Cluster stems (rachis) and leaves remain susceptible throughout season
  • 12. POWDERY MILDEW
  • 13. POWDERY MILDEW
  • 14. POWDERY MILDEW
  • 15. POWDERY MILDEW
  • 16. POWDERY MILDEW
  • 17. DOWNY MILDEW Downy Mildew • Infections begin pre-bloom • Pre-bloom sprays • .4” rain and 50˚F and 4” vine growth for oospore germination • Water mold, swimmers • Control of initial infections • Berries become resistant 3-4 weeks after bloom • Cluster stems (rachis) and leaves remain susceptible throughout season
  • 18. DOWNY MILDEW
  • 19. DOWNY MILDEW
  • 20. DOWNY MILDEW
  • 21. DOWNY MILDEW
  • 22. DOWNY MILDEW
  • 23. BLACK ROT Black rot • Infections begin pre-bloom • Pre-bloom sprays • Control of initial infections • Berries become resistant 3-4 weeks after bloom • Susceptible from early bloom through berry touch • Overwinters in mummies • Young leaves are susceptible, mature leaves are resistant • Petioles and shoots susceptible, cankers develop
  • 24. BLACK ROT
  • 25. BLACK ROT
  • 26. BLACK ROT
  • 27. OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES There’s more than the BIG 4 • Eutypa dieback • Cankers lead to dieback • Sporulates in old cankers • Enter though wounds, pruning wounds • Early spring • Sanitation, canker removal
  • 28. OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES There’s more than the BIG 4 • Grape Anthracnose • More common during warm, wet spring • Can become serious • Sporulates from cankers and leaf debris • Lime sulfur at end of dormancy (delayed dormant application)
  • 29. OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES There’s more than the BIG 4 • Botrytis Bunch Rot • Common in tight-clustered varieties (V. vinifera) • Sanitation • Air circulation • Fungicides, bloom & veraison • Rovral • Vangard • Elevate
  • 30. OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES There’s more than the BIG 4 • Crown Gall • Common in V. vinifera • Enters through wounds, especially winter injury • Biological controls help suppress disease, but no cure • Gallex • Galltrol A • Norbac 84C
  • 31. WHAT’S THE PATTERN HERE? EARLY SEASON INFECTIONS • Phomopsis • Powdery mildew • Downy mildew • Black rot • Infection takes place from immediate pre-bloom through 2-4 weeks after bloom How should you manage these diseases? ELIMINATE OVERWINTERING INOCULUM!
  • 32. PREVENTATIVE PROGRAM Remove disease-causing pathogens from vineyards before sporulation. • Approximately 70% of infective propagules removed through sanitation • Fungicides prevent repeating cycles and re-infections
  • 33. CHALLENGES Sanitation does not offer immediate disease management • Reduction of infective materials • Combined with fungicides Manual labor • Prune into carts • Burn or bury • Harvest everything Most noticeable during seasons with high disease pressure
  • 34. QUESTIONS? WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/NICOLEWARDUK
  • 35. Nicole Ward Gauthier Extension Specialist Department of Plant Pathology www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/people/ward.htm nicole.ward@uky.edu 859-218-0720 office 859-797-3333 mobile/text Facebook: www.KYPlantDisease.com UK - Diseases of Fruit Crops, Ornamentals, & Forest Trees Twitter: @Nicole_WardUK Blogger: nicolewarduk.blogspot.com