Fungicides for Home Orchards
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  • 1. MANAGING DISEASES INBACKYARD ORCHARDSNICOLE WARD, UK PLANT PATHOLOGY
  • 2. BACKYARD ORCHARDS• Size• Plant type • Low maintenance • Resistant cultivars• Dedication• Knowledge• Education • Continuing education • Publications
  • 3. DISEASE MANAGEMENT• Cultivar selection• Canopy management • Sanitation • Air circulation• Vigor• Scouting• Fungicides
  • 4. CULTIVAR SELECTION Disease Resistant Apples Recommended for Kentucky Resistance to: Cultivar Time of Harvest Apple Scab Cedar Apple Rust Fire Blight Powdery MildewPristine VR S S R mid-JulyRedfree VR VR S S early-AugustDayton VR R MR R mid-AugustLiberty VR R* R R late-AugustSpartan MR R MR R early-SeptemberJonafree VR S S R early-SeptemberPixie Crunch VR - - - early-SeptemberCrimsonCrisp VR MR S S mid-SeptemberPriscilla VR VR* VR R mid-SeptemberSirPrize VR S R R mid-SeptemberEnterprise VR VR* MR R mid-OctoberGoldRush VR S MR S mid-OctoberWinecrisp VR MR VR MR mid-OctoberSundance VR VR VR VR mid-OctoberVR=very resistant, R=resistant, MR=moderately resistant, S=susceptible, -- = insufficient information*=although resistant to cedar apple rust, these cultivars are susceptible to cedar quince rustInformation adapted from ID-21
  • 5. DISEASE-RESISTANT APPLE• Resistant to major diseases • Scab • Cedar apple rust • Fire blight • Powdery mildew• Not resistant to • Cork spot • Fly speck/sooty blotch• Not insect-resistant • Bagging (ENTFACT-218) • Insecticides
  • 6. SANITATIONUnderstanding life cyclesof fungi (or bacteria) andremoving source ofspores.• Rake• Remove old fruit• Prune, remove cankers
  • 7. SPORE POTENTIAL OF FUNGIOptimal Conditions • Moderate temperatures • Free water • exception powdery mildewReproduction • Spores • Spring – sexual spores, initial infection • Growing season – asexual spores, repeating stage • Wind or rain spread
  • 8. FUNGAL SPORE PRODUCTION • Asci (sexual spores) formed in fall and overwinter in debris or bark crevices • Conidia (asexual spores) form throughout the season, numerousAscocarp types: apothecia, perithecia, cleistothecia
  • 9. SEXUAL SPORES• Ascospores develop in spring• Leaf litter, debris, cankers• Ascospores germinate and infect plants in spring (once per season)• Initial infection• Lesions then begin to produce conidia
  • 10. INOCULUM POTENTIAL
  • 11. ASEXUAL SPORES• Asexual cycle • Inoculum (spores) increases, repeating stage • Sporulation under moderate conditions and high humidity • Some conidia formed in pycnidia (sac)
  • 12. ASEXUAL SPORES
  • 13. BACTERIAL CELLS
  • 14. BACTERIAL DISEASES
  • 15. SANITATIONUnderstanding life cyclesof fungi (or bacteria) andremoving source ofspores.• Rake• Remove old fruit• Prune, remove cankers• Do not work in wet orchards• Sanitize tools
  • 16. CULTURAL PRACTICESAir circulation• Optimal conditions • High humidity • Eliminate micro-climates• Manage canopy by pruning
  • 17. CULTURAL PRACTICESScouting• Know the pathogen • Understand biology • Learn to recognizeKeep learning • Many sources of information • UK College of Ag website, fact sheets, publications • Subscribe to newsletters or blogs
  • 18. CULTURAL PRACTICES• Sanitation• Air circulation• Canopy management• Scouting• VigorNot just for organicsDisease management isnot effective withoutproper cultural practices.
  • 19. WHEN ALL ELSE FAILS… OR INTENSELY MANAGED CROPS
  • 20. FUNGICIDES• Homeowners purchase • Non-restricted • Small quantities • Cost • Easy to follow instructions • Multi-use • Locally available • Safe (sometimes organic)
  • 21. LIMITED PRODUCTSMidwest Spray Guides?• Captan• Chlorothalonil• Copper• Lime sulfur• Mancozeb• Myclobutanil• Sulfur• Thiophanate-methyl (commercial size)
  • 22. WHAT’S IN A NAME?• Trade names change• Trade names can be confusing• FormulationsWhat matters is theactive ingredient!
  • 23. ACTIVE INGREDIENTSBonide Fungicides:• Captan 50 WP – captan• Fruit Tree Spray – captan• Copper Dust, Liquid concentrate or RTU – Copper• Fungonil concentrate or RTU – chlorothalonil• Fungonil RTS - propiconazole
  • 24. onil le sulfa cin l t ani nazo r b sulfu y coze er an te al r ptom sulfu lobu rot h copp ca pt ico ma n lim e myc prop str e chloApple & Pearscab x x x x x xfire blight x xpowdery mildew x x x xrust x x x xfruit rots x xPeach, Plum, Cherrybrown rot x x x x x xpeach leaf curl x x x xscab x x x xblack knot of plum x x xcherry leaf spot x x x x xGrapeblack rot x x x xpowdery mildew x x x xdowny mildew x x xphomopsis cane & leaf spot x x xBramblesanthracnose x xcane blight x xspur blight x xStrawberryleaf spot xfruit rots xpowdery mildew x PropiconazoleBlueberry is labeled formummy berry x non-bearingphomopsis twig blight x fruit trees.
  • 25. FORMULATIONSSpectracide Fungicides: myclobutanil• Immunox Multi-purpose concentrate • Fruit, veggies, nuts, plus ornamentals• Immunox Lawn Disease Control concentrate hose-end• Immunox Lawn Disease Control granules• Immunox 3-in-1 Insect and Disease + Fertilizer • Ornamental plants only• Immunox Plus Insect and Disease Control aerosol• Insect and Disease Control concentrate • No longer available (name change?)
  • 26. AVAILABILITY• Ortho – Home Depot, Lowes, Tractor Supply• Spectracide – Lowes• Bonide – Southern States
  • 27. AVAILABILITYImmunox Multi-PurposeFungicide Conc • Only myclobutanil product labeled for fruit and veggies • Lowes (local) may not carry (available for store pick-up) • Know what you need – don’t settle for something else
  • 28. FUNGICIDE TIPS• Don’t use commercial products • Don’t borrow fungicides • Restricted-use • Unmarked • Not labeled for fruit• Insecticides don’t kill fungi• Same active ingredient but different trade name is often not the same product • Surfactants • Label is the law• Know your agent • Develop a relationship
  • 29. ORGANICSOMRI or Low Impact?• Copper (surfactant dependent) • Bonide Liquid Copper Conc or RTU • Ferti-lome Natural Guard Copper Soap • Ortho Elementals Garden Dis Control • Southern Ag Liquid Copper• Lime sulfur • BSP Lime-Sulfur Solution • Green Cypress Lime Sulfur (Monterey)• Sulfur • Bonide Sulfur Dust • Safer Garden Fungicide Conc
  • 30. SPRAY SCHEDULES SIMPLIFIED FOR BACKYARDS
  • 31. APPLE & PEAR• Bud to bloom – 4 applications • Scab, powdery mildew, rust• Petal Fall plus 8 covers • Fruit rots, scabNo one fungicide can be used • Fruit tree spray usually contains captan • not effective against all diseases • Resistant cultivars affect priorities
  • 32. APPLE DISEASES
  • 33. PEACH, PLUM, & CHERRY• Dormant • Peach leaf curl, black knot of plum• Bloom plus covers – 8 applications until 3-4 wks before harvest • Scab, brown rot, black knot of plum, cherry leaf spotJust one fungicide required • Fruit tree spray usually contains captan • Usually effective against all diseases
  • 34. PEACH DISEASES
  • 35. GRAPE• Pre-bloom • Black rot, phomopsis, mildews • Myclobutanil – black rot, powdery mildew • Captan / Mancozeb – black rot, downy mildew, phomopsis• Post-bloom plus 2 covers • Black rot, powdery mildew, downy mildew• 3rd & 4th cover • Downy and powderyMultiple fungicides required
  • 36. GRAPE DISEASES
  • 37. BRAMBLES• Bud break – if disease has been a problem • Anthracnose, cane blight, spur blight
  • 38. BLACKBERRY DISEASES
  • 39. STRAWBERRY• Bloom – if weather is rainy • Fruit rots, leaf spots• After harvest – if required • Leaf spots
  • 40. STRAWBERRY DISEASES
  • 41. BLUEBERRY• Green tip to bloom – 3 applications • Stem cankers and mummy berry if history of disease
  • 42. BLUEBERRY DISEASES
  • 43. SUMMARY• Some fruit require intense management • Preventative sprays• Keep learning • Diseases identification • Cultural practices • Fungicide labels • Efficacy of fungicides• Know your agent • Ask questions • Field visits • Educational materials • Diagnostics
  • 44. Nicole Ward, Extension SpecialistDepartment of Plant Pathologywww.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/people/ward.htmnicole.ward@uky.edu859-218-0720 office859-797-3333 mobile/textFacebook: www.facebook.com/nicolewardUKUK - Diseases of Fruit Crops, Ornamentals, & Forest TreesTwitter:@Nicole_WardUKBlogger:nicolewarduk.blogspot.com