Focus Group Discussion (Fgd)

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Focus Group Discussion (Fgd)

  1. 1. Focus Group Discussions
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ No cross-talk means sharing your experience, concerns, feelings, opinions, and hopes related to a particular issue or topic without referring to, or reacting to, any other group member’s sharing and without evaluating what has previously been said.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Focus Group Discussions <ul><li>“ group depth interviews” or “focused interviews” </li></ul><ul><li>Developed shortly after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Initially used by the entertainment industry </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually came into widespread use in consumer market research </li></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of Focus Groups <ul><li>Agreement is not necessary or even desired in the focus group </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneity, not heterogeneity, is most often sought </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a research/evaluation tool </li></ul><ul><li>Issues discussed are limited </li></ul><ul><li>Groups are small (8-12) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple groups are conducted </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral Facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Duration: 1 ½ to 2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Responses are recorded in detail </li></ul><ul><li>Questions are pre-formulated </li></ul>
  5. 5. Consider using an FGD when… <ul><li>Presence of power differential </li></ul><ul><li>Gap exists between professionals and target audience </li></ul><ul><li>Need to investigate complex behavior and motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Need to find out degree of consensus on a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Need for friendly research method </li></ul><ul><li>Insights are needed </li></ul>
  6. 6. Do NOT use FGD’s when… <ul><li>Primary intent is not research </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussion is not an appropriate forum </li></ul><ul><li>Topic is not appropriate for participants </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher has lost control over critical aspects of study </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical data is required </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher cannot ensure confidentiality of sensitive information </li></ul>
  7. 7. Advantages of FGD’s <ul><li>Captures real life data in a social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>High face validity </li></ul><ul><li>Speedy results </li></ul><ul><li>Economical </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher can increase sample size for qualitative research </li></ul>
  8. 8. Disadvantages of FGD’s <ul><li>Facilitator has less control </li></ul><ul><li>Data more difficult to analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Special skills required </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of group varies </li></ul><ul><li>Groups may be difficult to assemble </li></ul><ul><li>Venue must be conducive </li></ul>
  9. 9. Methodology <ul><li>Problem Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of Moderator </li></ul><ul><li>Generation and Pre-testing FGD Schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introductory questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ending questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All things considered question </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summary question </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Final question </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Methodology <ul><li>Recruiting the sample group </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting the FGD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-FGD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice introduction and questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan to arrive early </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assemble equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange the room </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quiet time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Methodology <ul><li>Conducting the FGD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the FGD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Welcome the Group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introductions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set ground rules and norms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explain recording methods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present questions one by one (don’t forget to probe!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice active listening </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remain neutral </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Publish answers, if necessary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesize </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thank group for participation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Activity <ul><li>Members of the hospitality industry have hired you to define the ideal romantic getaway. Given the limited time you have to complete the first phase of the project, you have decided to conduct focus group discussions to gather your data. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Methodology <ul><li>Conducting the FGD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with Problem Situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monopolizing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tangents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private conversations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jokes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disagreeing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distractions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doing own work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time schedules/tardiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion gets out of hand </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Methodology <ul><li>Analysis and Interpretation of data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four ways: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transcript based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tape based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note-based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the internal consistency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the intensity of comments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the specificity of responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Find the big ideas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Methodology <ul><li>Writing the Report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of the Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results or Findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major Themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implications of Data/Recommendations </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Krueger, Richard A. (1994). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (2 nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stewart, David W., & Shamdasani, Prem N. (1990). Focus groups: Theory and practice (Applied Social Research Methods Series., Vol. 2). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Facilitator’s Fieldbook. </li></ul></ul>

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