3. What is El Niño ?• An abnormal warming of surface ocean waters in the eastern tropical Pacific
4. Normal ConditionsStrong winds blow from the east along the equator,pushing warm water into the Pacific Ocean
5. Normal Conditions• Winds push the surface water toward the west.• As the water moves west it heats up even more because its exposed longer to the sun.
6. Why• Because the wind push surface water westward toward Indonesia, the sea level is roughly half a meter higher in the western Pacific than in the east.• So you have warmer, deeper waters in the western Pacific and cooler, shallower waters in the east near the coast of South America.
7. Normal Conditions• The different water temperatures of these areas effects the types of weather these two regions experience. – In the east the cool water cools the air above it, and the air becomes too dense to rise to produce clouds and rain. – In the western Pacific the air is heated by the water below it, increasing the buoyancy of the lower atmosphere thus increasing the likelihood of rain. – This is why heavy rain storms are typical near Indonesia while Peru is relatively dry.
8. El Niño Conditions An El Nino condition results from weakened trade winds in the western Pacific Ocean near Indonesia, allowingpiled-up warm water to flow toward South America.
9. El Niño Conditions• El Nino happens when weakening trade winds (which sometimes even reverse direction) allow the warmer water from the western Pacific to flow toward the east.• This flattens out the sea level, builds up warm surface water off the coast of South America, and increases the temperature of the water in the eastern Pacific.
10. El Niño Conditions• The deeper, warmer water in the east limits the amount of nutrient-rich deep water normally surfaced by the upwelling process.• Since fish can no longer access this rich food source, many of them die off.• The different water temperatures tend to change the weather of the region.
11. Effects• What happens to the ocean also affects the atmosphere.• Tropical thunderstorms are fueled by hot, humid air over the oceans. – The hotter the air, the stronger and bigger the thunderstorms. – As the Pacifics warmest water spreads eastward, the biggest thunderstorms move with it.
12. Effects• The clouds and rainstorms associated with warm ocean waters also shift toward the east. – So, rains which normally would fall over the tropical rain forests of Indonesia start falling over the deserts of Peru, causing forest fires and drought in the western Pacific and flooding in South America.
13. Effects• The Earths atmosphere responds to the heating of El Niño by producing patterns of high and low pressure which can have a profound impact on weather far away from the equatorial Pacific. – For instance, higher temperatures in western Canada and the upper plains of the United States, colder temperatures in the southern United States. The east coast of southern Africa often experiences drought during El Nino.