Research into specific features - Editing By Nicole McClelland
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Research into specific features - Editing By Nicole McClelland

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A2 Media by Nicole McClelland

A2 Media by Nicole McClelland

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Research into specific features - Editing By Nicole McClelland Research into specific features - Editing By Nicole McClelland Presentation Transcript

  • Research into specific features- Editing By Nicole mcclelland
  • Cut The most common transition — an instant change from one shot to the next. The raw footage from your camera contains cuts between shots where you stop and start recording (unless of course you use built-in camera transitions). In film and television production, the vast majority of transitions are cuts. Mix / Dissolve / Crossfade These are all terms to describe the same transition — a gradual fade from one shot to the next. Crossfades have a more relaxed feel than a cut and are useful if you want a meandering pace, contemplative mood, etc. Scenery sequences work well with crossfades, as do photo montages. Crossfades can also convey a sense of passing time or changing location.
  • Fade Fades the shot to a single colour, usually black or white. The "fade to black" and "fade from black" are ubiquitous in film and television. They usually signal the beginning and end of scenes. Fades can be used between shots to create a sort of crossfade which, for example, fades briefly to white before fading to the next shot. Wipe One shot is progressively replaced by another shot in a geometric pattern. There are many types of wipe, from straight lines to complex shapes. Wipes often have a coloured border to help distinguish the shots during the transition. Wipes are a good way to show changing location Digital Effects Most editing applications offer a large selection of digital transitions with various effects. There are too many to list here, but these effects include colour replacement, animated effects, pixelization, focus drops, lighting effects, etc. Many cameras also include digital effects, but if possible it is better to add these in post-production. Transitions View slide
  • Mid shot The mid shot shows some part of the subject in more detail, whilst still showing enough for the audience to feel as if they were looking at the whole subject. The MS is appropriate when the subject is speaking without too much emotion or intense concentration. It also works well when the intent is to deliver information, which is why it is frequently used by television news presenters. comfortable, emotionally neutral shot, the mid shot allows room for hand gestures and a bit of movement. Camera shots. The medium closeup is half way between a mid shot and a close up. This shot shows the face more clearly, without getting uncomfortably close. Medium close up In the close-up shot, a certain feature or part of the subject takes up most of the frame. A close up of a person usually means a close up of their face (unless specified otherwise). emphasizes their emotional state. A close-up exaggerates facial expressions which convey emotion. The viewer is drawn into the subject's personal space and shares their feelings. specifically refers to showing some part of the subject in detail. Can be used purely as an edit point, or to emphasise emotion etc. For example, hand movements can show enthusiasm, agitation, nervousness, etc. Close-up. Cut in View slide
  • Extreme close up shows extreme detail. You would normally need a specific reason to get this close. It is too close to show general reactions or emotion except in very dramatic scenes. but the basic idea is to have a comfortable shot of two people. Often used in interviews, or when two presenters are hosting a show. Two-shots are good for establishing a relationship between subjects. If you see two sports presenters standing side by side facing the camera, you get the idea that these people are going to be the show's co-hosts. As they have equal prominence in the frame, the implication is that they will provide equal input. Of course this doesn't always apply, for example, there are many instances in which it's obvious one of the people is a presenter and the other is a guest. In any case, the two-shot is a natural way to introduce two people. A twoshot could also involve movement or action. It is a good way to follow the interaction between two people without getting distracted by their surroundings. This shot shows a view from the subject's perspective. It is usually edited in such a way that it is obvious
  • The rule of thirds is a concept in video and film production in which the frame is divided into into nine imaginary sections, as illustrated on the right. This creates reference points which act as guides for framing the image. Points (or lines) of interest should occur at 1/3 or 2/3 of the way up (or across) the frame, rather than in the centre. Like many rules of framing, this is not always necessary (or desirable) but it is one of those rules you should understand well before you break it. The eyes are placed 1/3 down the frame. In most "people shots", the main line of interest is the line going through the eyes. In this shot, the eyes are placed approximately 1/3 of the way down the frame. Depending on the type of shot, it's not always possible to place the eyes like this. The 180° Rule The sky takes up approx. 2/3 of this frame. In this shot, the building takes up approximately 1/3 of the frame and the sky takes up the rest. This could be a weather shot, in which the subject is actually the sky. Crossing the line is a very important concept in video and film production. It refers to an imaginary line which cuts through the middle of the scene, from side to side with respect to the camera. Crossing the line changes the viewer's perspective in such as way that it causes disorientation and confusion. For this reason, crossing the line is something to be avoided. In this example the camera is located to the subject's left. The imaginary line is shown in red. The resulting shot shows the subject walking from right to left, establishing the viewer's position and orientation relative to her. The rule of line-crossing is sometimes called the 180° rule. This refers to keeping the camera position within a field of 180°.
  • Camera Angles Camera angles The term camera angle means slightly different things to different people but it always refers to the way a shot is composed. Some people use it to include all camera shot types, others use it to specifically mean the angle between the camera and the subject. We will concentrate on the literal interpretation of camera angles, that is, the angle of the camera relative to the subject. Eye-Level This is the most common view, being the real-world angle that we are all used to. It shows subjects as we would expect to see them in real life. It is a fairly neutral shot. High Angle A high angle shows the subject from above, i.e. the camera is angled down towards the subject. This has the effect of diminishing the subject, making them appear less powerful, less significant or even submissive. Low Angle This shows the subject from below, giving them the impression of being more powerful or dominant. Bird's Eye The scene is shown from directly above. This is a completely different and somewhat unnatural point of view which can be used for dramatic effect or for showing a different spatial perspective. In drama it can be used to show the positions and motions of different characters and objects, enabling the viewer to see things the characters can't. The bird's-eye view is also very useful in sports, documentaries, etc. Slanted Also known as a dutch tilt, this is where the camera is purposely tilted to one side so the horizon is on an angle. This creates an interesting and dramatic effect. Famous examples include Carol Reed's The Third Man, Orson Welles' Citizen Kane and the Batman series. Dutch tilts are also popular in MTV-style video production, where unusual angles and lots of camera movement play a big part.
  • Camera movement A pan is a horizontal camera movement in which the camera moves left and right about a central axis. This is a swiveling movement, i.e. mounted in a fixed location on a tripod or shoulder, rather than a dolly-like movement in which the entire mounting system moves. To create a smooth pan it's a good idea to practice the movement first. If you need to move or stretch your body during the move, it helps to position yourself so you end up in the more comfortable position. In other words you should become more comfortable as the move progresses rather than less comfortable. A tilt is a vertical camera movement in which the camera points up or down from a stationary location. For example, if you mount a camera on your shoulder and nod it up and down, you are tilting the camera. Tilting is less common than panning because that's the way humans work — we look left and right more often than we look up and down. The tilt should not be confused with the Dutch Tilt which means a deliberately slanted camera angle. A variation of the tilt is the pedestal shot, in which the whole camera moves up or down. A zoom is technically not a camera move as it does not require the camera itself to move at all. Zooming means altering the focal length of the lens to give the illusion of moving closer to or further away from the action. The effect is not quite the same though. Zooming is effectively magnifying a part of the image, while moving the camera creates a difference in perspective — background objects appear to change in relation to foreground objects. This is sometimes used for creative effect in the dolly zoom. Zooming is an easy-to-use but hard-to-get-right feature of most cameras. It is arguably the most misused of all camera functions. See our camera zoom tutorial for more information.
  • Camera movement Trucking is basically the same as tracking or dollying. Although it means slightly different things to different people, it generally refers to side-to-side camera movement with respect to the action. The term trucking is not uncommon but is less widely-used than dollying or tracking. Yet another equivalent term is crabbing. The example pictured here shows a simple, very mobile set of tracks used with a standard tripod to create smooth trucking shots. Hand-held shots This aesthetic took a while to catch on with mainstream Hollywood, as it gives a jerky, ragged effect, totally at odds with the organised smoothness of a dolly shot. The Steadicam (a heavy contraption which is attached a camera to an operator by a harness. The camera is stabilized so it moves independently) was debuted in Marathon Man (1976), bringing a new smoothness to hand held camera movement and has been used to great effect in movies and TV shows ever since. No "walk and talk" sequence would be complete without one. Hand held cameras denote a certain kind of gritty realism, and they can make the audience feel as though they are part of a scene, rather than viewing it from a detached, frozen position. The term tracking shot is widely considered to be synonymous with dolly shot; that is, a shot in which the camera is mounted on a cart which travels along tracks. However there are a few variations of both definitions. Tracking is often more narrowly defined as movement parallel to the action, or at least at a constant distance (e.g. the camera which travels alongside the race track in track & field events). Dollying is often defined as moving closer to or further away from the action. Some definitions specify that tracking shots use physical tracks, others consider tracking to include hand-held walking shots, Steadicam shots, etc. Other terms for the tracking shot include trucking shot and crabbing shot.
  • Camera movement Trucking is basically the same as tracking or dollying. Although it means slightly different things to different people, it generally refers to side-to-side camera movement with respect to the action. The term trucking is not uncommon but is less widely-used than dollying or tracking. Yet another equivalent term is crabbing. The example pictured here shows a simple, very mobile set of tracks used with a standard tripod to create smooth trucking shots. Hand-held shots This aesthetic took a while to catch on with mainstream Hollywood, as it gives a jerky, ragged effect, totally at odds with the organised smoothness of a dolly shot. The Steadicam (a heavy contraption which is attached a camera to an operator by a harness. The camera is stabilized so it moves independently) was debuted in Marathon Man (1976), bringing a new smoothness to hand held camera movement and has been used to great effect in movies and TV shows ever since. No "walk and talk" sequence would be complete without one. Hand held cameras denote a certain kind of gritty realism, and they can make the audience feel as though they are part of a scene, rather than viewing it from a detached, frozen position. The term tracking shot is widely considered to be synonymous with dolly shot; that is, a shot in which the camera is mounted on a cart which travels along tracks. However there are a few variations of both definitions. Tracking is often more narrowly defined as movement parallel to the action, or at least at a constant distance (e.g. the camera which travels alongside the race track in track & field events). Dollying is often defined as moving closer to or further away from the action. Some definitions specify that tracking shots use physical tracks, others consider tracking to include hand-held walking shots, Steadicam shots, etc. Other terms for the tracking shot include trucking shot and crabbing shot.