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# Lecture 04

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### Lecture 04

1. 1. Qualitative Analysis of Motion Objectives: • Define the 3 types of motion • Identify the reference position, planes, and axes associated with the human body • Learn the terminology used to qualitatively describe directions and joint motions • Learn how to plan & conduct a qualitative analysis of human movement Translation (or Linear Motion)• All parts of an object or system move the same distance in the same direction at the same time Rectilinear Motion Curvilinear Motion translation along a translation along a straight line curved line 1
2. 2. Angular Motion• All points in an object or system move in a circle about a single axis of rotation. All points move through the same angle in the same time Axis of rotation• Axis of Rotation – imaginary line that the object spins about – oriented perpendicular to the plane of rotation General Motion • A combination of translation and rotation • Most human movement consists of general motion (Hall, 2003) 2
3. 3. Anatomical Reference PositionStarting position for describing body segment movements and measuring joint angles (i.e. all joint angles = 0)Reference position:• Erect standing• Feet separated slightly and pointed forward• Arms hanging at the sides• Palms facing forward Directional Terms Superior closer to the head Inferior farther from the head Anterior toward the front of the body Posterior toward the back of the body Medial toward the midline of the body Lateral away from the midline of the body Proximal closer to the trunk Distal away from the trunk Superficial toward the surface of the body Deep away from the surface of the body 3
4. 4. Anatomical Reference Planes • Three imaginary perpendicular planes that divide the body in half by mass Sagittal Frontal (coronal) divides into divides into right and left front and back halves halves Transverse (horizontal) divides into upper and lower halves Planar Movements• Movement is said to occur within a plane if the movement is parallel to the plane Sagittal Frontal Motion Motionforward/back right/left up/down up/down Transverse Motion forward/back; right/left 4
5. 5. Anatomical Reference Axes • Imaginary lines about which rotations occur • Pass through a joint’s center of rotation • In reference position, are perpendicular to anatomical planesMediolateral Anteroposterior axes for axes forsagittal plane frontal plane rotations rotations Longitudinal axes for transverse plane rotations Sagittal Plane Movements• Flexion Anterior-directed rotation with respect to proximal segment Exceptions: – Posterior-directed rotation of leg with respect to thigh – Upward rotation of the foot (ankle dorsiflexion)• Extension (Hall, 2003) (& ankle plantarflexion) Opposite of flexion• Hyperextension Extension beyond the anatomical position 5
6. 6. Frontal Plane Movements• Abduction (& wrist radial deviation) Laterally-directed rotation of longitudinal axis with respect to proximal segment Exception: Trunk right & left lateral flexion• Adduction (Hall, 2003) (& wrist ulnar deviation) Opposite of abduction• Elevation & Depression of the shoulder girdle Transverse Plane Movements• Internal Rotation (& forearm pronation, ankle eversion*) Medially-directed rotation of anterior aspect (or foot dorsal surface) with respect to proximal segment Exception: Head and trunk right & left rotation (Hall, 2003)• External Rotation (& forearm supination, ankle inversion*) Opposite of internal rotation• Foot Abduction & Adduction * frontal plane movements Internal External 6
7. 7. Multiplanar MovementsThe structure/geometry of most joints allows movement in multiple planes simultaneouslyExamples:• Hip: (3 planes) flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, internal/external rotation• Wrist: (2 planes) flexion/extension, abduction/adduction• Subtalar joint: (3 planes) pronation (dorsiflexion, abduction, eversion) supination (plantarflexion, adduction, inversion) Planar vs. Multiplanar Skills primarily planar skills multiplanar skills (Hall, 2003) 7
8. 8. Qualitative Analysis• Based on the descriptive observation of: – technique – performance outcome• Role of biomechanics: – Understand mechanical requirements of task – Identify underlying cause of problem in technique or performance – Differentiate unrelated factors Planning a Qualitative Analysis1. What are major questions to be answered?2. Determine the optimal viewing perspective(s)3. Identify appropriate viewing distance4. How many trials / executions needed?5. Performer’s attire6. Select an appropriate environment7. Visual observation or video camera? 8
9. 9. Conducting a Qualitative Analysis (Hall, 2003) 9