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Intrinsic Integration and the Design of Games for Auditory Perceptual Learning

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Auditory training has been shown to promote perceptual learning, i.e. the modification of perception and behaviour following sensory experience and evidences are showing. The efficacy of training …

Auditory training has been shown to promote perceptual learning, i.e. the modification of perception and behaviour following sensory experience and evidences are showing. The efficacy of training often depends on the degree to which the training paradigm is interactive, immersive, and engaging. Our aim is to investigate how auditory perceptual learning, educational technologies and game design can be further combined into an approach of training that is suitable for use by individuals outside the laboratory, e.g. on home computers or mobile devices.

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  • 1. Intrinsic Integration and the Design of Games for Auditory Perceptual Learning
    Interactive Technologies and Games: Education, Health and Disability
    Nottingham
    27 October 2009
    Nicolas Van Labeke, Daniel Shub, Mike Sharples
    National Biomedical Research Unit in HearingLearning Sciences Research Institute – University of Nottingham
    www.lsri.nottingham.ac.uk/nvl/
    http://hearing.nihr.ac.uk/
  • 2. Perceptual Learning & Auditory Training
    Perceptual learning is the relatively permanent change of perception following sensory experience
    Auditory training improves listening and language/literacy skills and reduces the handicap associated with hearing impairment
    A wide range auditory training software exists
  • 3. The Problem
    Sweetow & Sabes (2006, p555)
    “Despite the high motivation and willingness of the subjects in this project, over 20% initially enrolled in the project dropped out of the study.
    It is clear that not all patients will be willing to put forth the time or effort required to complete this, or any, rehabilitation program [...].
    This cannot be blamed entirely on patients, however. Some audiologists may be reluctant to require patients to add further effort beyond the purchase of hearing devices.”
    Potentially the problem arises because the training is derived from auditory testing paradigms based on psychophysics & signal detection theory
  • 4. Auditory Testing/Training (1)
    STAR package – MRC Institute of Hearing Research, Nottingham
    http://www.ihr.mrc.ac.uk/
  • 5. Auditory Testing/Training (2)
    Sound Express – TigerSpeech Technology
    http://www.tigerspeech.com/tst_soundex.html
  • 6. Auditory Testing/Training (3)
    Hoop Nut – Scientific Learning®BrainApps™
    http://www.scilearn.com/products/brainapps/hoop-nut/
  • 7. The Solution
    • Realising that:
    training for learningtesting of learning
    Aim: Combine auditory perceptual learning, technology-enhanced learning and game theories to create auditory learning games suitable for use outside the lab
    Design games that are intrinsically motivating
    Wide range of age- and disability-related factors of people with hearing loss favours a casual game approach
    Principles of auditory learning suggest the use of intrinsic integration (Habgood 2007)
  • 8. Intrinsic Integration (Habgood 2007)
    How do we design effective learning games?
    Learning material
    Motivational factors: challenge, fantasy, curiosity, control, cooperation, competition, recognition (Malone & Lepper 1987)
    Core mechanics
    Rules of the game
    Essential interactions required to create gaming experience
    Explain individual preferences to games
    Define different game genre & flow experience
  • 9. Intrinsic Integration (Habgood 2007)
    • Motivational effects of challenge, control, etc. are realized through the core mechanics
    • 10. Integrate the learning material with the core mechanics and NOT the fantasy
    “Deliver learning material through the parts of the game that are the most fun to play, riding on the back of the flow experience produced by the game, and not interrupting or diminishing its impact”
    “Embody the learning material within the structure of the gaming world and the player’s interactions with it, providing an external representation of the learning content that is explored through the core mechanics of the gameplay”
  • 11. Core Mechanics & Auditory Training
    Auditory Testing/Training
    Auditory Learning Game
    Flexible core mechanics
    Interaction with stimuli (i.e. doing something with them)
    • Engaging flow experience
    • 12. Better conditions for realisation of motivational factors
    • 13. Design Space?
    Specific core mechanics
    Interaction limited to stimuli delivery/detection mechanism
    • Monotonous flow experience
    • 14. Unfavourable conditions for realisation of motivational factors
    • 15. Limited user engagement (e.g. extrinsic motivation)
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
  • 16. Auditory Learning GamesAuditory Bubble
    • Training for learning  testing of learning
    Used pre-existing game
    First iteration:
    Define elements of auditory games
    Integrate of auditory learning material & core mechanics
    Frozen Bubble
    http://www.frozen-bubble.org/
  • 17. Auditory Learning GamesAuditory Bubble & Beyond
    Future iterations
    Principles of auditory learning
    Design guidelines
    Toolkits, authoring tools
    ?
    ?
    ?
  • 18. ?
    Auditory Learning Games Performance & Psychophysical procedures
    Auditory Testing/Training
    Auditory Learning Game
    Performance on the game is well defined
    Performance on auditory task is unknown
    What to measure? How to measure? How to tailor difficulty
    Effects of divided attention
    visual & auditory tasks
    Performance on the auditory task is well defined allowing:
    Measurement of auditory learning
    Tailoring of auditory task difficulty
    Limited cognitive load
    ?
    ?
  • 19. Questions
    What aspects of the design of educational games & other audio-related computer systems are applicable for auditory learning games?
    How deep should the intrinsic integration between the auditory material and the core mechanics be?
    How do we address the wide range of age- and disability-related factors of the hearing impaired?
  • 20. Appendixes
  • 21. Beyond Auditory Learning GamesAn Auditory Learning Framework
    Casual games
    Multiple small self-contained auditory solutions
    Several games for same auditory task (individual preferences), specific games for specific tasks
    Integrated framework
    Audio processing components
    Web-based deployment: online/offline, game recommendation, in-the-wild training (e.g. mobile)
    Technology-Enhanced Learning
    Learner Modelling / Cognitive modelling
    scaffolding, macro & micro adaptation
    Data integration (from testing, training, self-report, audiologist, …) and visualisation
    performance, history, progress, …
    Open Learner Modelling
  • 22. Intrinsic Motivation and Learning
    Malone, T. W., & Lepper, M. (1987). Making learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning. In Aptitude, Learning and Instruction: Conative and affective process analyses, Snow & Farr (Eds.), pp. 253-223.
  • 23. Auditory Training
    training
    Social
    training
    Cognitive
    SpeechIntelligibility
    training
    Transfer
    Skill
    training
    PhonemeDiscrimination
    training
    Pure toneDiscrimination
    Time
  • 24. References
    Amitay, S., Hawkey, D. J., & Moore, D. R. (2005). Auditory frequency discrimination learning is affected by stimulus variability. Perception & Psychophysics, 67(4), 691-698.
    Moore, D. R., Rosenberg, J. F., & Coleman, J. S. (2005). Discrimination training of phonemic contrasts enhances phonological processing in mainstream school children. Brain and Language, 94(1), 72-85.
    Smith, G. E., Housen, P., Yaffe, K., Ruff, R., Kennison, R. F., Mahncke, H. W., Zelinski, E. M. (2009). A cognitive training program based on principles of brain plasticity: results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(4), 594-603.
    Sweetow, R. W., & Sabes, J. H. (2006). The need for and development of an adaptive Listening and Communication Enhancement (LACE) Program. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 17(8), 538-558.
    de Miranda, E. C., Gil, D., & Iório, M. C. M. (2008). Formal auditory training in elderly hearing aid users. RevistaBrasileira de Otorrinolaringologia, 74(6).
    Fu, Q., & Galvin, J. J. (2007). Computer-Assisted Speech Training for Cochlear Implant Patients: Feasibility, Outcomes, and Future Directions. Seminars in Hearing, 28(2), 142-150.
    Moore, D. R., Ferguson, M. A., Halliday, L. F., & Riley, A. (2008). Frequency discrimination in children: Perception, learning and attention. Hearing Research, 238(1-2), 147-154.
    Malone, T. W., & Lepper, M. (1987). Making learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning. In Aptitude, Learning and Instruction: Conative and affective process analyses, Snow & Farr (Eds.), pp. 253-223.
    Habgood, M. P. J. (2007). The Effective Integration of Digital Games and Learning Content. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.
    Ross, M. (2005). Home-based auditory and speech reading training; A Review of Four Programs. Hearing loss Magazine, November/December, pp. 30-34.