Drinks power point

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Drinks power point

  1. 1. Beverage lists and alcoholic beverages
  2. 2. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Types of drinks lists • Bar and cocktail • Restaurant • After meal drinks (digestifs) • Banqueting and events • Room service • Lounge service
  3. 3. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Information about wine on drinks lists • Name of wine • Country and area of origin • Quality indication (e.g. AOC, Qmp etc.) • Shipper • Château/estate bottled • Bin number • Varietals (name(s) of grape(s) used) • Vintage • Alcoholic strength • ½ bottle, bottle, magnum • Price • Supplier • Descriptive notes as appropriate.
  4. 4. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Information on other drinks • Type of drink • Brand name if appropriate • Style (sweet, dry, etc.) • Description, e.g. for cocktails • Alcoholic strength in percentage by volume, as appropriate • Descriptive notes, as appropriate.
  5. 5. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Alcoholic strength Two main scales: 1 Organisation Internationale Métrologie Légale (OIML) Scale (European): range 0% to 100% alcohol by volume. 2 American Scale (USA): range 0° to 200°. Liquid measured as 40% alcohol by volume contains 40% pure alcohol. Under the American Scale, alcoholic strength of 80° equals 40% by volume.
  6. 6. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Approximate alcoholic strength 0% non-alcoholic not more that 0.05% alcohol free 0.05–0.5% de-alcoholised 0.5–1.2% low alcohol 1.2–5.5% reduced alcohol 3–6% beer, cider, ‘FABs’ and ‘alcopops’, with any of these being up to 10%
  7. 7. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Approximate alcoholic strength 8–15% Wines, usually around 10–13% 14–22% Fortified wines (liqueur wines) such as sherry and port, aromatised wines such as vermouth, vin doux naturels (such as Muscat de Beaumes-de- Venise) and Sake 37.5–45% Spirits, usually at 40% 17–55% Liqueurs – very wide range
  8. 8. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Safe, sensible limits • The UK has set the limits at:  21 units spread throughout the week for men  14 units spread throughout the week for women (excluding pregnant women). • Drinking in excess of these limits is likely to be damaging to health.
  9. 9. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes A unit of alcohol • One unit of alcohol is equal to 10 millilitres (liquid) or 8 grams (weight) of alcohol • This is roughly equivalent to:  ½ pint of ordinary beer or lager  one glass of wine (125 ml)  one glass of sherry (50 ml)  one measure of vermouth or similar (50 ml)  one measure of spirits (25 ml).
  10. 10. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Calculating alcohol intake • The specific percentage of alcohol, multiplied by the amount in litres, equals the units of alcohol per bottle. For example:  Wine at 12% alcohol by volume x 0.75 litre bottle = 9 units per 75 cl bottle.  This 75 cl bottle of wine will give six 125 ml individual glasses of wine and each glass will contain 1.5 units of alcohol (9 units in the whole bottle, divided by the 6 glasses).
  11. 11. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Examples for other drinks • Lager at 5% alcohol x 0.50 litre measure = 2.5 units per half litre measure. • Spirit at 40% alcohol x 0.025 litre (25 ml) measure = 1 unit per 25 ml measure. • Sherry at 18% alcohol x 0.05 litre (50 ml) measure = 0.9 unit per 50 ml measure.
  12. 12. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Cocktails and mixed drinks Illustration courtesy of Six Continents Hotels • The term cocktail is now generally recognised to mean all types of mixed drinks.
  13. 13. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Preparation • Cocktails are prepared by:  shaking in a cocktail shaker, or  stirring in a mixing glass. • Mixed drinks are prepared by:  building or layering in the serving glass.
  14. 14. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Bitters • Used either as aperitifs or for flavouring mixed drinks and cocktails. • Popular varieties include: • Amer Picon • Angostura bitters • Campari • Fernet Branca • Underberg.
  15. 15. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Wine • Definition:  Alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of the juice of freshly gathered grapes.
  16. 16. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Climactic conditions • The right climatic conditions are found in two main wine-producing zones:  between the latitudes 30° and 50° north of the equator  between 30° and 50° south of the equator.
  17. 17. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Production • Three-quarters of the world’s wine is produced in Europe. • Just under half in the EU. • France and Italy produce the most wine. • Followed by Spain, USA, Australia, Argentina, Germany, Portugal, Chile and South Africa.
  18. 18. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes The grape • Main vine species is named Vitis vinifera • The grape consists of:  skin – provides tannins and colour  stalk – provides tannins  pips – provides bitter oils  pulp – contains sugar, fruit acids, water and pectins. • The yeast required for fermentation is on the skin in the form of a whitish ‘bloom’.
  19. 19. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Principal white grapes • Chardonnay • Chenin blanc • Gewürztraminer • Muscat • Pinot Blanc/ Weissburgunder • Pinot Gris/Pinot Grigio/Ruländer/Tokay-Pinot Gris • Riesling • Sauvignon Blanc • Sémillon • Viognier
  20. 20. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Principal red grapes • Cabernet Sauvignon • Gamay • Grenache/Garnacha • Malbec • Merlot • Nebbiolo • Pinot Noir/ Spätburgunder/ Pinot Nero • Sangiovese • Shiraz/Syrah • Tempranillo • Zinfandel (Pimitivo in Italy)
  21. 21. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Factors influencing quality and taste • Vine family and grape species. • Method of cultivation – viticulture. • Method of wine making – vinification. • Luck of the year – vintage. • Ageing and maturing process. • Method of shipping or transportation. • Storage temperature.
  22. 22. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Pests and diseases • Main ones are:  Phylloxera vastatrix – harmful to grape  Grey rot or pourriture gris – harmful to grape  Noble rot or pourriture noble (Botrytis cinerea) – same fungus as grey rot but in a form that is beneficial for the grape.
  23. 23. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Faults in wine • Main faults are:  corked wine  maderisation or oxidation  tartare flake  excess sulphur dioxide (SO2)  secondary fermentation  hydrogen sulphide (H2S)  sediment, lees, crust or dregs  cloudiness.
  24. 24. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Classification of wine • Still (or light) wine and sparkling wine  both types are usually between 9% and 15% by volume. The wines may be red, white or rosé. • Fortified (liqueur) wine  between 15% and 22% by volume  strengthened by the addition of alcohol, usually a grape spirit, e.g. sherry, port, Madeira.
  25. 25. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Other types • Organic • Alcohol-free, de-alcoholised and low- alcohol • Vins doux naturels: fortified to preserve sweetness • Aromatised: flavoured and fortified, often called vermouth
  26. 26. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Quality control for wines • The majority of the world’s wine-makers observe strict quality regulations, covering aspects such as:  the location of the vineyards  the variety of grape used  how the wine is made  how long it is matured.
  27. 27. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes European Union directives • Two main quality classes of wine:  table wine  quality wines produced in specified regions (QWPSR) or, in French, vin de qualité produit en regions determinés (VQPRD). • Each country also has its own systems.
  28. 28. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes EU wine label requirements • Name of the wine. • Country where the wine was made. • Alcoholic strength in percentage by volume (% vol). • Contents in litres, cl or ml. • The name and address or trademark of the supplier.
  29. 29. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Other information on EU wine labels • Varietal(s) – name(s) of the grape(s). • Year the grapes were harvested (vintage) if sold as a vintage wine. • Region where the wine was made. • Property where the wine was made.
  30. 30. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Example of a wine label German wine label
  31. 31. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Terms found on wine labels Term France Germany Italy Spain Portugal Wine vin Wein vino vino vinho Dry sec trocken secco seco seco Medium demi-sec halbtrocken abbocato abocado semi-seco Sweet doux/ moelleux süß dolce dulce doce White blanc Weißwein bianco blanco branco Red rouge Rotwein rosso tinto tinto Rosé rosé Rosé rosato rosado rosado
  32. 32. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Closures for wine bottles • Natural corks. • Technical (or composite) corks. • Synthetics (plastics). • Screw caps.
  33. 33. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Spirits • Produced by the distillation of alcoholic beverages (alcoholic wash). • Two main methods of producing spirits:  the pot still method – used for full, heavy flavoured spirits such as brandy  the patent still (Coffey) method – produces the lighter spirits such as vodka.
  34. 34. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Alcoholic bases for spirits Spirit Base Whisk(e)y, gin and vodka Barley, maize or rye (i.e. beer) Brandy Wine Calvados Cider Rum Molasses Tequila Pulque Eau de vie (water of life) Juice of fruit (usually water-clear in appearance)
  35. 35. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Liqueurs • Sweetened and flavoured spirits (brandy, rum or a neutral spirit). • Made by one of two methods: 1 heat or infusion method: uses a pot still for distillation purposes 2 cold or maceration method: allows the soft fruit to soak in brandy in oak casks over a long period of time.
  36. 36. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Popular liqueurs Liqueur Flavour/spirit base Archers Peaches/Schnapps Chartreuse Herbs, plants/brandy Cointreau Orange/brandy Crème de cacao Chocolate, vanilla/rum Kahlúa Coffee/rum Malibu Coconut/white rum Sambuca Liquorice/neutral spirit Tia Maria Coffee/rum
  37. 37. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Beer • Made from:  malted grains such as barley  water/liquor  yeast  hops for flavour.
  38. 38. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Types of beers • Cask-conditioned beers – final fermentation in the cask (or barrel). • Bottle-conditioned beers – tend to throw a sediment in the bottle while fermenting and conditioning takes place. • Draught beer in cans – have an internal patented system producing pub-style, smooth, creamy head when poured from the can.
  39. 39. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Faults in beer • Cloudy • Flat • Sour • Foreign bodies
  40. 40. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Beer measures • Nips – 7–8 fl oz (about 22.72 cl) • Half pint – 10 fl oz (about 28.40 cl) • Pint – 20 fl oz (about 56.80 cl) • Litre • Half litre
  41. 41. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Cider and perry • Cider – alcoholic beverage obtained through the fermentation of apple juice, or a mixture of apple juice and up to 25% pear juice. • Perry – obtained from pear juice and up to 25% apple juice.
  42. 42. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Tasting techniques • Tasting, or evaluation, of wine and other drinks is carried out to:  develop learning from experience  help in the assessment of the quality of a wine in terms of value  monitor the progress of a wine  assist in the description of a wine when selling  provide a personal record of wines tasted.
  43. 43. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Professional approach Three key stages: 1 Recording the details of each individual wine 2 Looking at, smelling and tasting the wine 3 Recording the findings. Wine taster’s glass (International Standards Organisation)
  44. 44. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Wine evaluation terms – Sight •Clarity: clear, bright, brilliant, gleaming, sumptuous, dull, hazy, cloudy •Colour intensity: pale, subdued, faded, deep, intense •White wine: water clear, pale yellow, yellow with green tinges, straw, gold, deep yellow, brown, maderised •Rosé wine: pale pink, orange-pink, onion-skin, blue-pink, copper •Red wine: purple, garnet, ruby, tawny, brick-red, mahogany
  45. 45. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Wine evaluation terms – Smell Referred to as nose, aroma or bouquet. • Condition: clean – unclean • Intensity: weak – pronounced • Other aroma descriptors: fruity, perfumed, full, deep, spicy, vegetal, fine, rich, pleasant, weak, nondescript, flat, corky.
  46. 46. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Wine evaluation terms – Taste •Sweetness/dryness: bone dry, dry, medium dry, sweet, medium sweet, sweet, luscious •Acidity: low – high •Tannin: low – high •Body: thin, light, medium, full-bodied •Length: short – long •Other taste descriptors: fruity, bitter, spicy, hard, soft, silky, floral, vegetal, smooth, tart, piquant, spritzig/petillant (slightly sparkling)
  47. 47. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Evaluation terms – Conclusion Summing up: •well-balanced, fine, delicate, rich, robust, vigorous, fat, flabby, thick, velvety, harsh, weak, unbalanced, insipid, for laying down, just right, over the hill Overall quality/value: •poor – acceptable – good – outstanding
  48. 48. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Matching wine and food • Acidity can be used to match, or to contrast, acidity in foods. • Age/maturity – simpler foods work better with older, more delicate wines. • Oak – the more oaked the wine, the more robust and flavoursome the foods need to be. • Sweetness – generally, the wine should be sweeter than the food. • Tannic wines match well with red meats. Not good with egg dishes or salty foods. • Weight – big, rich wines go well with robust (flavoursome) meat dishes.
  49. 49. Published by Hodder Education © J Cousins, D Lillicrap and S Weekes Beers and food • Increasing trend to offer beers with food. • Generally, the considerations for the pairing of beers and foods are similar to those for matching wines with foods. • In particular, take account of acidity, sweetness/dryness, bitterness, tannin, weight and the complexity of the taste.

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