Pathways ofProgressionJourneys through aTheory of ChangeNicola KassamCentre of Equity, School of Education,University of Manchester
‘Children growing up in poverty and disadvantage are lesslikely to do well at school. This feeds into disadvantage inlater life and in turn affects their children. To break thiscycle we need to address the attitudes and experiences thatlie behind social differences in education’ (Hirsch, JRF 2007)
The relationship between childpoverty & educational attainmentin Cornwall*The charts plot the relationshipbetween child poverty and theeducational attainment of childrenin Cornwall at 3 key stages:Early Years Foundation Stage atthe end of reception year 2010Key Stage 2: proportion of pupilsachieving level 4 or above inEnglish & Maths 2009 Key Stage 4: proportion of pupilsachieving 5 or more GCSE’s A*-Cincluding English & Maths 2010 *Child Poverty Needs Assessment 2012 http://www.cornwall.gov.uk/default.aspx?page=27214
Addressing Disadvantage Moves towards Multi-agency Intervention History of School as Community Hub International Case Extended Service Core Offer
Towards Extended Services History of Extended Provision Village Colleges Pathfinder Project Full Service School Extended Schools
Towards Extended Services II Previous Core Offer A wrap around childcare A varied menu of activities Swift and easy referral to targeted and specialist services including parenting support and family learning Community access to school facilities and adult learning
Towards Extended Services III Complexity of Different Initiatives led to Mixed Rationales Targeting attainment & attendance ‘ fluffy’ enrichment activities, ‘add on’ or integrated to the curriculum Addressing wider community social issues Regeneration Inclusion
Aims & Objectives Explore school delivery of Extended Service provision to identify each school’s rationale. Draw out the theories that underpin expected outcomes Identify if the outcomes occur as predicted in the school context
Black Box Measures or conditions Measures or before conditions afterRealist TermsCondition (C) + Mechanism (M) = Outcome (O)
Research Method Horizontal complexity number of ES activities drawn together, Staff arrangement, Cluster arrangement, Funding, Vertical Complexity Individual pathways of progression, Links between ES provison, Influencing variables Flexible & Evolving adaptable to different situations and stages, Adaptable to the data produced Contextual Issues Local community conerns, wider influencing factors beyond the community Broad range of outcomes, Expected changes and ownership of change
Theory Based Method‘Theory of Change’Black box is filled with theories,assumptions, predictions (Weiss1995) Identify situation, expected outcomes and outputs to produce particular outcomes. Illustrate predicted pathways and seek out evidence Testwhether the action is having the impacts predicted by the theory
Theory of Change ModelIssues the Action required The stepsschool wish to Issues by school & required by addressedaddress agencies target group Background of Systems required for the school and action, steps and community outcome to be achieved Black Box
Study Three case study schools A, B, C A Theory of Change methodology Identifysituation, context, actions and outputs, steps, outcomes Uncover evidence of activity Reveal pathways of progression Establish evidence of impact on social and educational outcome
School A Large Primary school in highly deprived area Transient community, large Eastern European Traveller population. Outstanding Ofsted report. ES integrated into school provision, coordinated and delivered by school staff ToC Pupil Centred
Rationale Address welfare and social issues Encourage parental engagement and empowerment Improve attainment and pupil enjoyment Provide opportunities for employment Generate more active integrated community members
Theory of Change Predicted Pathways Parental Engagement & Community Engagement Pupil Enrichment Pupil Welfare & Support Empowerment & Learning All children will have All pupils will have access to All parents will have Community will have access to activities safe secure access to support access to ES provision environment & learning Parents will receive Pupils will access these support activities Pupils will receive support for basic needs Community will build Parents will learn to relationship with the Pupils will learn to trust school service school navigate school system Pupils will learn to trust school service Parents and Community will Pupils will develop Parents will gain access learning opportunities Community will transferable skills and confidence and gain confidence gain confidence self esteem with the school Pupils will receive Improve thinking skills & support from services Parents will gain knowledge of behaviour parental expectations Pupils will gain new friendships that will Pupils will gain Parents will improve Community will gain self assist transition confidence with school parenting skills esteem from their peers Pupils will gain further confidence and a sense Parents and community will of achievement attain employment skills and become more active citizens Community will access Pupils will develop good volunteering Pupils will increase relations with school opportunities with the attendance and and staff school Parents will gain access to punctuality employment. Children will become more engaged in Community will become Increase citizenship schooling Pupils’ life chances will more active and provide improve further opportunities Pupil attainment and Parents will gain employment with the school confidence will increase and child and adult life chances will improve
Student 1 Male, joined the school in year 3, this was his first experience of education. Staff have identified that he requires support for his ‘Slovakian cultural difference’, attendance and parenting issues. He has little contact with most ES support, occasionally accessed play scheme. He is predicted to be working towards level 1 by the end of the key stage. In 2 years he had attended the play scheme for only 6 months.
Student 1 Progress Pupil Enrichment Pupil Welfare & Support All children will have All pupils will have access access to activities to safe secure Environment Table 1.1 Student 1 Actual and Predicted Assessment Level Pupils will access these Pupils will receive support activities for basic needs Student G 2 Pupils will learn to navigate school system Pupils will learn to trust 1.5 student G predicted school service level 1 student G actual Pupils will develop 0.5 level Level transferable skills andAssessment gain confidence 0 Linear (student G Improve thinking skills -0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 predicted level) & behaviour Pupils will gain new Linear (student G friendships that will -1 assist transition actual level) Students School Years Engaged with ES Activities Pupils will gain further confidence and a sense of achievement Within this short period of time, his Pupils will increase attendance increased from 33% to 50% attendance and punctuality and attainment from the predicted Increase citizenship working towards to above level 1 Pupil attainment and confidence will increase Table 1.2 Student 1Pathway
Student D Progression Student C Progression Student A Progression 10 student D predicted 3.5 y = 1.5x - 1.5 Assessment Level student C predicted 8 level 3 Assessment Level 6 y= x level student A predicted student D actual Assessment Level 2.5 y =x - 1 6 2 5 student C actual level level level 1.5 4 4 student A actual y= x- 1 y = 1.25x - 1.25 Linear (student D 1 Linear (student C 3 level 2 actual level) 0.5 predicted level) Linear (student A 2 Linear (student D 0 Linear (student C y = 0.6667x - 0.6667 actual level)0 -0.5 0 0 Linear (student A 2 4 6 8 predicted level) 1 2 3 4 1 actual level) -2 -1 predicted level) 0 Years Years 0 2 4 6 8 Years Student E Progression Student B Progression 8 student E predicted Student H Progression 7 level Assessment Level 6 y = 1.3415x 6 student B predicted Assessment Level 6 student E actual 5 level 5 student H level5 Assessment Level y = 1.6x y=x-1 4 student B actual4 y = 1.0976x predicted level 4 Linear (student E 3 level 3 student H actual 2 predicted level) 3 y = 0.6x - 1 level 2 Linear (student B y = 0.8x 2 Linear (student E Linear (student H actual level) 1 1 actual level) 1 actual level) 0 Linear (student B 0 0 Linear (student H predicted level) 0 2 4 6 0 1 2 3 4 -1 0 2 4 6 8 predicted level) Years Years Years Student G Progression Student F Progression Student I Progression 2 y = 0.5x - 1 student G 12Assessment Level 1.5 student F predicted predicted level 10 10 Assessment Level level student I predicted Assessment Level 1 student G actual y = 1.5976x y = 0.3x - 1 8 student F actual y = 1.75x - 1.75 8 level 0.5 level Linear (student G6 y = 1.439x level 6 student I actual 0 predicted level) Linear (student F level 4 4 0 2 4 6 8 Linear (student G actual level) y = 1.25x - 1.25 Linear (student I -0.5 actual level) 2 Linear2(student F actual level) -1 0 predicted level) 0 Linear (student I predicted level) Years 0 2 4 6 8 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Years Years
Student 2 Male joined the school in year 4, with his sister year 1. Known to social services; the family experienced bereavement, drug issues and concerns of a paedophile offender living in the home. Engaging with his mother resulted in abusive behaviour. The school used ES as a way to feed and deter him from stealing food for his sister. When he came to the school he could not read or write and was working towards level 1. He had substantial attendance issues and attended one term in total since nursery. He received staff support, 1 to1, collected from home and called everyday. In year 6, he been accessing ES continuously. He was predicted to be working towards level 1 by the end of the key stage.
Student 2 Progress Pupil Enrichment Pupil Welfare & Support Parental Engagement & Empowerment By year 6 he achieved level 2 All children will have access to activities All pupils will have access to safe secure All parents will have access to support Maths and Level 1 English environment and was attending 90% of thePupils will access these activities Pupils will receive support for basic needs Parents will receive time. support Pupils will learn tonavigate school system Pupils will learn to trust school service At secondary school his needs were not met, he Parents will learn to Pupils will develop trust school servicetransferable skills and gain confidence Pupils will receive support from services disengaged with education.Improve thinking skills & behaviour Pupils will gain new friendships that will Pupils will gain Maintained relationship with primary staff who advocated assist transition confidence with school Pupils will gain further confidence and a sense of achievement for his place Pupils will develop good relations with school and staff After 2 years staff managed to Pupils will increase attendance and punctuality Pupils’ life chances reinstate his place. Increase citizenship will improve Provision limited to half a day Pupil attainment andconfidence will increase a week, availability of staff limited to cater for his needs.Table 1.3 Student 2 and Parent Pathway
Parent 1 British Asian female of Bangladeshi origin, in her mid thirties. She had been engaged with the school for over 10 years and had brought each of her children to family learning, to assist their development before beginning school. For her family, achieving a good education was a high priority and central to improving life chances She played a central role in the community, voicing group opinion, recommending possible courses the group could attend. Her pathway links to learning and community, playing a significant role in the promotion of ES activity. However, this did not extend beyond attaining employment skills and becoming more active citizens
Parental Parental Engagement & Community Community Engagement Pupil Enrichment Pupil Welfare & Support Empowerment Empowerment & Learning & Learning All children will have All pupils will have access to All parents will have Community will have access to activities safe secure access to support access to ES provision & environment learning Parents will receive Pupils will access these Pupils will access these support activities activities Pupils will receive support for basic needs basic needs Community will build relationship with the Parents will learn to trust Parents will learn to trust school Pupils will learn to school service school service navigate school system navigate school system Pupils will learn to trust Pupils will learn to trust school service school service Parents will Parents and Community will Pupils will develop gain access learning opportunities Community willtransferable skills and gain confidence and gain confidence confidence self esteem with the school Pupils will receive support from services Improve thinking skills Improve thinking skills & behaviour behaviour Parents will gain knowledge of parental expectations Pupils will gain newfriendships that will assist Pupils will gain confidence Community will gain self transition with school esteem from their peers Parents will improve Pupils will gain further Pupils will gain further parenting skills parenting skills confidence and a sense of achievement Parents and community will attain Parents and community will attain Community will access Community will access Pupils will develop good Pupils will develop good employment skills and become more volunteering opportunities relations with school and relations with school and active citizens active citizens with the school Pupils will increase staff staffattendance and punctuality Community will become Community will become Increase citizenship Parents will gain access Parents will gain access to more active and provide more active and provide Pupils’ life chances will will become employment. Children will become further opportunities with further opportunities with improve improve more engaged in schooling the school Pupil attainment and Pupil attainment and confidence will increase Table 1.4 Parent 1 and her Children’s Pathway
Parent 2 A single parent requiring additional support for child care when first engaging with the school. After witnessing changes in her own children, she decided to volunteer After a number of years, gained the skills and experience to become a member of staff.‘I’ve been here about 6 years, and I absolutely love it. I really do.’ (Play scheme worker 11/11/10)
Parental Engagement & Community Engagement Pupil Welfare & Support Empowerment & Learning All parents will have access to support Community will build relationship with the Parents will receive schoolPupils will access these support activities Pupils will learn to Parents will learn to trust Community will navigate school system school service gain confidence with the school Pupils will develop transferable skills and gain confidence Parents will gain Pupils will receive support confidence from services Community will gain selfImprove thinking skills & and self esteem from their peers behaviour esteem Pupils will gain newfriendships that will assist Pupils will gain confidence Parents and Community will transition with school access learning opportunities Community will access Pupils will gain further volunteering opportunities confidence and a sense of with the school achievement Pupils will develop good Parents and community will attain relations with school and employment skills and become more Pupils will increase staff attendance and active citizens punctuality Community will become Increase citizenship Parents will gain access to more active and provide Pupils’ life chances further opportunities with employment. Children will become the school will improve more engaged in schooling Pupil attainment and confidence will increase Table 1.5 Parent 2 and Child Pathway
Community will have access to ES provision & learning Community will build relationship with the school Table 1.6 Community Member 1 Pathway Community will gain confidence with the school Parents and Community will access learning opportunities Community will gain self esteem from their peers Parents and community will attain Community will accessCommunity Member 1 employment skills and become volunteering more active citizens opportunities with the school Community will become Parents will gain access to more active and provide employment. Children will further opportunities with become more engaged in the school (Community Member 11/11/10) schooling home looking for something to do. and bake things that I wouldn’t do ‘most days I would be… say…, at the cookery class and signed up. A female pensioner from a white British heritage. She was single see other people, young people cluster school she had heard of yourself… With this I can get to It can get very lonely…and you and lived alone. Through the don’t want to cook just for for just myself.’
Parental Engagement & Community Engagement Empowerment & Learning Community will have access to ES provision & learning Community will build relationship with the school Table 1.7 Community Member 2 Pathway Community will gain confidence with the school Parents and Community will access learning opportunities Community will gain self esteem from their peersCommunity Member 2 Parents and community will attain Community will access employment skills and become more volunteering opportunities active citizens with the School Cluster Community will become Parents and community will gain more active and provide access to employment. further opportunities with services to the community café. the School Cluster late 50’s and wanted to change designed graphics and posters He had enrolled on a graphics the course he volunteered his After successfully completing Through the community links been made redundant in his Community Member 2 had with the Local Authority, he college on the school site. design course at the local for the Local Authority. his career.
What have we learnt ES can have an impact but effect can ‘wash out’ if not maintained Differences ‘reinforced’ by variation between schools and gaps in provision New approaches, new defined roles Outcomes must be defined and shared by all (institution, agency, parent and community)
Future Possibilities Harlem Childrens Zone project pipeline* *http://www.hcz.org/
Harlem Children Zone Project The goal is to create a "tipping point" in the neighbourhood. The HCZ Project expanded from 24 to 60 blocks, now to nearly 100 blocks of Central Harlem. For children to do well, their families have to do well. And for families to do well, their community must do well. The HCZ Project are provided to children and families absolutely free of charge.
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