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Impact conference 2 8 2012
 

Impact conference 2 8 2012

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  • Introduction Context of the Study Aims & Objectives Research method, the ToC explained The schools and individual pathways of progression Conclude with what has been learnt from the study and future possiblities
  • In the UK we have one of the the steepest socio-economic gradients in education, children from disadvantaged backgrounds do worse than those from advantaged backgrounds by a greater amount than elsewhere similar to the UK. This needs to be addressed as children inherit social exclusion with communities preventing progression in turn, maintaining a cycle of disadvantage. For some education has been seen to be the key, an escalator out of social disadvantage, leading to better job prospects and reducing the poverty in adulthood. Through education, individuals, employers can gain greater economic and social success and has been said that it can enhance social welfare, impact on economic growth and hold the key to economic and social policy. It has been believed that education can offer an opportunity to escape from disadvantaged backgrounds and climb the social ladder. However, educational experiences can remain strongly linked to social disadvantage, instead of breaking a cycle it can reinforce it.
  • Educational attainment not only determines outcomes in later life but also the likelihood of escaping poverty. Research indicates that children from lower socio-economic groups are at much greater disadvantage at every stage in their educational careers Poverty drives educational inequality; 􀂾 By age three, being in poverty makes a difference equivalent to nine months’ development in school readiness. 􀂾 During their years at school, children in receipt of free school meals (a key indicator of poverty) do progressively worse on average at school than their peers* 􀂾 Children who do badly at primary school are less likely to improve at secondary school if they are poor. 􀂾 Children from poor families are more likely to have poor qualifications. The relationship between child poverty & educational attainment in Cornwall The charts plot the relationship between child poverty at lower super output level (proportion of children aged 0 to 15 living in poverty based upon the 2008 HMRC data) and the educational attainment of children in Cornwall at 3 key stages: All relationships show a negative linear trend. As would be anticipated, as the proportion of children living in poverty increases, educational attainment in general, decreases. There are however wide variations within the data at each key stage and outlying plots on the chart show that children from areas of poverty can still attain good educational outcomes.
  • If education policy does not take into action the social situations of these individuals by off setting social disadvantage then the cycle is reinforced. As such there have been moves by the previous government to tackle disadvantage through multi-agency intervention, liaising with agencies such as social, health and education to address need and offset these differences. Teaching Schools White Paper 2010 reinforces the role of schools, governors, head teachers & teachers as vital stakeholders in raising standards & narrowing the attainment gap for disadvantaged pupils. ES has been seen to be the catalyst for this and prior to ES. There have been cases where the school has been utilised as a hub to great success- Joy Dryfoos
  • History of Extended Services in schools In the UK there has been a rich history of what is now called Extended Service (ES). From Henry Morris ‘village colleges’ in Cambridgeshire in the 1920s, to the recent surge in initiatives such as the pathfinder projects, FSES and Extended Schools. Extended services are familiar at some level to offer service outside of the traditional Curriculum hours.
  • From the FS, a core offer was outlined, A wrap around childcare A varied menu of activities Swift and easy referral to targeted and specialist services including parenting support and family learning Community access to school facilities and adult learning from which schools could implement provision, and by 2010 all mainstream schools will be delivering Extended Services (ES). However, this was open to interpretation and schools adopted different rationales for its use. The ambiguity of policy guidance had lead to different expected outcomes
  • Over recent decades education priorities have shifted extensively, from community centred schooling to curriculum, funding and governance and back again. Through a succession of initiatives by the previuos government, schools were encouraged to re-establish their link to communities, with emphasis on addressing deprivation. As such schools are unsure on the ES agenda Targeting attainment & attendance ‘ fluffy’ enrichment activities, ‘ add on’ or integrated to the curriculum Addressing wider community social issues Regeneration Inclusion
  • Aims and Objectives The study will explore school delivery of Extended Service provision to identify each school’s rationale. Take the form of 3 linked case studies (Yin, 2003) to Identify school rationale in terms of the school situation they wish to address in context and identify how ES are being used to address anticipated outcome. Schools’ ES activity will be monitored to observe the impacts of that activity over a period of time against the school’s assumed understanding of how changes will lead to outcome. The following research questions will be addressed. Research Questions What are schools trying to achieve through the extended service provision? What are schools doing to try to achieve this? What evidence is there that this is being achieved? What evidence is there that the extended role of schools can have an impact on social and educational disadvantage?
  • What is happening when the miracle occurs! Who are the actors, what are their influences, are the relationships, are they embedded what are the mechanisms and what assumptions are these based? How do we examine this complex and diversely interpreted initiative?
  • However, examining ES can be difficult. Associating links of causality to the service can be problematic. The provision becomes a ‘black box’ which remains unexplored.– Alternative paradigms do exist for understanding causality. Systems thinking, often referred to as ‘realist’, is CMO [or C + M = O] context plus mechanism(s) equals outcome (Pawson and Tilley, 1997). ES systems that are  a  mechanism contributing to an outcome. not the project that leads to an outcome, but the interaction between whatever these consist of (e.g. technology, resources) and people in a particular context.
  • Method must reflect this complexity on 5 levels Horizontal complexity number of ES activities drawn together, Staff arrangement, Cluster arrangement, Funding, Vertical Complexity Individual pathways of progression, Links between ES provison, Influencing variables Flexible & Evolving adaptable to different situations and stages, Adaptable to the data produced Contextual Issues Local community conerns, wider influencing factors beyond the community, Broad range of outcomes, Expected changes and ownership of change
  • A theory based method required, ‘Theory of Change’ (Weiss 1995) In which consideration of the assumed theories and predicted outcomes are taken into consideration. The ToC approach will: Identify situation, expected outcomes and outputs to produce particular outcomes. Illustrate predicted pathways and seek out evidence Test whether the action is having the impacts predicted by the theory
  • Situation The issues the school wish to address, such as unhealthy eating Outcome The outcome they hope to achieve after using the ES Action The actions required by the school for steps to take place Steps The steps to be followed and changes required by the participants to achieve the outcome Outputs The systems required for the actions to take place, that will enable the steps of change to achieve the outcome Finally, the Context The location, environment in which the school/community is placed and the factors that may assist or hinder the ToC.
  • Example Weiss provides an example of this when examining a teenage employment initiative (Connell et al., 1995). Through a ToC approach, it was possible for the organisation to identify its assumption that teenage unemployment was dependent on a lack of employment preparation skills. However, the assumption neglected to look at the wider picture. Through the ToC process, the evidence gathered identified further contributing factors that hindered teenage employment. It was revealed that teenage employment was dependent on several variables, the individuals confidence level, the availability of employment places for young people, the current employment market etc… By applying the ToC approach, it was possible to identify that the assumed actions and steps taken by the organisation, were not necessarily addressing all the needs of the teenage group when seeking employment. For this reason, I will be applying a ToC theoretical framework and methodology to the research, as this approach will allow a greater understanding of the rationales underpinning schools’ ES provision and the impacts such provision might have.
  • Three case study schools A, B, C A Theory of Change methodology Identify situation, context, actions and outputs, steps, outcomes Uncover evidence of activity Reveal pathways of progression Establish evidence of impact on social and educational outcome
  • For this presentation school A was selected as the most appropriate, illustrated examines from a variety of sources.
  • Large Primary school in highly deprived area Transient community, large Eastern European Traveller population. 'Outstanding' Ofsted report. ES integrated into school provision, coordinated and delivered by school staff ToC Pupil Centred
  • Rationale Address welfare and social issues Encourage parental engagement and empowerment Improve attainment and pupil enjoyment Provide opportunities for employment Generate more active integrated community members
  • The school leaders identified 4 strands in which they addressed disadvantage, these were Pupil enrichment (Univeral to all), Pupil Welfare & Support (targeted pupils), Parental Engagement & Empowermwnt (targeted parents) and Community Engagement & Learning (universal to all)
  • Form investigation of case studies, interviews and documentation, individual pupil, parent and community member pathways could be identified
  • Student 1 Male, joined the school in year 3, this was his first experience of education. Staff have identified that he requires support for his ‘Slovakian cultural difference’, attendance and parenting issues. He has little contact with most ES support, occasionally accessed play scheme. He is predicted to be working towards level 1 by the end of the key stage. In 2 years he had attended the play scheme for only 6 months.
  • Progress Within this short period of time, his attendance increased from 33% to 50% and attainment from the predicted working towards to above level 1 His pathway was mostly linear as predicted by staff and there was some interplay between the pupil welfare strand, but not as hoped. The was an indication that the most of the predicted steps had been completed, lack of evidence to substansiate all steps had been completed. His results were common among attendees.
  • As you can see from this sample from the 2010 summer scheme, the activity was having a positive impact on most pupils attainment.
  • Student 2 Male joined the school in year 4, with his sister year 1. Known to social services; the family experienced bereavement, drug issues and concerns of a paedophile offender living in the home. Engaging with his mother resulted in abusive behaviour. The school used ES as a way to feed and deter him from stealing food for his sister. When he came to the school he could not read or write and was working towards level 1. He had substantial attendance issues and attended one term in total since nursery. He received staff support, 1 to1, collected from home and called everyday. In year 6, he been accessing ES continuously. He was predicted to be working towards level 1 by the end of the key stage.
  • By the end of year 6 he achieved level 2 Maths and Level 1 English and was attending 90% of the time. However, when moving to the secondary school his needs were not met, he disengaged with education. He would return to the primary to talk to staff, who began a dialogue with the secondary After 2 years managed to reinstate his place. Provison limited to half a day a week because of the availability of staff to cater for his needs.
  • Parent 1 British Asian female of Bangladeshi origin, in her mid thirties. She had been engaged with the school for over 10 years and had brought each of her children to family learning, to assist their development before beginning school. For her family, achieving a good education was a high priority and central to improving life chances She played a central role in the community, voicing group opinion, recommending possible courses the group could attend. Her pathway links to learning and community, playing a significant role in the promotion of ES activity. However, this did not extend beyond attaining employment skills and becoming more active citizens
  • Her pathways progressed as predicted, However, she was relucatant for initate activities without the support form staff and planned to wait until children were in ‘older’ before seeking employment. She saw the benefit of the programme for her children and strongly believed that ES were improving her life chances as predicted within the model.
  • Parent 2 A single parent requiring additional support for child care when first engaging with the school. After witnessing changes in her own children, she decided to volunteer After a number of years, gained the skills and experience to become a member of staff. ‘ I’ve been here about 6 years, and I absolutely love it. I really do.’ (Play scheme worker 11/11/10)
  • Her path progressed from parent engagement into community, as many of the progressive steps were best suited to her progression through volunteering and then accessing learning opportunities, eventually acquiring employment. Links were also associated to providing further opportunities, as her role as play scheme worker encouraged more community volunteers, as well as, life chances. The worker strongly believed that ES had an impact on her whole families life chances, her children achieved level 5 and 6 in their SATs and accessing opportunities that they would not have done at another school (11/11/10).
  • Community Member 1 A female pensioner from a white British heritage. She was single and lived alone. Through the cluster school she had heard of the cookery class and signed up. ‘ most days I would be… say…, at home looking for something to do. It can get very lonely…and you don’t want to cook just for yourself… With this I can get to see other people, young people and bake things that I wouldn’t do for just myself.’ (Community Member 11/11/10)
  • Community Member 2 Community Member 2 had been made redundant in his late 50’s and wanted to change his career. He had enrolled on a graphics design course at the local college on the school site. After successfully completing the course he volunteered his services to the community café. Through the community links with the Local Authority, he designed graphics and posters for the Local Authority.
  • Pathways are not as linear as predicted, this is a small sample of cases in which pathways could be represented, the long rich history of data provided by the school, student and parent enabled the pathways that have developed over a number of years. ES can have an impact but effect can ‘wash out’ if not maintained in the wider community from which, Differences can be ‘reinforced’ by variation between schools and gaps in provision. As such, staff have had to be adaptable and develop new approaches, and defined new roles for staff to bridge gaps in community provision Outcomes must be defined and shared by all (institution, agency, parent and community)
  • Called "one of the most ambitious social-service experiments of our time," by The New York Times, the Harlem Children's Zone Project is a unique, holistic approach to rebuilding a community so that its children can stay on track through college and go on to the job market. The HCZ pipeline begins with The Baby College, a series of workshops for parents of children ages 0-3. The pipeline goes on to include best-practice programs for children of every age through college. The network  includes in-school, after-school, social-service, health and community-building programs. The pipeline has, in fact, dual pathways: on one track, the children go through our Promise Academy charter schools; while on the other track, we work to support the public schools in the Zone, both during the school day with in-class assistants and with afterschool programs. The pipeline has dual pathways: track the children while supporting the public schools in the Zone, with in-class assistants and afterschool programs.
  • The goal is to create a "tipping point" in the neighbourhood so that children are surrounded by an enriching environment of college-oriented peers and supportive adults, a counterweight to "the street" and a toxic popular culture that glorifies misogyny and anti-social behaviour.  The HCZ Project began as a one-block pilot in the 1990s, then following a 10-year business plan, it expanded to 24 blocks, then 60 blocks, then iIn January 2007, they launched its Phase 3, expanding its comprehensive system of programs to nearly 100 blocks. President Barack Obama has called for the creation of "Promise Neighbourhoods" across the country based on the comprehensive, data-driven approach of the HCZ Project. For children to do well, their families have to do well. And for families to do well, their community must do well. That is why HCZ works to strengthen families as well as empowering them to have a positive impact on their children's development. HCZ also works to reweave the social fabric of Harlem, which has been torn apart by crime, drugs and decades of poverty. Like all HCZ programs, those of the HCZ Project are provided to children and families absolutely free of charge, which is made possible by the support of people like you.

Impact conference 2 8 2012 Impact conference 2 8 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • Pathways ofProgressionJourneys through aTheory of ChangeNicola KassamCentre of Equity, School of Education,University of Manchester
  • ‘Children growing up in poverty and disadvantage are lesslikely to do well at school. This feeds into disadvantage inlater life and in turn affects their children. To break thiscycle we need to address the attitudes and experiences thatlie behind social differences in education’ (Hirsch, JRF 2007)
  • The relationship between childpoverty & educational attainmentin Cornwall*The charts plot the relationshipbetween child poverty and theeducational attainment of childrenin Cornwall at 3 key stages:Early Years Foundation Stage atthe end of reception year 2010Key Stage 2: proportion of pupilsachieving level 4 or above inEnglish & Maths 2009 Key Stage 4: proportion of pupilsachieving 5 or more GCSE’s A*-Cincluding English & Maths 2010 *Child Poverty Needs Assessment 2012 http://www.cornwall.gov.uk/default.aspx?page=27214
  • Addressing Disadvantage Moves towards Multi-agency Intervention History of School as Community Hub International Case Extended Service Core Offer
  • Towards Extended Services History of Extended Provision  Village Colleges  Pathfinder Project  Full Service School  Extended Schools
  • Towards Extended Services II Previous Core Offer A wrap around childcare  A varied menu of activities  Swift and easy referral to targeted and specialist services including parenting support and family learning  Community access to school facilities and adult learning
  • Towards Extended Services III Complexity of Different Initiatives led to Mixed Rationales  Targeting attainment & attendance  ‘ fluffy’ enrichment activities,  ‘add on’ or integrated to the curriculum  Addressing wider community social issues  Regeneration  Inclusion
  • Aims & Objectives Explore school delivery of Extended Service provision to identify each school’s rationale. Draw out the theories that underpin expected outcomes Identify if the outcomes occur as predicted in the school context
  • C+M=O?
  • Black Box Measures or conditions Measures or before conditions afterRealist TermsCondition (C) + Mechanism (M) = Outcome (O)
  • Research Method Horizontal complexity  number of ES activities drawn together, Staff arrangement, Cluster arrangement, Funding, Vertical Complexity  Individual pathways of progression, Links between ES provison, Influencing variables Flexible & Evolving  adaptable to different situations and stages, Adaptable to the data produced Contextual Issues  Local community conerns, wider influencing factors beyond the community Broad range of outcomes,  Expected changes and ownership of change
  • Theory Based Method‘Theory of Change’Black box is filled with theories,assumptions, predictions (Weiss1995)  Identify situation, expected outcomes and outputs to produce particular outcomes.  Illustrate predicted pathways and seek out evidence  Testwhether the action is having the impacts predicted by the theory
  • Theory of Change ModelIssues the Action required The stepsschool wish to Issues by school & required by addressedaddress agencies target group Background of Systems required for the school and action, steps and community outcome to be achieved Black Box
  • Weiss ExampleSituation Action Steps Outcome Context Output
  • Study Three case study schools A, B, C A Theory of Change methodology  Identifysituation, context, actions and outputs, steps, outcomes  Uncover evidence of activity  Reveal pathways of progression  Establish evidence of impact on social and educational outcome
  • School A
  • School A Large Primary school in highly deprived area Transient community, large Eastern European Traveller population. Outstanding Ofsted report. ES integrated into school provision, coordinated and delivered by school staff ToC Pupil Centred
  • Rationale Address welfare and social issues Encourage parental engagement and empowerment Improve attainment and pupil enjoyment Provide opportunities for employment Generate more active integrated community members
  • Theory of Change Predicted Pathways Parental Engagement & Community Engagement Pupil Enrichment Pupil Welfare & Support Empowerment & Learning All children will have All pupils will have access to All parents will have Community will have access to activities safe secure access to support access to ES provision environment & learning Parents will receive Pupils will access these support activities Pupils will receive support for basic needs Community will build Parents will learn to relationship with the Pupils will learn to trust school service school navigate school system Pupils will learn to trust school service Parents and Community will Pupils will develop Parents will gain access learning opportunities Community will transferable skills and confidence and gain confidence gain confidence self esteem with the school Pupils will receive Improve thinking skills & support from services Parents will gain knowledge of behaviour parental expectations Pupils will gain new friendships that will Pupils will gain Parents will improve Community will gain self assist transition confidence with school parenting skills esteem from their peers Pupils will gain further confidence and a sense Parents and community will of achievement attain employment skills and become more active citizens Community will access Pupils will develop good volunteering Pupils will increase relations with school opportunities with the attendance and and staff school Parents will gain access to punctuality employment. Children will become more engaged in Community will become Increase citizenship schooling Pupils’ life chances will more active and provide improve further opportunities Pupil attainment and Parents will gain employment with the school confidence will increase and child and adult life chances will improve
  • Individual Pathways
  • Student 1 Male, joined the school in year 3, this was his first experience of education. Staff have identified that he requires support for his ‘Slovakian cultural difference’, attendance and parenting issues. He has little contact with most ES support, occasionally accessed play scheme. He is predicted to be working towards level 1 by the end of the key stage. In 2 years he had attended the play scheme for only 6 months.
  • Student 1 Progress Pupil Enrichment Pupil Welfare & Support All children will have All pupils will have access access to activities to safe secure Environment Table 1.1 Student 1 Actual and Predicted Assessment Level Pupils will access these Pupils will receive support activities for basic needs Student G 2 Pupils will learn to navigate school system Pupils will learn to trust 1.5 student G predicted school service level 1 student G actual Pupils will develop 0.5 level Level transferable skills andAssessment gain confidence 0 Linear (student G Improve thinking skills -0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 predicted level) & behaviour Pupils will gain new Linear (student G friendships that will -1 assist transition actual level) Students School Years Engaged with ES Activities Pupils will gain further confidence and a sense of achievement Within this short period of time, his Pupils will increase attendance increased from 33% to 50% attendance and punctuality and attainment from the predicted Increase citizenship working towards to above level 1 Pupil attainment and confidence will increase Table 1.2 Student 1Pathway
  • Student D Progression Student C Progression Student A Progression 10 student D predicted 3.5 y = 1.5x - 1.5 Assessment Level student C predicted 8 level 3 Assessment Level 6 y= x level student A predicted student D actual Assessment Level 2.5 y =x - 1 6 2 5 student C actual level level level 1.5 4 4 student A actual y= x- 1 y = 1.25x - 1.25 Linear (student D 1 Linear (student C 3 level 2 actual level) 0.5 predicted level) Linear (student A 2 Linear (student D 0 Linear (student C y = 0.6667x - 0.6667 actual level)0 -0.5 0 0 Linear (student A 2 4 6 8 predicted level) 1 2 3 4 1 actual level) -2 -1 predicted level) 0 Years Years 0 2 4 6 8 Years Student E Progression Student B Progression 8 student E predicted Student H Progression 7 level Assessment Level 6 y = 1.3415x 6 student B predicted Assessment Level 6 student E actual 5 level 5 student H level5 Assessment Level y = 1.6x y=x-1 4 student B actual4 y = 1.0976x predicted level 4 Linear (student E 3 level 3 student H actual 2 predicted level) 3 y = 0.6x - 1 level 2 Linear (student B y = 0.8x 2 Linear (student E Linear (student H actual level) 1 1 actual level) 1 actual level) 0 Linear (student B 0 0 Linear (student H predicted level) 0 2 4 6 0 1 2 3 4 -1 0 2 4 6 8 predicted level) Years Years Years Student G Progression Student F Progression Student I Progression 2 y = 0.5x - 1 student G 12Assessment Level 1.5 student F predicted predicted level 10 10 Assessment Level level student I predicted Assessment Level 1 student G actual y = 1.5976x y = 0.3x - 1 8 student F actual y = 1.75x - 1.75 8 level 0.5 level Linear (student G6 y = 1.439x level 6 student I actual 0 predicted level) Linear (student F level 4 4 0 2 4 6 8 Linear (student G actual level) y = 1.25x - 1.25 Linear (student I -0.5 actual level) 2 Linear2(student F actual level) -1 0 predicted level) 0 Linear (student I predicted level) Years 0 2 4 6 8 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Years Years
  • Student 2 Male joined the school in year 4, with his sister year 1. Known to social services; the family experienced bereavement, drug issues and concerns of a paedophile offender living in the home. Engaging with his mother resulted in abusive behaviour. The school used ES as a way to feed and deter him from stealing food for his sister. When he came to the school he could not read or write and was working towards level 1. He had substantial attendance issues and attended one term in total since nursery. He received staff support, 1 to1, collected from home and called everyday. In year 6, he been accessing ES continuously. He was predicted to be working towards level 1 by the end of the key stage.
  • Student 2 Progress Pupil Enrichment Pupil Welfare & Support Parental Engagement & Empowerment  By year 6 he achieved level 2 All children will have access to activities All pupils will have access to safe secure All parents will have access to support Maths and Level 1 English environment and was attending 90% of thePupils will access these activities Pupils will receive support for basic needs Parents will receive time. support Pupils will learn tonavigate school system Pupils will learn to trust school service  At secondary school his needs were not met, he Parents will learn to Pupils will develop trust school servicetransferable skills and gain confidence Pupils will receive support from services disengaged with education.Improve thinking skills & behaviour Pupils will gain new friendships that will Pupils will gain  Maintained relationship with primary staff who advocated assist transition confidence with school Pupils will gain further confidence and a sense of achievement for his place Pupils will develop good relations with school and staff After 2 years staff managed to Pupils will increase attendance and  punctuality Pupils’ life chances reinstate his place. Increase citizenship will improve Provision limited to half a day Pupil attainment andconfidence will increase  a week, availability of staff limited to cater for his needs.Table 1.3 Student 2 and Parent Pathway
  • Parent 1 British Asian female of Bangladeshi origin, in her mid thirties. She had been engaged with the school for over 10 years and had brought each of her children to family learning, to assist their development before beginning school. For her family, achieving a good education was a high priority and central to improving life chances She played a central role in the community, voicing group opinion, recommending possible courses the group could attend. Her pathway links to learning and community, playing a significant role in the promotion of ES activity. However, this did not extend beyond attaining employment skills and becoming more active citizens
  • Parental Parental Engagement & Community Community Engagement Pupil Enrichment Pupil Welfare & Support Empowerment Empowerment & Learning & Learning All children will have All pupils will have access to All parents will have Community will have access to activities safe secure access to support access to ES provision & environment learning Parents will receive Pupils will access these Pupils will access these support activities activities Pupils will receive support for basic needs basic needs Community will build relationship with the Parents will learn to trust Parents will learn to trust school Pupils will learn to school service school service navigate school system navigate school system Pupils will learn to trust Pupils will learn to trust school service school service Parents will Parents and Community will Pupils will develop gain access learning opportunities Community willtransferable skills and gain confidence and gain confidence confidence self esteem with the school Pupils will receive support from services Improve thinking skills Improve thinking skills & behaviour behaviour Parents will gain knowledge of parental expectations Pupils will gain newfriendships that will assist Pupils will gain confidence Community will gain self transition with school esteem from their peers Parents will improve Pupils will gain further Pupils will gain further parenting skills parenting skills confidence and a sense of achievement Parents and community will attain Parents and community will attain Community will access Community will access Pupils will develop good Pupils will develop good employment skills and become more volunteering opportunities relations with school and relations with school and active citizens active citizens with the school Pupils will increase staff staffattendance and punctuality Community will become Community will become Increase citizenship Parents will gain access Parents will gain access to more active and provide more active and provide Pupils’ life chances will will become employment. Children will become further opportunities with further opportunities with improve improve more engaged in schooling the school Pupil attainment and Pupil attainment and confidence will increase Table 1.4 Parent 1 and her Children’s Pathway
  • Parent 2 A single parent requiring additional support for child care when first engaging with the school. After witnessing changes in her own children, she decided to volunteer After a number of years, gained the skills and experience to become a member of staff.‘I’ve been here about 6 years, and I absolutely love it. I really do.’ (Play scheme worker 11/11/10)
  • Parental Engagement & Community Engagement Pupil Welfare & Support Empowerment & Learning All parents will have access to support Community will build relationship with the Parents will receive schoolPupils will access these support activities Pupils will learn to Parents will learn to trust Community will navigate school system school service gain confidence with the school Pupils will develop transferable skills and gain confidence Parents will gain Pupils will receive support confidence from services Community will gain selfImprove thinking skills & and self esteem from their peers behaviour esteem Pupils will gain newfriendships that will assist Pupils will gain confidence Parents and Community will transition with school access learning opportunities Community will access Pupils will gain further volunteering opportunities confidence and a sense of with the school achievement Pupils will develop good Parents and community will attain relations with school and employment skills and become more Pupils will increase staff attendance and active citizens punctuality Community will become Increase citizenship Parents will gain access to more active and provide Pupils’ life chances further opportunities with employment. Children will become the school will improve more engaged in schooling Pupil attainment and confidence will increase Table 1.5 Parent 2 and Child Pathway
  • Community will have access to ES provision & learning Community will build relationship with the school Table 1.6 Community Member 1 Pathway Community will gain confidence with the school Parents and Community will access learning opportunities Community will gain self esteem from their peers Parents and community will attain Community will accessCommunity Member 1 employment skills and become volunteering more active citizens opportunities with the school Community will become Parents will gain access to more active and provide employment. Children will further opportunities with become more engaged in the school (Community Member 11/11/10) schooling home looking for something to do. and bake things that I wouldn’t do ‘most days I would be… say…, at the cookery class and signed up. A female pensioner from a white British heritage. She was single see other people, young people cluster school she had heard of yourself… With this I can get to It can get very lonely…and you and lived alone. Through the don’t want to cook just for for just myself.’  
  • Parental Engagement & Community Engagement Empowerment & Learning Community will have access to ES provision & learning Community will build relationship with the school Table 1.7 Community Member 2 Pathway Community will gain confidence with the school Parents and Community will access learning opportunities Community will gain self esteem from their peersCommunity Member 2 Parents and community will attain Community will access employment skills and become more volunteering opportunities active citizens with the School Cluster Community will become Parents and community will gain more active and provide access to employment. further opportunities with services to the community café. the School Cluster late 50’s and wanted to change designed graphics and posters He had enrolled on a graphics the course he volunteered his After successfully completing Through the community links been made redundant in his Community Member 2 had with the Local Authority, he college on the school site. design course at the local for the Local Authority. his career.    
  • What have we learnt ES can have an impact but effect can ‘wash out’ if not maintained Differences ‘reinforced’ by variation between schools and gaps in provision New approaches, new defined roles Outcomes must be defined and shared by all (institution, agency, parent and community)
  • Future Possibilities Harlem Childrens Zone project pipeline* *http://www.hcz.org/
  • Harlem Children Zone Project The goal is to create a "tipping point" in the neighbourhood. The HCZ Project expanded from 24 to 60 blocks, now to nearly 100 blocks of Central Harlem. For children to do well, their families have to do well. And for families to do well, their community must do well. The HCZ Project are provided to children and families absolutely free of charge.
  • Thank You
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