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Those ones that we obtain from the rocks. Rock is a very dense material so it gives a lot of protection
There are two types: - Compact rorcks : they are blocks of granite, marble, limestone... - Desintegrated rocks : they are blocks of rocks that can have different size. We can diferenciated two types: -Clay: their main property is that they can absorb the water easily. -Rocks made up of the disgregation of others rocks (sand...). GRANITE
They are materials that we use to join differents materials to make a type of mixture called mortar.
The most important ones are : LIME: we obtain it heating limestone rocks. We use them to paint walls or to make bricks.
BINDER MATERIALS II PLASTER: it is mineral dust that if we mixed with water we can use to covert walls and roofs. There are three types: black plaster , white plaster and one more thin. CEMENT:The most important use of cement is the production of mortar and concrete. The most common cement is the portlant cements (made up with clay and limestone).
CONCRETE Concrete is a mixture of water, binder and desintegrated rocks. - Concrete is used more than any other man-made material in the world. -There are many types of concrete available, created by varying the proportions of the main ingredients below: ·Mass concrete: we obtain it of the mixture of water, cement, sand and chippings. ·Cellular concrete: before the concrete set we add it some chemical products that expel gases and form bubbles. With this we improve the termic and acustic insolation. Mass concrete
CONCRETE II Reinforced concrete: -Reinforced concrete is concrete in which reinforcement bars or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material. -The first application of reinforced concrete as a material for the construction of buildings took place in 1864. -Concrete is reinforced to give it extra tensile strength; without reinforcement, many concrete buildings would not have been possible. Cyclopean concrete -It is the mixture of cement, water and desegregated rocks of more than 30cm of diameter. We use them in walls. Reinforced concrete
CERAMIC MATERIALS The ceramic materials are pieces made up with moulded clay boiled in kilns. The process of elaboration of ceramic materials consists in two parts: -Mixture and moulded: some machines mix clay with water, then they give mass form and they pass them through different types of nozzles. Finally they cut them in small pieces. -Boiling in kilns: the cuted materials go through chambers with different temperatures.
CERAMIC MATERIALS II The most common ceramic materials are: -Brick: ·He oldest shaped bricks found date back to 7,500 B.C. ·They are pieces of boiled clay with a prismatic shape and with holes. ·There are two types: -Thin bricks: the aspect and the colour is attractive. They have a good mechanic resistance and isolation properties. -Poor bricks: they have less resistance we use them in walls and partition walls.
CERAMIC MATERIALS III Texas: boiled pieces of clay that we use in overcast and roofs. Tiles:Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops. Their properties are impermeable and brightness. Gres: it is a mixture of clay, quartz and feldspar we use them to elaborated ceramic pieces very resistance to the wear away. Porcelain: is a ceramic material made by heating raw materials, generally including clay in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 °C and 1,400 °C.
OTHER MATERIALS Metals: the most common are: -Steel: we use it in supports in reinforced concrete, overcoast, piers... -Aluminium: we use it to make up frames of doors, windows... -Cooper: we use it in gas, water and heating installations. -Wood: we use it less each time but it also a common material in roofs, doors, windows... -Plastics: we use it in electrics materials, windows... -Glass: we use it in windows, doors, decoration...
BUILDING OF BUILDS The building of a build is a large and complex process and it uses a great variety of materials and the work of a lot of workers . There are different steeps: -Prepare the land through some processes of demolish, nivelation... -Foundation: it is the colocation of the elements that form the base of the build. -Structure elevation: in this steep it builds the pillars and braced that form the plants of the build. The majority of these are form of reinforced concrete.
BUILDING OF BUILDS II Water covering: it consists of the colocation of the overcast in the build, it can variate depending of the clime of the zone. For example in places where it snows the overcast it would be more inclined. Paving colocation: over the braced of each plant of the build it puts materials such as marble, wood... Upraising of wall: in these steep it builds the walls and partition walls that close and divided the plants of the builds with the aim of isolate of the exterior. It is build up of bricks. Distribution of installations of water, gas, electricity, reception of television... Finish work: in this steep the build is adequate to their functions.
CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY We use different machines in the buildings of builds: - Digger : we use it in the excavations and movements of the land. -After the nivelation of the land we compact the land with steamrollers . -The materials are transported with lorries .
CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY II -In the construction the materials are elevated with crane that can have different elements: *Pylon: a metallic structure in vertical position. *Jib Crane: a metallic structure in horizontal position that can turn 360º and it has different longitudes. *Counterweight: a structure in an extreme of the jib crane. -Cement mixer: this machine carry out the made up of mortar and concrete.
THE END A work of.... NICOLÁS IGLESIAS JARAMILLO CARLOS MORELL VARGAS