Solar Orbiter    Exploring the Sun-heliosphere connection                                           Nicolas Labrosse      ...
The Glasgow Astronomy & Astrophysics group• Conduct research in theory, modelling, and data analysis  on a wide range of t...
Science questions we like to think about• What controls the properties and evolution of stars including  the Sun?• How do ...
Why study the Sun-heliosphere connection?• Addresses ESA’s Cosmic Vision question:   – “How does the solar system work?”  ...
Solar Orbiter – The mission to understand howthe Sun creates and controls the Heliosphere                     LL Ori      ...
Solar corona, wind and magnetic activity:an intimate connection to form a dynamic heliosphere                             ...
How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere– and why does solar activity change with time ?                       ...
How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere– and why does solar activity change with time ?                       ...
The Mission• Solar Orbiter is a logical and  timely next step after Ulysses  and SOHO, combining remote  sensing and in-si...
How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere?Q1) How and where do the solar wind plasma and    magnetic field origi...
How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere?Q1) How and where do the solar wind plasma and    magnetic field origi...
Linking in-situ and remote-sensing observations• Correlation between remote-sensing and in-situ composition measurements i...
What are the source regions of the solar windand heliospheric magnetic field?                                             ...
Disentangling Space/Time Structures•…requires viewing a given region formore than an active region growthtime (~ 10 days) ...
How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere?Q1) How and where do the solar wind plasma and    magnetic field origi...
How do CMEs evolve through the corona andinner heliosphere?                                 Coronal shock                 ...
How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere?Q1) How and where do the solar wind plasma and    magnetic field origi...
How and where are energetic particles accelerated?                                              18
How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere?Q1) How and where do the solar wind plasma and    magnetic field origi...
How is magnetic flux transported to and   reprocessed at high solar latitude?Solar Orbiter will use local helioseismology ...
Need to go out of ecliptic plane to observe polar fieldsand flows. Solar Orbiter will characterize the propertiesand dynam...
What is required?•   Close to the Sun•   Out of the ecliptic•   Long duration observations of the same region•   Remote me...
PayloadIn situ instrumentsSWA   Solar wind analyser           Chris Owen, UK      Sampling protons, electrons and heavy io...
PayloadRemote sensing instrumentsPHI      Polarimetric and heliospheric Sami Solanki,            Full-disc and high-resolu...
Remote-sensing Instruments                             25
In-situ Instruments                      26
In-situ Boom-mounted Instruments                                   27
Spacecraft Temperatures                          28
The orbit            29
The orbit            30
Observation Modes                    31
32
Solar Orbiter and the Glasgow A&A group• Co-Investigators on three of Solar Orbiter’s instruments   – STIX: Spectrometer/ ...
Mission Overview         High-latitude         Observations                               Science windows:                ...
Mission Overview         High-latitude         Observations          Summary                               Launch Date: Ja...
Courtesy W.Thompson              36
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Exploring the Sun-heliosphere connection with Solar Orbiter

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This talk was given to Airdrie Astronomy Association on 22 March 2013. Some of the material was borrowed from Daniel Mueller (ESA) and the Solar Orbiter team. More information on Solar Orbiter can be found at http://sci.esa.int/solarorbiter

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Exploring the Sun-heliosphere connection with Solar Orbiter

  1. 1. Solar Orbiter Exploring the Sun-heliosphere connection Nicolas Labrosse School of Physics & Astronomy University of Glasgow With thanks toDaniel Mueller (ESA) and the Solar Orbiter team
  2. 2. The Glasgow Astronomy & Astrophysics group• Conduct research in theory, modelling, and data analysis on a wide range of topics including – Solar physics – Plasma physicsLyndsay Fletcher Declan Diver Eduard Kontar Yours Alec MacKinnon• Also several research fellows, postdoctoral researchers, and postgraduate students making strong contributions 2
  3. 3. Science questions we like to think about• What controls the properties and evolution of stars including the Sun?• How do the Sun and other stars affect their environments?• What fundamental processes operate in astrophysical sources, including the Solar System?• What are the structures, dynamics, and energetics of the Sun?• What processes govern the formation of stars, planets, and the interstellar medium?• How and where does relativistic particle acceleration occurs? 3
  4. 4. Why study the Sun-heliosphere connection?• Addresses ESA’s Cosmic Vision question: – “How does the solar system work?” – “What are the fundamental physical laws of the Universe?”• Study plasma phenomena which occur throughout the Universe – Shocks, particle acceleration, magnetic reconnection, turbulence, etc.• Solar wind and energetic particles directly affect life on Earth• Impact on space and ground-based assets• Builds on European heritage: Ulysses and SoHO 4
  5. 5. Solar Orbiter – The mission to understand howthe Sun creates and controls the Heliosphere LL Ori 5
  6. 6. Solar corona, wind and magnetic activity:an intimate connection to form a dynamic heliosphere 6
  7. 7. How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere– and why does solar activity change with time ? 7
  8. 8. How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere– and why does solar activity change with time ? ? 8
  9. 9. The Mission• Solar Orbiter is a logical and timely next step after Ulysses and SOHO, combining remote sensing and in-situ experiments.• Solar Orbiter carries a dedicated payload of 10 selected remote- sensing and in-situ instruments measuring from the photosphere into the solar wind. 9
  10. 10. How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere?Q1) How and where do the solar wind plasma and magnetic field originate in the corona?Q2) How do solar transients drive heliospheric variability?Q3) How do solar eruptions produce energetic particle radiation that fills the heliosphere?Q4) How does the solar dynamo work and drive connections between the Sun and the heliosphere? 10
  11. 11. How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere?Q1) How and where do the solar wind plasma and magnetic field originate in the corona?Q2) How do solar transients drive heliospheric variability?Q3) How do solar eruptions produce energetic particle radiation that fills the heliosphere?Q4) How does the solar dynamo work and drive connections between the Sun and the heliosphere? 11
  12. 12. Linking in-situ and remote-sensing observations• Correlation between remote-sensing and in-situ composition measurements is fundamental • Heavy ion charge states SPICE and composition • Magnetic polarity SWA/HIS • Energetic particles 12
  13. 13. What are the source regions of the solar windand heliospheric magnetic field? Tu, Zhou, Marsch et al., Science 2005 polar coronal hole coronal funnel 13
  14. 14. Disentangling Space/Time Structures•…requires viewing a given region formore than an active region growthtime (~ 10 days) → implies goingcloser to the Sun.•Multiple sources of slow solar wind –active regions are one source.Identifying the source directly in thewind by the time it gets to 1 AU isextremely challenging and can only becarried out on a statistical basis.•Understanding the detailed physicalprocesses can only be achieved bygetting closer. 14 www.jhelioviewer.org
  15. 15. How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere?Q1) How and where do the solar wind plasma and magnetic field originate in the corona?Q2) How do solar transients drive heliospheric variability?Q3) How do solar eruptions produce energetic particle radiation that fills the heliosphere?Q4) How does the solar dynamo work and drive connections between the Sun and the heliosphere? 15
  16. 16. How do CMEs evolve through the corona andinner heliosphere? Coronal shock 16
  17. 17. How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere?Q1) How and where do the solar wind plasma and magnetic field originate in the corona?Q2) How do solar transients drive heliospheric variability?Q3) How do solar eruptions produce energetic particle radiation that fills the heliosphere?Q4) How does the solar dynamo work and drive connections between the Sun and the heliosphere? 17
  18. 18. How and where are energetic particles accelerated? 18
  19. 19. How does the Sun create and control the Heliosphere?Q1) How and where do the solar wind plasma and magnetic field originate in the corona?Q2) How do solar transients drive heliospheric variability?Q3) How do solar eruptions produce energetic particle radiation that fills the heliosphere?Q4) How does the solar dynamo work and drive connections between the Sun and the heliosphere? 19
  20. 20. How is magnetic flux transported to and reprocessed at high solar latitude?Solar Orbiter will use local helioseismology to determine the currentlyunknown properties of the solar interior below the poles. 20
  21. 21. Need to go out of ecliptic plane to observe polar fieldsand flows. Solar Orbiter will characterize the propertiesand dynamics of the polar regions for the first time. 21
  22. 22. What is required?• Close to the Sun• Out of the ecliptic• Long duration observations of the same region• Remote measurements of the Sun and corona• In situ measurements of fields and particles• It is this unique combination provided by Solar Orbiter that makes it possible to address the question of how the Sun creates and controls the heliosphere 22
  23. 23. PayloadIn situ instrumentsSWA Solar wind analyser Chris Owen, UK Sampling protons, electrons and heavy ions in the solar windEPD Energetic particle detector Javier Rodriguez- Measuring timing and distribution functions of Pacheco, Spain accelerated energetic particlesMAG Magnetometer Tim Horbury, UK High-precision measurements of the heliospheric magnetic fieldRPW Radio and plasma wave Milan Maksimovic, Studying local electromagnetic and analyser France electrostatic waves and solar radio bursts 23
  24. 24. PayloadRemote sensing instrumentsPHI Polarimetric and heliospheric Sami Solanki, Full-disc and high-resolution visible light imager Germany imaging of the SunEUI Extreme ultraviolet imager Pierre Rochus, Studying fine-scale processes and large-scale Belgium eruptionsSTIX Spectrometer/telescope for Arnold Benz, Studying hot plasmas and accelerated imaging X-rays Switzerland electronsMETIS Multi-element telescope for Ester Antonucci, Italy High-resolution UV and extreme UV imaging and spectroscopy coronagraphySoloHI Solar Orbiter heliospheric Russ Howard, US Observing light scattered by the solar wind imager over a wide field of viewSPICE Spectral imaging of the Facility instrument, Spectroscopy on the solar disc and corona coronal environment ESA provided 24
  25. 25. Remote-sensing Instruments 25
  26. 26. In-situ Instruments 26
  27. 27. In-situ Boom-mounted Instruments 27
  28. 28. Spacecraft Temperatures 28
  29. 29. The orbit 29
  30. 30. The orbit 30
  31. 31. Observation Modes 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. Solar Orbiter and the Glasgow A&A group• Co-Investigators on three of Solar Orbiter’s instruments – STIX: Spectrometer/ telescope for imaging X-rays – EUI: Extreme Ultraviolet Imager – RPW: Radio and Plasma Wave analyser 33
  34. 34. Mission Overview High-latitude Observations Science windows: Orbit: 150-168 days In situ instruments on at all times Perihelion Three science “windows” of 10 days eachObservations All remote sensing instruments operational Observing strategies based on science targets Active regions, coronal hole boundaries, flares, high speed wind, polar structures Autonomous burst mode triggers for unpredictable events Telemetry and mass memory tailored to return planned instrument data volumes High-latitude Observations 34
  35. 35. Mission Overview High-latitude Observations Summary Launch Date: January 2017 Cruise Phase: 3 years Nominal Mission: 3.5 years Perihelion Extended Mission: 2.5 yearsObservations Orbit: 0.28 – 0.30 AU (perihelion) 0.75 - 1.2 AU (aphelion) Out-of-Ecliptic View: Multiple gravity assists with Venus to increase inclination out of the ecliptic to >25° (nominal mission), >33° (extended mission) Reduced relative rotation: Observations of evolving structures on the solar surface & heliosphere for almost a High-latitude complete solar rotation Observations 35
  36. 36. Courtesy W.Thompson 36
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