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All of these fall within the general realm of sociocultural theory, which Karen Johnson in her recent book (2009) has defined in the following way:
At its core … the epistemological stance of a sociocultural perspective defines human learning as a dynamic social activity that is situated in physical and social contexts, and is distributed across persons, tools and activities (p 1)
Genetic method (Vygotsky) Microgenetic -- particular event Ontogenetic -- series of events Phylogenetic -- adding to our sum total of knowledge about CALL and its developments See Lantolf and Thorne (2006) for a useful introduction
Fashioning an instrument/ creating a lens (AT)/ Bricolage
There still exists among ourselves an activity which… i s what is commonly called 'bricolage' in French. In its old sense the verb 'bricoler' is applied to ball games and billiards, to hunting, shooting and riding. It was however always used with reference to some extraneous movement: a ball rebounding, a dog straying or a horse swerving from its direct course to avoid an obstacle. And in our own time the 'bricoleur' is still someone who works with his hands and uses devious means compared to those of a craftsman. The characteristic feature of mythical thought is that it expresses itself by means of a heterogeneous repertoire which, even if extensive, is nevertheless limited. It has to use this repertoire, however, whatever the task is in hand because it has nothing else at its disposal. (Claude L ev i -Strauss, 1966  The Savage Mind, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. p 19 [http://varenne.tc.columbia.edu/bib/info/levstcld066savamind.html])
… someone able to perform a whole range of specialist functions or even to employ unconventional methods. It is the notion of a person who makes something new out of a range of materials that had previously made up something different. The bricoleur is a makeshift artisan, armed with a collection of bits and pieces that were once standard parts of a certain whole but which the bricoleur, as bricoleur, now reconceives as part of a new whole. L ev i -Strauss provides an example. The bricoleur has a cube-shaped piece of oak. It may once have been a wardrobe. Or was it part of a grandfather clock? Whatever its earlier role, the bricoleur now has to make it serve quite a different purpose. (Crotty, 1998, p 50)
Ethnography COP Teacher education in 2nd Life Case studies Situated practice/ 3rd generation AT/ teacher beliefs Teachers in their own classrooms Narrative Reconstructive processes/ situated practice MA students at Manchester Methodology Theory /ies Context
Project 1: Narrative research Reconstructive processes 20 students from various countries: 10 onsite and 10 offsite “ The teachers were invited to tell their stories about how they came to us for their professional development, their expectations, the ways in which the course impacted on their thinking and what they have done since they graduated.” (Slaouti and Motteram, 2006, p81) Teachers showed how they had come to understand that it wasn’t simply a matter of gaining knowledge (of various types following Shulman, 1986) and skills, but of exploring these in relationship to the contexts in which they found themselves Our course creation also relies on our own similar reflective processes and own ecology.
Project 2: Researching teachers, technology and context (CUP)
Teacher (370) and learner (178) surveys
Technology access and locations of use
Teacher perceptions of the roles that technology plays
Teacher perceptions of digital resources (bespoke and teacher-created)
Teacher perceptions of EFL materials (digital and print), the role of content providers, and aspirations for the future
17 teachers (Asia, Europe, Middle East, North Africa, South America)
weekly reports of technology use collected from each teacher
detailed reports from teachers on their use of technology in two chosen lessons
documents (photos taken by teachers of their use of technology, teaching materials, links to online resources)
Third generation Activity Theory Engestr öm (2001) Plug and play
Web pages (Web 1.0) Hot Potatoes exercises (Web 1.5) YouTube videos (Web 2.0) Embedded listening Dictionary link UK teacher/ Japanese undergraduate learners Teacher/ Learners/ Other teachers Institution Parents Other learners Higher education Government policies Teacher provides extra materials Learners use and evaluate it Supportive institution Motivated teacher with particular beliefs about the role of technology in language learning Technical infrastructure exists Net savvy learners Materials connected to the syllabus Develop knowledge of the UK/ skills development
The project: Access to Virtual and Action Learning live ONline
Developing a Community of Practice for teachers The domain . A community of practice (COP) is not merely a club of friends or a network of connections between people. It has an identity defined by a shared domain of interest. Membership therefore implies a commitment to the domain, and therefore a shared competence that distinguishes members from other people. The community . In pursuing their interest in their domain, members engage in joint activities and discussions, help each other, and share information. They build relationships that enable them to learn from each other. The practice . A community of practice is not merely a community of interest--people who like certain kinds of movies, for instance. Members of a community of practice are practitioners. They develop a shared repertoire of resources: experiences, stories, tools, ways of addressing recurring problems—in short a shared practice. This takes time and sustained interaction. http://www.ewenger.com/theory/
What does a COP looks like? http://www.ewenger.com/theory/ "Who knows what, and what are we missing? What other groups should we connect with?" Mapping knowledge and identifying gaps "Can we have a tour of z island to see how they are doing this?" Visits “ Let’s use a wiki to keep a track of our work packages." Documentation projects "What do you think of the new Open Source holodeck? Is it going to be useful for your needs?" Discussing developments "Can we work together to make sure that we do a good job on the teacher training course?" Coordination and synergy "I have a proposal for a reward model that we implemented with the students in our school." Reusing assets "Has anyone got experience of teacher training inside 2 nd Life?" Seeking experience “ How can I find out more about Sloodle?" Requests for information "Can we work on the design of the island and brainstorm some ideas; I need your input." Problem solving
Crotty, M. (1998) The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process. London: Sage.
Johnson, K. E. (2009). Second language teacher education: A sociocultural perspective . London: Routledge.
Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development . Oxford: OUP.
L evi -Strauss, C. 1966  The Savage Mind, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. p 19 [http://varenne.tc.columbia.edu/bib/info/levstcld066savamind.html])
Motteram, G. (1999) Changing the research paradigm in Debski, R. and Levy, M. (1999) World CALL: Global perspectives on CALL. Abingdon: Swets & Zeitlinger
Pennington, M. (2002). Pennington, M. (2002) Teacher identity in TESOL http://www.quality-tesol ed.org.uk/downloads/Martha_P's_paper,_AGM_2002.pdf
Roth, W. M., & Lee, Y.J. (2007). Vygotsky’s neglected legacy: Cultural historical activity theory. Review of Educational Research, 77 (2), 186-232.
Salaberry, M. R. (2001) “The use of technology for second language learning and teaching: A retrospective.” MLJ , 85/1.
Shulman, L. S. (1986) Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching, Educational Researcher , 57, pp 1-22.
Slaouti, D. and Motteram, G. (2006) Reconstructing practice: Language teacher education and ICT in Hubbard, P. and Levy. M. (2006) Teacher education and CALL. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Robson, C. (2002) Real world research . Oxford: Blackwell.
Wilson, G. T. 1978 The importance of being theoretical: A commentary on Bandura’s “self-efficacy: towards a unifying theory of behavioral change.” Journal of Adv. Behav. Res. Ther. Vol. 1, pp. 217-230.