2.
Into to functions
Relation- two quantities that are related to
each other by some rule of correspondence
Function- a function f from a set A to B is a
relation that assigns to each element x in the
set A exactly one element y in the set B
Set A is the domain (or set of inputs) of the
function f, and the set B contains the range
(or set of outputs)
3.
Characteristics of a
Function from Set A to Set B
1. Each element A must be matched with and
element in B
2. Some elements in B may not be matched
with any element in A
3. Two or more elements in A may be
matched with the same element in B
4. An element in A (the domain) cannot be
matched with two different elements in B
4.
Four Ways to Represent a
Function
1. Verbally by a sentence that describes how the
input variable is related to the output variable
2. Numerically by a table or a list of ordered pairs
that matches input values with output values
3. Graphically by points on a graph in a
coordinate plane in which the input values are
represented by the horizontal axis and the
output values are represented by the vertical axis
4. Algebraically by an equation in two variables
5.
Function Notation
Input Output Equation
2
x f ( x) f (x) 1 x
•f(x) is read as the value of f at x or
simply f of x
•f(x) corresponds to the y-value for a
given x
•You can write y = f(x)
6.
Example of Finding a
Solution
Let g(x) = - x2 + 4x + 1
g(2)
Replace x with 2 in g(x) = -x2 + 4x + 1
g(2) = -(2)2 + 4(2) + 1
= -4 + 8 + 1
g(2) = 5
7.
A Piecewise-Defined Function
Evaluate the function when x = -1
2
x 1 x 0
f ( x)
x 1 x 0
•Because x = -1 is less than 0, use
f(x) = x2 + 1 to obtain
•f(-1) = (-1)2 + 1
•f(-1) = 2
8.
The Domain of a Function
Implied Domain – set of all real numbers for
which the expression is defined
Domain excludes x-values that result in division by
zero f (x)
1
2
x 4
Another implied domain is one used to avoid even
roots of negative numbers
f ( x) x
9.
Summary of Function
Terminology
Function- relationship between two variables
such that to each value of the independent of
the variable there corresponds exactly one
value of the dependent variable
Function notation: y = f ( x )
f is the name of the function
y is the dependent variable
x is the independent variable
f(x) is the value of the function at x
10.
Terminology Cont.
Domain- is the set of all values (inputs) of the
independent variable for which the function is
defined
Range- set of all variables (outputs) assumed
by the dependent variable
Implied Domain- consists of all real numbers
for which the expression is defined
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