Waterfront Development Principles - TU Delft Thesis 2011
Nicholas Orthodox Socrates - 4123875 TU Delft – AR2A010 – Architectural History Thesis Tutor: Dr. C. Wagenaar (Urbanism After 1775) THESIS 2011 In Relation To Port And Harbor Areas,What Are The Key Factors And Guiding Principles For Major Waterfront Development?
CONTENTSAbstract 5Keywords 6INTRODUCTION 6Case Study 1: BARCELONAʼs Ports & Harbours 6Barcelona Introduction 6The History of the Barcelona Model 7-8The Barcelona Model 8The Barcelona Regeneration Model 8-9Concluding Thoughts on the Barcelona Model 9Port Authority of Barcelona 10The History of the Port 10-11The First Artificial Port 11 th18 Century Draught 11The Works Committee 1968 11The Expansion of Delta 11Port Authority 11The Way Forward 11Logistics Port 11Regular Lines 11-12Strategic Development 12Port Enlargement Works 132008 Developments: East & South Breakwaters 13East Seawall 13South Seawall 13Prat Wharf 14Corrective Measures 14Infrastructure Actions 14Preparation of Areas 14-15Rail Accesses 15Air Quality 15Waste Collection 15Development of the Port Network 16The Zaragoza Goods Terminal 17The Toulouse Goods Terminal 17Perpignan Goods Terminal 18Service Centre for France 18New Barcelona – Lyon Express Rail Service 18FERRMED 18Tanger-Med Logistics Area 18Intermodal Logistics Centre (CILSA) 18-19Leading the Way in CSR 19Stable Cargo 19Boost to Rail Traffic 20Systems & Develoment 20-21More Passengers 21Terminal A - Adossat Wharf 22Terminal B - Adossat Wharf 22Terminal C - Adossat Wharf 22Terminal D - Adossat Wharf – Palacruceros 22Terminals North and South – Barcelona Wharf 22-23Terminal M - Port Vell - Espanya Wharf 23Barcelona Ferry Terminal - Sant Bertran Wharf 23
Terminal Z - Drassanes - Barcelona Wharf 23GUIDING PRINCIPALS 24Port Development & Master Planning 24Long Term Planning 24Medium Term Planning 24Guiding Principles for Port Design 24-25Port Costs 25The Port Masterplan 25Port Location 25Design Criteria 25General Layout of Port Works - Principals 25Port Entrance 25Connections with Inland Areas 26Storage Area 26Review of Existing Port Installations 26General Cargo Terminal 26Bulk Cargo Terminal 26Basic Design Criteria for Marinas 27Water Dependant Uses 27Shipping 27-29BARCELONAʼs Commercial & Leisure Port 30PORT VELL 30The Port Vell Operation in Barcelona 30-31Port Vellʼs Commercial & Leisure Services 31-33Port Vell in relation to the Barcelona Model 33The Barcelona Model in Comparison to Other 33Metropolitan CitiesCase Study 2: The Revitalization of Torontoʼs 34WaterfrontTorontoʼs Waterfront Revitalization 34-35Torontoʼs Waterfront on the World Stage 35-36The Waterfront Scene 36-37An Astonishing Opportunity 37-38The Pressures for Action Now 39-40The Big Challenges 40-41A Strategic Business Plan – The Development 41-44ConceptTorontoʼs Solution 44A Picture of the New Waterfront 44The Central Harbour 44-45The East Bayfront 45The West Bayfront 45The Portlands 45New City Neighbourhoods 45The Olympic District 45The Convergence Centre 45Lake Ontario Park 46Grand Channel District 46The Mouth of the Don River 46The West Donlands 47The Eastern and Western Waterfronts 47-48The Eastern Waterfront 48The Western Waterfront 48-49Phasing of Implementation 49Structures, Powers and Governance 49-50The Financial Concept 50
Land Sales/ Leases (Residential) 50 Infrastructure Spending 50 End-State Impacts 50 Toronto´s Waterfront Design Details 51-52 SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES 53 Building a Sustainable Community 53 Sustainable Land Use 54 Sustainable Transportation 54-55 Sustainable Building 55-56 Air Quality 56 Human Communities 56-57 Cultural Resources 57 National Heritage 57-58 Water 58-59 Minerals and Waste 59 Innovation 59-60 CONCLUSION 61 Compact Design 63 Walkable Mixed-use Communities 63-64 Places where people want to be 64-66 Resilience to Natural Hazards & Climate Change 66 Environmental Conservation 66-67 Bibliography 68-70 Photographs 71!
Nicholas Orthodox Socrates 2011 - 4123875 TU Delft – AR2A010 – Architectural History Thesis In Relation To Port And Harbor Areas, What Are The Key Factors And Guiding Principles For Major Waterfront Development?AbstractThis paper aims to reveal the key factors and the guiding principles for major waterfront development in relation to port and harbor areas;After introducing the city of Barcelona, the Barcelona Model, then the History of Barcelonaʼs Ports Development, this paper will focus in onBarcelonaʼs working ports; understanding the logistics and the infrastructure of these functioning areas, how they are managed and howthey relate, influence, and govern the development of the city.This paper will then look at Barcelonaʼs cruise ship terminals, their services and their importance in relation to the growth of tourism withinthe city.Concluding this section with an overview of guiding principals of Port Master Planning, Port Development & Port Design studying long andmedium term planning, design criteria, shipping & cargo, emphasizing the importance of the ports location and its connections with inlandareas.This paper will shift back to Barcelona, with an in-depth study on Port Vell; Barcelonaʼs very successful, very popular, commercial andleisure waterfront functioning port, as an international tourist attraction and world renowned regeneration project.With a time-line study of the complete history of this port and then an in-depth study into each of Port Vellʼs commercial services, facilitiesand uses.Concluding this chapter by understanding Port Vellʼs importance in relation to the Barcelona Model and how this profound metamorphosisof the port has served to integrate the site into the city and into urban life to the point where, every year, 16 million people visit this multi-purpose spot, as a point of reference for locals and visitors alike.This first case study will be concluded completely by touching upon ʻGreen Urban Planningʼ and the Barcelona Model in relation to othermetropolitan cities.This paper will then shift into its second case study; Torontoʼs Waterfront Revitalization, which is still an ongoing process. This project is avery ambitious, very well planned, polly-faceted, waterfront enterprise, set to revitalize and regenerate, not only by defining Torontoʼscharacter, as a major metropolitan world city, but also acting as a transformative gateway to commerce, culture and tourism for Canadaitself.This study will outline the pressures and motivation behind acting now, the big challenges which lie ahead, and how Toronto arrived at itssolution. Looking at its Strategic Business Plan, its Develop Concept and its different areas, its facets, its ports and harbours, and itsdifferent sections of waterfront.This paper will analyze Torontoʼs Waterfrontʼs phasing of implementation, its structures, powers and governance, whilst looking at thefinancial concept and the infrastructure spending behind this huge regeneration.This section of the paper will be closed by giving several examples of a variety of design details visioned implemented by West 8+DTAH in2007.The study of Toronto continues by looking in detail at its sustainable principals for building a sustainable community, its objectives,strategies and actions taken concerned with; land use, transportation, buildings, air quality, human communities, cultural resources,national heritage, water and minerals and waste.Concluding this paper by offering the most important guiding principals and key elements for waterfront development in relation to mixedland use, compact design, walkable mixed-use communities, the importance of vibrant areas and creating areas where people want to be.The conclusion will close by talking about the resilience to natural hazards and climate change and the importance of environmentalconservation.
KeywordsWaterfront, Development, Revitalization, Regeneration, Toronto, Ports, Harbours, Barcelona. Urban Design, Development, Planning,IntroductionIn many cities, efforts are currently being made to renew the strength of their waterfront. These efforts are supported by severalconditions. Land left vacant by deindustrialization is now cheaper and in many ways prime spots for development. These areas havehigh aesthetic and functional values due to their proximity to the water and the city core. Because of the many potential overlappingjurisdictions of government that are involved, however, detailed planning is essential for such waterfront development andredevelopment. (Mulvihill, 1991).Many different developments can be planned along the urban waterfront. Large-scale mixed-use developments offer many commercialand economic opportunities. These projects contribute a great deal to the process of re-establishing the vitality of the inner city. Othertypes of developments are more social than economic. Parks, water-edge walkways, and environmental conservation all add to thecultural landscape. Of similar importance are restorations and preservations of historical sites along the waterfront. Lastly,marketplaces, festivals, happenings and the like contribute much to an areas well being. They are not only a source of economiccontributions to the city, but they also enhance the culture of the area. (Mann, 1988)Three issues should be considered when building on the waterfront. Urban designers involved in the planning process should firstconsider the functional value of their work. This includes attention paid to accessibility and security. As well as planning flood control,environmental education should also be implemented to ensure protection of the land and wildlife. Finally, the most important aspect ofa proposed development is its contextual fit within the existing landscape. (Breen & Rigby, 1991)This last issue relates to the postmodern trend in architecture. In some ways this movement is a turn away from the modern strive forurbanization. Rather than a collection of glass boxes, postmodern architecture tries to give buildings more character and make themlook welcoming. Buildings are designed as more of an addition to the natural landscape than an intrusion to it. Especially along thewaterfront, then, where cities usually first began, a sense of serenity and natural presence, along with an attention to its historicalimportance, is needed to bring about the areas full worth. Along with this significance, its physical connection to the city and itspreviously mentioned economic and cultural potential make the waterfront a key resource in inner city redevelopment. (Smolski, 1990).In general, the history of urban waterfront developments can be understood from a modified version of the economic rent model (West,1989).This theory of land use is also known as the rule of bid rent for highest and best use. The model was made based on the theory andempirical data that suggest land use is determined by the economic possibilities in each area. The predominant condition of urbanwaterfronts before the late 1950s shows that the city harbor was a central place for business relating to ocean cargo. In addition to thecentral location, industry was also planned along rivers due to an availability of hydropower and easy waste disposal. Many of thesebusinesses were later relocated due to advances in railway and highway transportation. Urban waterfront industry was no longer theleast expensive way of manufacturing and transporting goods. Industry moved to cheaper land because of the ease in transportation, andthe city core became deindustrialized. In the 1960s and 1970s the urban waterfront existed as something of an industrial wastelandbecause of its low economic and social conditions. (Hubbard, 1994)However, the deindustrialization of waterfront areas does not need to cause the complete abandonment of the area. Instead, many otherdevelopments can make use of the waterfront. In many ways the deindustrialization of the waterfront is a blessing. This is because thereis now room for not just industry, but commercial, residential, and public space as well. Therefore, the deindustrialization of thewaterfront, although initially leading to a decline of the areas worth, in the end allows for the rebirth of the waterfront as a more enjoyableand recreational area. (Hubbard, 1994)"The waterfront becomes symbolic of our human limitations – and of our potential. It functions as both a physical and a psychologicalfrontier. By representing what is deep and knowable, it suggests both our hopes and our fears for the future. It is a shimmering mirror whichreflects the sunlight of the day and the city lights of the night, breaking them up into millions of sparkling rays, abstracting and making poeticour work-a-day world." - John Rubin, 2004Great waterfronts are not developed over days or months; they emerge through dedicated action by residents, waterfront users, andcommunity leaders over a number of years, sometimes decades. Each successful project, no matter how small, should bring new strengthto the waterfront, creating a greater economic and social sum of its constituent parts. (Evenius, 2003)Case Study 1: Barcelonaʼs Ports and HarboursBarcelonaBarcelona, located in the north-east of Spain and on the shores of the Mediterranean, is one of the main European metropolises, and thecentre of an extensive metropolitan region made up of more than 217 towns, with a total population of 4.6 million inhabitants. It is theeconomic, cultural and administrative capital of Catalonia and a leader of an emerging business area in the south of Europe, which is madeup of more than 800,000 companies and 17 million inhabitants. Within this Euro-Mediterranean region, which includes the Balearic Islands,Valencia, Aragon and the south- east of France, Barcelona is focusing on new strategic, competitive and international sectors, and it isconsolidating its position as one of Europeʼs principal metropolises. Catalonia, and its capital Barcelona, has always been a welcoming
place for those visiting it. Throughout its history, many different peoples have passed through this land and almost all of them have settledhere. This has made Catalonia a welcoming place, which is tolerant, dynamic and open to anything that is new.Catalonia and Barcelona have now become one of the main economic hubs of Europe. A driver of the Spanish economy, 21st centuryCatalonia is an innovative country with a highly-qualified labour force, an enviable geographical position (at the heart of Europe andconnected to the rest of the world thanks to its Mediterranean ports and its international airports) and top-notch infrastructure and facilitiesthat draw important investments year after year.(The Media Centre in Barcelona, 2007)The History of the Barcelona Model (Abadir, 2005)Barcelona, one of Europes most beautiful and historic cities, has been held up as a model of urban planning and renewal, its public spacesand art renowned internationally, especially since it hosted the 1992 Olympics. Though it cost the city $10 billion (U.S. dollars), the impetustransformed the Mediterranean citys neglected port into a revitalized waterfront and has since led millions of people lining up at its door.But the house of Barcelona is not a continually expanding one. It is a city wedged between the mountains and the sea, and the case ofurban sprawl cannot therefore exist. Highlighting the one main problem of the city… space! Its a battle between tourist dollars, and citizensneeds.Across Europe, housing has re-surfaced on political and urban agendas. But those countries to the south of Europe, particularly Spain,have created a housing crisis that tourism has insufferably affected. Barcelona has a low level of spatial segregation, simply because thereis no space; tourists and natives are forced to live together.In the 1920s Barcelona was the fastest growing city in Europe. The population of Barcelona expanded by 62 per cent during that decadeand adjacent blue-collar suburbs like Hospitalet and Santa Coloma doubled and tripled in population. Modernization and industrializationwere proceeding at a rapid pace. Migrants from nearby regions were flooding into the city to take jobs. By the 1930s the province ofCatalonia, with about 6 million residents, contained about 70% of the manufacturing capacity of Spain.(Photographs: Port de Barcelona, Port Authority, The Port, Maps & Access 2009)The rapid expansion of the city led to a serious housing shortage and a rapid rent inflation that had rent rising up to 150% in many areas.The severe shortage of housing also led to serious problems of overcrowding and deterioration in the kind of housing available to theworking class. There was some public housing — inexpensive concrete buildings — but only 2,200 units had been built. The city reliedoverwhelmingly on the private real estate market to provide housing.Although there were some large-scale private apartment blocks or "estates," much of the housing was provided by a huge class of smallproperty owners. The main landlords organization, the Chamber of Urban Property, had over 97,800 members in the province of Catalonia.Shanty towns began to appear on the outskirts of the city. But these were not shanties built by the residents but by landlords who builtsubstandard dwellings while the authorities looked the other way. By 1927 it was estimated that over 6,000 shanties had been built inBarcelona, housing 30,000 people, with more in surrounding towns. In the older parts of Barcelona many flats or houses were cut up intotiny units. Often the penny-pinching landlords refused to provide water hookups for these new units, even though the city building codeshad required running water since at least 1891. By 1933 it was estimated that 20,000 flats or houses in Barcelona lacked running water.The Economic Defense Commission estimated that 45,000 people were taking part in the rent strike in July of that year, and over 100,000by August. Even if these estimates are a bit exaggerated, clearly, this was a massive rent strike. There were rent strikes going on in all theworking class neighborhoods of Barcelona, and a number of the outlying towns had set up their own Economic Defense Commissions andwere pursuing a similar recourse. It took years for the affects of the strike to deplete. And the government has been trying to balanceaccommodating tourists and natives since."The Governors housing" is a complex of 900 flats of 20 square metres that were built in 1952 to house people living in the slums ofBarcelona; they were privatized during the 60s to avoid maintenance costs and social conflicts. Some years later, the growth of Barcelonareached this marginal neighbourhood, which ended as an "island" of decay in the centre of the new urban outskirts. Its inhabitants grew old,and only the poorest youth remained there. When, drugs and delinquency settled in, the situation worsened and it was only in 1990, afterseveral claims, when the three public administrations (State, Regional and City) reached an agreement. The Catalan Government acceptedthe total renewal of the houses with the financial help from the Ministry responsible for public works and the City Councils commitment torebuild the area.
A new plan was designed together with the Neighbours Association, with the task of keeping everybody in the same quarter and theobjective to standardize that quarter socially as an urban area. The new streets became intertwined with the old nearby ones, the newsquares opened instead of closed, and some old flats that were empty were renewed to house some of the neighbours temporarily. Toexecute the plan, which started in 1992, a private team specialized in managing was contracted. This team, placed on the spot, directed allthe operations of expropriating, pulling down, transferring families, integrating, etc. By the time that fifty percent of the program wasexecuted, results had already become evident: 239 families were given new flats, new commercial activity began, and illegal activitiesdisappeared. And, an episode of degradation that should have never occurred began to slowly vanish from peoples memory.When the 1992 Olympics arrived in the city it brought with it more than a few hundred runners, bikers jumpers and swimmers; millions oftourists flanked the city, certainly a monetary bonus for tourism sectors, but hotels, parking lots, restaurants and the like needed to be builtto accommodate the millions of people that Barcelona would host. There was a problem with space! As the city is built between the sea andthe mountains, urban sprawl is not an option. Meaning housing costs would sky rocket and the people of Barcelona, pushed out of theirown territory. The games indeed did spank a suburban newness to the city, but did little in solving the cityʼs housing shortage.In 2004 Barcelona hosted a different kind of Olympics — a five-month cultural and intellectual forum that was focused on solving the worldʼsproblems.Organizers said theyd expected more than five million visitors to converge on the city for the 2004 Forum of Cultures -- part festival, partmeeting-of-minds on broad themes such as peace, cultural diversity and “sustainable development” (i.e. housing!) For Barcelona, it was achance to recover the international limelight it basked in back in 1992 -- not to mention rake in tourist dollars and for a long-overdue face-lift.And it was an excuse for necessary urban renewal. About $460-million (U.S. dollars) of public and private money went to fund the forumevents, and a whopping $2.6-billion was spent on the festivals infrastructure, including a total transformation of the citys once-marginalizedand crime-ridden northern shore-a neighbourhood called La Mina.With a very shanty-town like history, La Mina was one of the Cultural Forums undertakings; thirty years after the first bricks were laid, theForum set out to create a change in the marginalizing and cramping of its inhabitants. Unfortunately the areas sad legacy left La Mina sotorn with the greatest social deprivation within the Barcelona metropolitan area today, that even the forum was unable to complete therevitalization it set out to do. It still suffers from an urban layout, which has created enclosed streets within a fortress-like setting,marginalized from the outside world. Population and housing densities are very high, homes are of poor quality with very limited livingspace. It has above average numbers living in conditions of poverty, with illiteracy levels running at 25%. Unemployment, employment inthe informal sector and absenteeism from school are all very high. The degradation of the community has been intense, with high crimerates and serious social fracturing.And jarring to the many who advocated it, the forum in La Minas case was a mass failure and was as unsuccessful as it was televised. Butthe touristic dollars it brought into the city out shined the forums “mini” failures. And an anti-globalization group called the Assembly ofResistance to the Forum argued that widely embraced topics such as peace and diversity were just excuses for the city to earn moremoney with tourism. Thus, keeping with the trend to bow to the spending tourist and turn ones head from the arduous native.Barcelonas Federation of Neighbourhood Associations says that the forum was taking priority over more important urban issues such ashealth care and housing. "Housing is a tremendous problem in Barcelona, and thousands of families live without water or electricity. Withjust 10 per cent of what theyve invested in the forum, they could have solved housing problems for 23,000 low-income families," said EvaFernandez, the federation president.Innovative and strategic housing policies have been consistently neglected in the broader political and urban agenda of Spain. Tourism hastaken the stand and as it looks from here, is not coming down anytime soon. Oddly, just two weeks ago, Spains hotel industry reported thegreatest success in three years; seeing a 5 per cent increase in its “Revenue per available room.” The gravity and complexity of housingproblems and of segregation issues are underestimated. Though hoteliers have suffered from problems of overcapacity in the past,Barcelonas public and private developers have been particularly active in this sector and Spanish hotel supply increased by 20% between2001 and 2005 (comparing to less than 1% in France; a drop of 2% in Germany and a growth of only 5% in the United Kingdom during thesame period).(Abadir, 2005)The Barcelona ModelThe Barcelona model, focuses on design issues and the quality of public urban spaces. Whilst also highlighting the capacity to manageunique flagship events such as the 1992 Olympic Games, converting them into levers and strategic instruments of urban renewal andregeneration. Both versions tend to consider the Barcelona model as something singular, something almost unique in the panorama ofinternational urbanism.The "Barcelona model" of local government and management combines strategic insight, political leadership, innovation, professionalmanagement, quality and proximity, civic culture, participation and the involvement of the citizens. It explores some of the elements thathave contributed to an efficient municipal management, that obtained new investment based on the optimization of current expenditure andthat have transformed the city, maintaining an important level of consensus of the citys population.(Francisco - Javier Moncl, 2003)The Barcelona Regeneration Model• International events are used to enhance prestige, attract private investment and to focus and motivate the citys workforce.• Buildings and infrastructure constructed for the events are of very high quality and serve a double purpose: for short-term use during the
event itself and as a means of regenerating a decaying area of the city in the long-term.• The use of low-paid immigrant labour and multiple sub-contracting in the construction industry.• The city is seen as the sum of its neighborhoods, rather than comprising of distinct parts. This discourages a bit-meal approach toregeneration and instead emphasizes the building of communities.• Public intervention is linked to the demands of the local community.• A reduction in urban density of 20%.• The radical transformation of the perimeters of the worst affected areas. It is easier to begin the transformation process where thedeterioration is not so significant.• Careful planning of public building locations to encourage regeneration and prevent duplication.• Buildings of heritage value are conserved for public use such as schools, libraries, offices, cultural centres, etc..• The introduction of mixed new land uses into an area, including service industries, office and retail, private and public housing.• The encouragement of innovative architecture and thinking.• Investment in transport infrastructure to improve accessibility. This increases opportunities for economic and social activity.• A deliberate policy of introducing a new social mix into deprived neighborhoods.• The creation of new communal open spaces in strategic areas to encourage social mixing. The open spaces are created well before newbuilding development commences.• A flexible rather than rigid approach to planning.• A policy of spreading new retail and service industries throughout the city, particularly in central areas to retain vibrant communities.• A block on new out-of-town shopping centre developments.• Compulsory purchase of buildings in very poor condition in order to renovate them using public funds.• Building renovations completed to a high standard, both interior and exterior.• Tax incentives and grants to refurbish properties.• Strong political and local leadership to drive the regeneration process.• Education, job training, health, crime and leisure initiatives to help tackle the social problems of illiteracy, poor health, and highunemployment.• Collaboration between the Leisure and Social Services Departments to tackle social exclusion amongst the disaffected young. Leisureamenities in schools are kept open until late into the evening.(Barcelona Field Studies Centre S.L, 2004)Concluding Thoughts on the Barcelona ModelThe main point to highlight is that the Barcelona model has been extremely successful in the renewal and redevelopment of the existingnuclei of the city – the centre and other metropolitan nodes. At the same time, however, it has limitations as an alternative to the extensiveand dispersed form of urban planning so characteristic of North American and, increasingly, other European cities. What is being faced isnot a reference in the struggle for a greener and sustainable urban planning. Not even examples of high quality landscaping can detractfrom a lack of effective control of the new urban landscape and of the ʻnew peripheriesʼ, even though they may be interesting palliatives. Itis understandable, therefore, that those who analyze Barcelonaʼs experience from the outside have focused on the impressive results ofqualitative and strategic urban planning. With regard to the former component of the model – qualitative urban design – it seems clear thatthe ʻreconstruction of Barcelonaʼ initiated strongly in the first part of the 1980s, constitutes an improved version of what has been carried outsubsequently in other cities. For its quality and integration, Richard Rogersʼ affirmation regarding the ʻ20 year time lagʼ in relation to theBritish cities does not seem exaggerated. A vast number of high quality redevelopments and urban improvements have been carried out inthe central areas, maintaining and increasing the vitality and urban quality of the different urban ʻcentresʼ (taken to mean not just the officialcentral business district, but also all the central nuclei of the metropolitan region of Barcelona). It is precisely here where the most creativeand novel aspects of the ʻmodelʼ have been demonstrated. All of this, despite the perhaps excessive trust in the ʻgood designʼ, can help toexplain not only the scant consideration for the wider metropolitan problem, but also what occurred at the same time in the cityʼs newrecreation/leisure and cultural commercial areas. In this sense, it is important not to lose sight of the nature of these successful new public/private spaces, such as Maremagnum at Port Vell, La Maquinista and Glorias. These large-scale shoppingCentres, which have experienced a genuine boom, contrasting with (or complementing, according to the optimists) the urban quality of thetraditional squares and streets.In the case of the Illa Diagonal development, it involved an intrinsically interesting model of urban design that, especially in its exterior, wassomewhat removed from the rhetoric of the Mediterranean city. Yet, the design also facilitated the developmentʼs redefinition in use, in themore private and autonomous sense. Turning to the second component of the Barcelona model – the strategic planning associated initiallywith the preparations for the Olympic Games – this has been subsequently maintained with as much, if not more, energy. This haspromoted Barcelona into a high position in the international urban ranking.The negative consequences, relating to polarization and social exclusion, so much denounced in other cities, do not appear to have beenproduced in Barcelona. This is despite the greater importance given in the last post-Olympic phase to the logic of the private sector andʻflexibleʼ planning, whereby certain processes of a clearly North American origin, such as marketing and theme labeling of the city, haveaccelerated. These correspond to a highly ʻglobalizedʼ type of planning – especially that associated with Strategic Plans – which at thesame time has converted Barcelona into a reference for other cities, especially those in Spain and Latin America.In any event, the capability demonstrated by the ʻnew Barcelonaʼ to borrow, adapt and elaborate original syntheses relating to the mostadvanced formulae of international urban planning culture, allows one to consider the possible reorientation of its objectives and urbanplanning strategies over the next few years. In particular, the operations associated with the Forum of Cultures 2004 will probably indicateBarcelonaʼs capacity to tackle the challenges that are still outstanding. Until now, the notable success of city marketing strategies, linked tothe new ʻsymbolic economyʼ or ʻcultural economyʼ and based upon urban tourism, the media and leisure, contrasts with much less attentionpaid to other important aspects: public transport and, above all, housing. Tackling these issues in a more convincing way would mark asecond stage of a wide reaching and really successful ʻplanning modelʼ, although likely to remain somewhat under-proportioned in relation
to the concerns with image and economics.Thus, the ʻculture of the cityʼ as a promoter of values (as advocated by the Eurocities movement) would remain, for the time being, notablysubordinate to culture as a motor of industrial, economic and tourism development.(Francisco-Javier Moncl, 2004)(Maps: Port de Barcelona, Port Authority, The Port, Maps & Access 2009)Port Authority of Barcelona• The State Port and Merchant Navy abolished the Works Committees and the Autonomous Ports and created the body, ʻState PublicPortsʼ. Its objective was to coordinate and control the efficiency of the port system, as well as the port authorities and to be responsible forthe port management. For this reason, the Port of Barcelona was renamed the Port Authority of Barcelona• Barcelona has become the Mediterranean city with the largest increase in tourism. The Olympic Games of 1992 gave the perfectopportunity for the world to be aware of the potential tourist virtues of the city. The Port of Barcelona was able to rise to the occasion for thisevent by accommodating up to eleven big cruise ships in its installations, which acted as floating hotels.• From that moment on, the number of cruises and passengers has not stopped increasing, given that, it has allowed the Port of Barcelonato become the most important tourist port in Europe in the last few years. (Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Port Authority,General Plan 2009)The History of the Port• Many of the ancient historians and poets have referred to this port: Avieno, Pomponio, Mela, Pliny,Ptolemy...• In 1903 a tombstone was found, near the cemetery of Montjuic, which commemorates Caius Coelius,who had ordered to build walls and gates to fortify this port area with proven defensive intentions.• Barcelona started the building of walls around it when the first barbarian invasions started, in the year263 A.D. Since then, the city has grown in importance and there are multiple references to it, still situatedto the south of the mountain of Montjuic.• Between the years 1164 and 1285, during the reigns of Alfonso II, Pere II, Jaume I and Pere III, the city
became the unquestionable maritime capital of the King and Queen of Aragon. From these years the project arised to install a RoyalShipyard; the famous Drassanes, that even now, today, we all know. The date is not certain, but it is true that in the year 1378, the city ofBarcelona asked Pere IV to restart the port works begun origanally by Pere III, which were interrupted due to severe storms. In those days,the area from the Shipyard to the city, was commonly used as an anchoring place, since the old port situated to the south of Montjuic wasfilled with sand due to the advance of the river and its delta. For this reason, it lost the advantage of being a sheltered area.• The weak protection offered by the anchorage of Barcelona to the ships anchored in that inlet under the terrible east windstorms, causedcountless ship-wrecks throughout the 10th to 12th centuries. The inhabitants of Barcelona decided to unite their efforts in order to build asafer artificial port to benefit and make easier the loading and unloading of commercial operations and to develop the maritime commercewhich the city required. (Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, History of the Port, 2009)The First Artificial Port • The dream of having a safe port, which in this part of the Catalonian coast meant to have an artificial port, didnʼt start to be insinuated until the 8th of December of 1438: King Alfonso V the Magnanimous bestowed to the ministers of the city of Barcelona the privilege of building a port and its wharfs, in the way and place that they chose. • The works for the construction of the wharf started that same year, although a decade later, the storms that battered the coast destroyed all their efforts. • In the reign of Juan II, on the 20th of September of 1477, the laying of the first stone of a wharf, which was to be definitive and was 103 meters length, took place, arriving to the sand island of Maians, in front of where the Local Representation of the Government is located today. This wharf was baptized with the name of the Holy Cross, and astime went by, it was known as the Old wharf, and it constitutes the real gem of the artificial and external Port of Barcelona, where the menand the city were allied in order to fight against the elements and storms to produce a useful and safe port.• The basic port shelter was the East dock, and from the Maians island it was progressively expanded to the South and to the Southwest. Inparallel to the sands carried by the sea which were piled up, in inconsiderable amounts, on the beach to the East of this site; the alluviumsoil from the Besós river formed a deposit. The Barcelonetaʼs district laid its foundations precisely on these lands gained to the sea, and thesea-landers and fishermen are the ones that historically lived in this Barceloneta neighborhood. (Information & Photographs: Port deBarcelona, History of the Port, The First Artificial Port, 2009) th18 Century Daught• The enlargements did not stop. In the year 1723, the East Dock was extended to the actual fishermenʼswharf and in 1772, during Carlos III, the Linterna tower was built. Nowadays it has become the clock tower. • The port needed more depth. In the year 1743, the sand had formed a barrier, which was extended from theend of the East dock to the Pulgas tower (where the Portal de la Pau and Columbus monument stands). Thesecircumstances forced the closing of the port. The solution to the draught problems was not overcome until1916, with the extension of the breakwater, which in 1882 reached where the floating dock is located today. • It still remained another problem that the new sand barrier formed from the natural reaction arisen due the change of the flows of the sea, which was solved with the extension of the East Dock and the construction of an outer sea wall. The result of this is that the new entrance is defined from the end of the East Dock to the new wharf, which divides the coast at the bottom of the mountain of Montjuic, where the Ponent wharf is located today. (Information & Photographs: Port de Barcelona, History of the Port, S.XVIII: Draught, 2009The Works Committee 1968• With the progressive improvements, a real and effective external port was finally built, free of piled upsoils and sands and having a sheltered water area of around 110 hectares. Between the years 1877 and1882 the first cross-wharf was built, where the Barcelona wharf is located today.• The works were carried out without rest. In 1926 a new extension of the East dock was finished and inthe year 1958, it began its expansion to the south. In 1912 and in 1962 a new outer sea wall was built asthe port advanced to the southwest. In the year 1968 the external port had a sheltered water area ofaround 500 hectares. (Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, History of the Port, 1868: WorksCommittee, 2009)The Expansion of Delta 1966• The advance of the port from northeast to southwest makes it surpass the mountain ofMontjuic. In the year 1966 the construction of an internal port started. In the LlobregatDelta, the area was dredged and 250 new hectares are added to the port site. Twothousand years later, the commercial activity of the port of Barcelona returns to itsoriginal location, to the west of the mountain of Montjuic.
• The Statute of Autonomy of the port granted, in the year 1978, the end of a solid historical tradition of the port of Barcelona. It is thenconsidered, ʻa public entity acting in a mercantile regimeʼ. At the same time, it opened the doors to a period full of future possibilities. In theyear 1987 it also started to develop a Strategic Plan, an ambitious project, which affected all the activities of the Port Community.(Information & 4 Photographs: Port de Barcelona, History of the Port, 1966: Expansion by Delta, 2009)The Way Forward• There has been a lot of work done over the last few years to organize the zone into areas, in accordance with the different specializedterminals, in order to obtain the efficiency objectives that business demands. The importance of container traffic should be highlighted as itis a key factor in making the Port of Barcelona - the first logistics platform in Southern Europe.• With so many years of effort and hope, a polyvalent port has been created, which is composed of three fundamental zones: Port Vell (theOld Port), the commercial port and the logistics port. In spite of this, the forecasted growth in traffic for the new millennium has encouragedus to keep on working. Thatʼs why a historic fourth enlargement is about to emerge by diverting the mouth of the River Llobregat 2 km to thesouth, doubling the present Port area in size. The Plan foresees that in 2050, the area will reach 1,265 hectares, a milestone, which boththe city of Barcelona and its citizens deserve. (Port de Barcelona, History of the Port, The Way Forward, 2009)Logistics Port• The Port of Barcelona is set up as a large network of facilities and services spread out throughout the region, accessible to clients andoffering comprehensive door-to-door logistics services.• The port premises, in addition to being a major territorial and economic infrastructure, serve as the hub for this set of service centres (portterminals, the Logistics Activities Area, inland maritime terminals, intermodal terminals, depots, etc.), which have global reach and arelinked by multimodal transport corridors.• At these facilities, which operators manage in a decentralized fashion, clients have access to a wide range of handling, transport, logisticsand value-added services that facilitate their foreign-trade operations.• The Port of Barcelona is set up as a large network of facilities and services spread out through out the region, accessible to clients andoffering comprehensive door-to-door logistics services.• The port premises, in addition to being a major territorial and economic infrastructure, serve as the hub for this set of service centres (portterminals, the Logistics Activities Area, inland maritime terminals, intermodal terminals, depots, etc.), which have global reach and arelinked by multimodal transport corridors. At these facilities, which operators manage in a decentralized fashion, clients have access to awide range of handling, transport, logistic sand value-added services that facilitate their foreign-trade operations. The Port of Barcelona ownbrand-name services -the e-commerce platform and PortIC document interchange, the quality standards and guarantees and the CustomerService Department- make it easier for users to arrange and track their shipments. (Port de Barcelona, The Port, Logistics, 2009)(Photographs: Port de Barcelona, The Port, Logistics, 2009)Regular LinesThe Port of Barcelona connects with over 825 ports worldwide through established regular shipping lines, and with its hinterland through anextensive network of road and rail infrastructure. It is both a hub port and a premier transhipment centre for direct ocean lines. (Port deBarcelona, Regular Lines, 2009)
Latitude: 41° 21ʼ N Tides: Width: 125 cm North entrance mouthLongitude: 2° 10ʼ E Draughts: Up to 16 m Orientation: 191.8° Width: 370 m Draught: 16 mWarehousing: Wharves and berths: 20.3 km South entrance mouthCovered: 121,035 m2 Ro-ro ramps: 32 Orientation: 205°Open: 2,941,339 m2 Tug operators: 9 Width: 145 m Wharf cranes: 29 Draught: 11.5 mDry dock: Floating dock: Land area:Length: 215 m Length: 120 m 828.9 haBreadth: 35 m Breadth: 19 mCapacity: up to 50,000 t Lifting capacity: up to 4,500 t(Port de Barcelona, The Port, Logistics, 2009) (Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, pages 2, 3 & 37)!Strategic DevelopmentThe forecasted reduction in traffic due to falling worldwide demand, is already beginning to show,and the enlargement projects of other ports that are underway and will soon be up and running,will spell greater competition in the immediate future. In this light, Barcelona Port Authority (APB)has conducted a detailed analysis and has reaffirmed the validity of its strategic axes: enlargingthe network port, improving port services - including land accessibility and intermodality - andfostering a far-reaching cultural change within the organization. The contraction of expectationsand available resources has led to the rethink of priorities in terms of activities, which must bedynamic and attuned to the present situation. The current option is to focus on objectives thatcan help the Port to strengthen its market and customer orientation and improve efficiency,quality and productivity to generate a sufficient competitive edge. One move that was particularlysuccessful in this connection in 2008 was the boost given to extending the hinterland deeper intothe Iberian Peninsula and France, with the consolidation of the port terminal projects, dry portsand rail corridors serving these areas and attracting new cargoes. This line of activity will be (Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Annualenhanced in the coming years, as will the search for synergies with the Port of Tarragona to Report, 2008, page 5)!achieve a more advantageous position in the shared hinterland.The underlying aim is to take a deeper look at cultural change in the organization, based on three pillars;
• Competitiveness: identifying the situation of the Port of Barcelona with regard to other ports, while considering possible short andmedium-term scenarios.• Consistency: recognising consistencies and inconsistencies in the current culture and describing the desired culture for achieving acompetitive port in the current environment.• Commitment: working on priority lines of action in the fields of management, activity and people, as the manifestation of the commitmentto the new culture.(Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, pages 6-7)Port Enlargement Works……model barcelonaFrom 2008 to 2010 the Port of Barcelona, is currently immersed in the most ambitious period of its growth in its history.The completion of the works to enlarge the East seawall and build the South seawall, and the coastal corrective measures.The Port Enlargement Works Commissioner coordinates these activities, which are covered in the Llobregat delta infrastructures andenvironment plan (the Delta Plan), which will make it possible to rescale areas and double the area available at the Port to 1,300 hectares.The new seawalls are the key to generating 439 hectares of new port land, which will gradually be regained from the sea, to house newterminals mainly dedicated to container traffic. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 28)2008 developments: The East and South breakwaters.These structures define the new profile of the port and create nearly 800 hectares of sheltered waters necessary to house new wharvesand therefore to allow new activity. This milestone also arrives at a very important time. The Port has been able to take advantage of 15years of growth in its traffic and profits to undertake the enormous financial, environmental and technical investment needed to generate theinfrastructure that will serve the city for decades to come. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 6)East seawall The enlargement of the East seawall was completed on 18 November 2008, after 82 months, and was built by the UTE Dique Este, a temporary group comprising FCC Construcción S.A. (35%), Ferrovial- Agroman S.A. (25%), Construcciones Rubau S.A. (25%) and Copisa Constructora Pirenaica S.A. (15%). The work involved building a 2,025 metre long emerging/ sloping seawall crowned at a height of +12.00 m, which extends the existing seawall. The main mantle is made of 50-tonne Parallelepiped concrete blocks at the base, and 80-tonne blocks at the pier head. The project involved: • dredging 1.23 million cubic metres of material; • laying 2.89 million tonnes of riprap classified between 500 kg and 5 tonnes; • tipping 10.60 million tonnes of quarry ballast; • using 579,210 cubic metres of concrete, 77% for building the blocks and 33% for superstructure and surfaces. The total cost of the works was 213 million EUR, 53% of which was co-financed by the EU Cohesion Fund, and the rest with own funds, not from the general state budget. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, pages 28-29)(Photograph: Port de Barcelona,Annual Report, 2008, page 28)!South seawall The South seawall was built in three stretches, the last of which was filled in on 17 July 2008. The works lasted 74 months for the first and second stretches, plus another 44 months for the third. The first part (Stretch I) involved building an emerging sloping seawall two km long and crowned at a height of +9.0 metres. Its main mantle comprises 60-tonne parallelepiped concrete blocks. The second part (Stretch II) is 1.7 km long and is different to the first. This seawall is built with prefabricated concrete caissons, comprising empty circular cells 3.65 metres in diameter. The caissons are buoyant and were transported to the site by sea. Once the caissons were anchored, the cells were filled with sand to provide solidity and guarantee the necessary stability of the structure. The caissons rest on a bed of quarry ballast with a cross-section of more than 200 metres. In this case, the waves do not break directly against (Photograph: Port de the seawall, but are reflected onto it, advising this particular type of construction and avoiding the need for soBarcelona, Annual Report, much quarry material, thus lowering the overall cost of the work. In addition, this solution will allow the future2008, page 30)! extrados of the seawall (on the inner side) to form an attached wharf for new terminals. The work on Stretches Iand II can be summarised as follows:• 1.94 million cubic metres of material dredged;• 9.68 million tonnes of quarry ballast and 3.03 million tonnes of riprap classified between 1.5 and 6 tonnes tipped;• 10.42 million kg of steel forged for reinforcing;• 429.76 million m3 of concrete used, 129.46 million m3 for making the protection blocks, 186.10 for the caissons and 114.20 for thesuperstructure and surfaces.The last stretch of the South seawall (Stretch III) is a 1.1 km emerging seawall, the first 1,000 metres comprising a sloping section with 40-tonne parallelepiped concrete blocks on the main mantle, and the last 100 metres - the pier head - with a vertical section similar to StretchII. The budget for this project was 113.48 million EUR.
The main parts of the project were:• 0.91 million cubic metres of material dredged;• 1.55 million tonnes of classified quarry riprap, ranging from 150 kg to 4 tonnes;• 5.36 million tonnes of quarry ballast brought by land and sea;• 22,350 m3 for caissons, 149,650 m3 of concrete for blocks and 58,280 m3 for the sheltering wall and surfaces,• 1.82 million kg of steel.(Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, pages 29-30)(Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 29)Prat WharfThe Prat wharf, the first of the enlargement of the area, has now taken shape. The 1,500-metre stretch constitutes the line of the firstcontainer terminal in the port enlargement area on the west side of the dock. It will occupy nearly 100 hectares of land regained from thesea. One significant characteristic of this future terminal, with a capacity for 2.5 million containers per year, is that it will be the first semi-automated wharf in Spain and one of the first in the world. The building of the first 1,500 metres of the Prat wharf was divided into twophases. The Prat Wharf Phase I, which was started in 2004 and finished in autumn 2005, involved 1,000 metres of berthing line. It was builtwith 18.5 metre wide reinforced concrete caissons and one-metre footing each side to reach the 20.5 metre width on the floor. The caissonsthat were finally built were 41.31 metres long and 17.5 metres high, with a depth at water level of -16.00 m. Phase II, which is 500 metreslong, was built between December 2005 and October 2006 and comprises 12 reinforced concrete caissons 13.56 wide on the foundationslab and 12.07 metres at the shaft, 41.30 metres long and 18.00 metres high. The extrados in this phase was built with granular material,with a depth at water level of -16.50 m. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 30)Corrective Measures The port enlargement not only represents a great potential for growth in logistics, but will also provide the legacy of a beach. One of the corrective measures of the environmental impact declaration involved the generation of a new beach stretching along two kilometres of coastline next of the new right bank of the river. A specific habitat has also been created to maintain and protect the autochthonous fauna, especially(Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008,the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinuspage 31)! Linneaeus).All of these works are the physical base on which the Port can grow. This growth is both quantitative(new wharves, cranes and accesses) and qualitative (new shipping lines, better customer service,new connections with Europe) and should consolidate it as the core of the main Mediterraneanlogistics platform and, along with the actions foreseen in the Delta Plan, make it one of the nervecentres of the European communications network. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page31)Infrastructure ActionsThroughout 2008 Barcelona Port Authority (APB) dedicated a total of 142.75 million EUR to (Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 32)!
infrastructure works, representing more than 70% of total investment by the authority and approximately 10% more than the previous year.A large part of the investment was dedicated to the works on the southern enlargement of the Port of Barcelona (above). (Port deBarcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 32)Preparation of AreasThe work is aimed at remodeling existing areas, especially within the reorganization of the Port of Barcelonas container terminals, involvedthe following projects:• Development of the Álvarez de la Campa wharf. This project, which is now complete, involved redeveloping road accesses to the wharf,with the adaptation of the two roundabouts and the roads converging upon them.• Enlargement of the South wharf. The works currently underway will create 18 hectares of new port land. The project includes removing thecurrent pier of the Compañía Logística de Hidrocarburos (CLH), building a new wharf line between the South and Álvarez de la Campawharves and a new terrace for loading, unloading and handling containers.• Berth for liquid bulk carriers. In response to the increase in liquid bulks handled in the Port of Barcelona, work has begun to build a newberth for carriers between 180 and 275m long, to be located in the Inflammables Wharf.• Enlargement of the Border Inspection Post (BIP) building. The BIP service checks that perishable products from third world countriesentering EU territories with all the appropriate health guarantees. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 32) t(Photographs: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, pages 33 & 32)Rail accessesThe building of rail infrastructures guarantees dynamism and speed in the entry and exit of goods to the port area and allows it to extend itsarea of influence. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 34)Air qualityBarcelona Port Authority (APB) continued to work hand in hand with the Catalan Department of the Environment and Housing to apply theAir Quality Improvement Plan in the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona, rolling out measures to reduce NOx and PM10 emissions affectingthe Port. Such measures include modernizing the fleet of trucks involved in the Proatrans P+ programme; electrifying vessels duringstopovers; and fostering the use of rail cargo traffic to take such cargo off the roads. The demolition of the Porta Coeli building on theAdossat Wharf and the storms at the end of the year put various pieces of equipment for the weather and air quality surveillance network(including the P1-Porta Coeli ozone measuring station) out of service. This event provided an opportunity to renew the equipment andrestructure the network to adapt it to the new configuration of the port area and the new functions under the environmental monitoringprogramm of the port works. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 36)Waste collection1,965 tonnes of waste were gathered by the Port of Barcelona, 26% less than in 2007. The remaining waste for specific management stoodat 507 tonnes. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 37)
(Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 37) circuit (Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 37)Development of the Port NetworkBarcelona Port Authority continued to roll out its strategy of growth based on distributing port services and networked logistics in 2008. Thistwo-fold approach, coordinated by the Strategy and Development Department, involves designing and reinforcing different kinds of servicecentres – logistics areas, inland goods terminals, intermodal terminals, warehouses and so on – and also providing the infrastructures andservices of the multimodal transport corridors connecting these centres with the Port of Barcelona. The idea is for Port customers to be ableto access a wide range of handling, transport, logistics and added-value services for their external trade operations in these facilities, whichare managed in a decentralised way by the operators. At the same time, the Port of Barcelonas brand services – the Port CommunitysPortIC telematic platform, quality standards and guarantees and the customer service – allow them to organize and monitor their cargo.(Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 39)The Zaragoza goods terminal The Zaragoza goods terminal (tmZ), in operation since 2001, acts as a service platform for imports and exports from Aragon, Navarre and La Rioja. It offers a whole series of differentiated services to professional users (shipping agents, freight forwarders, logistics operators) and, by extension, to importers and exporters. These services include container consolidation and deconsolidation, warehousing and additional services, and customs warehouses; container logistics (empty container storage, warehousing, handling, cleaning and repair, full container handling and a transhipment area for road vehicles): transport services between Barcelona and Zaragoza, and local collection and distribution. The terminal acts as a neutral operator, allowing any freight agent or professional using maritime transport to plan, organizeand/or monitor all the movements of their goods as they pass through the Port of Barcelona. The tmZ facilities at Mercazaragoza cover120,000 m2, with a 6,000 m2 logistics warehouse and an 8,000 m2 container depot which can be enlarged to 41,000 m2. This year thesefacilities have been completed with a 50,000 m2 rail terminal connected to the main network which now provides a regular, competitive andhigh-quality service to rail operators and, by extension, to Aragonese freight agents. Zaragozas location on the Barcelona–Madrid–Lisbonrail axis, at the nerve centre of the communications network of the north of the peninsula, makes the tmZ rail terminal the origin, destinationand strategic intermediate terminal for traffics from the Port of Barcelona and the rest of Spain and Portugal. The most outstanding indicatorof the tmZʼs activity is the number of movements in its container depot - a total of 27,912 TEU this year (trains and trucks), with 224 trains(112 incoming and 112 outgoing) providing 6,553 TEU. The rail terminal makes the tmZ logistics platform more accessible and dynamic forthe entry and exit of goods. (Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, pages 39-40)The Toulouse goods terminal The Port of Barcelona also operates the Toulouse goods terminal (tmT), a similar initiative in the south of France. Set up in 2002, the tmT brings the Port closer to its potential customers in the French Midi region and serves to extend its area of influence and carry port services to the freight agents located north of the Pyrenees. In sum, it taps into new traffics starting and/or ending in the French departments of Midi-Pyrenées and Aquitaine. CILSA, the company that manages the Logistics Activities Area (ZAL) of the Port of Barcelona, is responsible for developing the tmT project in the new facilities of the Eurocentre logistics platform 20 km outside Toulouse. The terminal will offer a 17-hectare logistics activities area with space for local and Port of Barcelona international maritime trade operators to set up, in addition to a ContainerFreight Station in the remaining three hectares. The first logistics warehouses are due to became available in 2009. (Information &
Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 40)Perpignan goods terminal Perpignan, just 187 kilometres north of Barcelona, is another major logistics and communications node due to its location on two of the Port of Barcelonaʼs strategic land transport corridors: Toulouse – Bordeaux and Montpellier – Lyon – Southern Germany – Northern Italy. It is an exceptionally-located site for intermodal connections of French and European traffic to Barcelona. This has led the Port to initiate procedures for setting up a goods terminal in Perpignan. The first step was to acquire 5% of the shares of the Local Joint Venture Limited Company, Perpignan/Saint Charles Conteneur Terminal. This company manages a rail terminal located next to the Saint Charles market, one of southern Europes main logisticsand distribution centres for vegetables and fresh produce, and other types of goods. The Port of Barcelona aims to implement a goodsterminal in the short term, and has already signed an agreement to develop a 30-hectare ZAL. (Information & Photograph: Port deBarcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 40)Service centre for France The Port of Barcelona has plans for France that are more ambitious than its presence at the facilities in Toulouse and Perpignan and its future sites in Lyon and Northern France. In 2008 various specialised services were created for French customers, under the collective term Service Centre for France. The Port uses this concept as a vector for offering free, tailormade support in the physical and documentary operations involved in the movement through the port. It provides the support of consultants facilitators specialized in setting up efficient logistics chains through the Port, and a team dedicated to creating rail services with France. The increased flows of goods originating or ending in France that passed through the Port of Barcelona were the result of the efforts of the Port Community. The process was also facilitated by sweeping changes in Community Customs rules, which have harmonizedprocedures with other EU countries. One result of this is that a tax representative is no longer required. Another, perhaps the mostimportant, is that French and non-French hauliers are now free to transport containers by land in and out of the Port of Barcelona.(Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, pages 40-41)New Barcelona - Lyon Express Rail ServiceIn the Barcelona – Lyon corridor, the APB has been involved as the business developer and the facilitator of the creation of a new railservice linking the Port of Barcelona with the main cities and regions of France that generate external trade. By virtue of the agreementsigned with Renfe Operadora and Naviland Cargo, a specific offer of rail services has been designed for this corridor. The service startedoperating early in 2009 with three weekly trips in each direction. The ʻBarcelyon Expressʼ service connects the Port of Barcelonas twocontainer terminals (TCB and TerCat) with the Naviland Cargo rail terminal in Vénissieux (Lyon) at the centre of one of the main logisticsnodes in France. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 42)FERRMEDThe APB is an active member of the FERRMED association, set up to promote the Western Mediterranean – Rhone – Rhine – ScandinaviaEuropean goods rail axis between Algeciras (South Spain) and Stockholm. FERRMEDs activity focuses on performing a technical,socioeconomic and supply and demand study including the entire area of influence of the axis. The studys conclusions should serve toinclude this major axis as a priority project in the forthcoming review of the European Commissions European transport policy in 2010. TheSpanish government has already expressed its support to the association in this matter. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 42)Tanger-Med Logistics AreaThe expansion of the Ports hinterland will also mean a greater presence on the southern shore of the Mediterranean. In April 2008, thePort of Barcelona and TangerMed signed a cooperation agreement to enhance their mutual relations. This also involves the Port ofBarcelona developing a logistics area in Tangier to serve the operators of the routes between Spain and Morocco that use these ports. ThePort of Barcelona will operate a ten hectare logistics area, five hectares of which will be in the logistics tax free zone and five hectares in theTangerMed dry port area. The strategic focus of the ports network is the APBs response to market demands and a way of contributing tothe strategic aim of making the Port a large distribution concentration and logistics centre for Mediterranean cargo. This involves providingtransport and logistics services inside and outside the Port by forging alliances with other external operators to attend to increasinglyglobalised production and distribution needs. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 42)Intermodal Logistics Centre (CILSA) This year the Intermodal Logistics Centre (CILSA) continued to roll out the second phase of the Port of Barcelonas 143- hectare Logistics Activities Area (ZAL) located at El Prat de Llobregat, South West from the Barcelona centre, situated in the delta of the Llobregat river, also occupied by the Barcelona Airport. The foundations for its success are its strategic location, allowing goods to be distributed efficiently ! !"#$%$&()#*+"$%+,-+ .(/-0$1(2+3114(0+5-)$%2+ to the markets of the Iberian Peninsula, the south of France, 67782+)(&-+9<;+ Italy, and North Africa; a flexible offer of high-quality buildings which meet all the new standards on fire prevention; and a !"#$%$&()#*+"$%+,-+.(/-0$1(2+3114(0+5-)$%2+67782+ )(&-+9:;+ !
wide range of complementary services for companies and individuals. This responds to CILSAs intention to generate synergies among thedifferent operators and achieve economies of scale by managing different common services. All the companies that set up in the ZAL mustcontribute to helping the Port of Barcelona to achieve its goal of growing into the first Euromediterranean logistics hub. To this end, all thecompanies in the ZAL have to guarantee that at least 30% of the traffic that they generate involves the maritime mode. The total activity ofthese customers generates annual traffic of two and a half million tonnes of goods, 35% of which begin or end at sea. Among the leadingnational and international companies currently occupying the ZAL, 45.7% provide logistics services, 28.3% are logistics operators, 18.5%are freight forwarders, 5.4% are distributors and 2.1% are involved in the import-export business. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008,pages 46-47)Leading the way in CSRCILSA is involved in a great many social, environmental and employment activities that are part of its approach to Corporate SocialResponsibility (CSR). The company applies sustainability criteria in its projects:• Fostering public transport to provide access to the ZAL • Creating green areas between the logistics buildings • Applying water-savingcriteria for irrigation • Use of low-consumption outdoor lights to avoid light pollution • Large covered areas with roof lights to maximise use ofsunlight • Thermal insulation in buildings • Open-plan design of warehouses to facilitate operations • Provision of services for people withinthe complex: Service Center, restaurants, shops, childcare facilities, etc. • Photovoltaic electrical generation areas to bring about a zeroCO2 emission rating • Ongoing audits to improve the output of the facilities • Fostering Short Sea Shipping and intermodal transport •Optimizing land use • Reduction of empty transport • Sustainability awareness campaigns • Fostering off-peak transport (night transport) •Reducing intermediate transport • Coordinating the Delta Mobility Council • Optimizing linear support infrastructures. (Port de Barcelona,Annual Report, 2008, page 47)Stable cargo In 2008, the more than thirty terminals at the Port of Barcelona handled a total of 51.8 million tonnes of cargo, including victualling and fishing. This is a slight increase over 2007 (+0.87%), in spite of the worldwide decrease in maritime cargo transport as a result of the global slowdown that began in 2008. It is therefore noteworthy that the Port of Barcelona managed to record increases in various traffics against falling global cargo levels. This is the case of liquid bulks, mainly energy products such as natural gas or petrochemicals. This traffic grew by 10% in 2008 to reach a total of 12.1 million tonnes handled. General cargo reached 34.9 million tonnes, practically the same level as the previous year. Containerized cargo traffic, the main component of general cargo, fell by 1.6% with regard to 2007, and stood at 2,569,549 million TEU (twenty-!"#$%$&()#*+"$%+,-+.(/-0$1(2+3114(0+5-)$%2+"(&-+==;+ foot equivalent container units). The Far East and Japan make up the lions share of the Port of Barcelonaʼsmarket, as the nearly 600,000 TEU handled in the port in 2008 started or ended in a country from this region. Cargo to and from thisgeographical area grew 6% year-on-year. Specifically, China is the Ports main trading partner, with 23.3% of containers that pass throughour terminals starting or ending there.Although the Asian market is the strongest in absolute terms, we cannot ignore the dynamic behaviour of the North African market during2008. Traffic between the Port of Barcelona and North Africa (which received two trade missions - one to Morocco and one to Algeria)increased by 31% according to the final figures. In total, the Port of Barcelona transported 304,873 TEU starting or ending in markets inNorth Africa. Reduced consumption and production have especially affected traffic in new vehicles, which fell by 10.6% in 2008, closing theyear with a total of 716,306 cars handled. Nearly 90% of this volume corresponds to external traffic. Despite an increase during the first halfof the year (with two-digit growth up to April 2008), there was a marked reduction in such traffic during the second half of the year. The mostvehicles were shipped in February (76,902 units handled). Furthermore, cargo transport in SSS lines developed well, moving from 109,332ITU shipped in 2007 to 117,769 in 2008, an increase of 7.7%. The ITU is a unit of measurement equivalent to a means of land transport,whether self-propelled or not, such as trailers, platforms, trucks, refrigerated vans and so on. (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008,page 55) (Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 72)
DEVELOPMENT IN SHIP TRAFFIC, 1999-2008, (Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 55) Boost to Rail Traffic The growth in rail traffic, both of containers and vehicles, is one of the high notes of the panorama for 2008. It is also an indicator of the advances made by the Port and the different players that are strongly committed to enlarging the Portʼs hinterland by building intermodal connections to increase volumes of cargo transported by rail. Throughout 2008 a total of 52,562 TEU came in or out of the Port of Barcelona by rail, representing an increase of close to 26% over 2007, when the rail mode accounted for 41,770 TEU. The most dynamic months for train activity were during the summer and autumn, with a peak of more than 7,000 TEU transported in October. Two cargo corridors carry most of the traffic and far outstrip the others in the number of containers handled. The top position is held!"#$%$&()#*+"$%+,-+.(/-0$1(2+ by the corridor connecting Barcelona with the centre of the Peninsula, with 33.3% of all the TEU of3114(0+5-)$%2+67782+)(&-+9:;+ rail transport, while the connection with the Zaragoza area represents 32%. The Port of Barcelona achieved the most outstanding growth in vehicles transported by rail, with 34% more than in 2007.During 2008 a total of 156,188 vehicles were transported by rail, enabled to a large extent by the rail link between the SEAT factory inMartorell and the Port of Barcelona, which came into service just over a year ago. Total traffic at the Port of Barcelona was 50.5 milliontonnes, a 1% increase over the previous year, while container traffic was 2,569,549 TEU, down 1.6% year on year. As a result, incomefrom fees and services to goods was almost the same as in 2007 and those for ships increased by 2%. Furthermore, the positivedevelopment of passenger traffic, with 3.2 million people passing through our port during the year, pushed up income by 16%. Income fromconcessions in the public domain grew 7% to consolidate their role as the Ports main source of income, contributing 43% to overallturnover. Staff costs increased 4% year on year, while other operating expenses - external services - generated an expense of 19.5 million,33% higher than the previous year. There was a 28% increase in depreciation of fixed assets as a result of the entry into service of the firsttwo stretches of the South seawall at the end of 2007, accounting for an accumulated investment of 230 million EUR. The East seawall andthe third stretch of the South seawall also came on stream in September and October 2008, involving a total investment of 373 million EUR.The absorption ratio of current expenses over net turnover remained steady at 31%, in line with the last four years. (Port de Barcelona,Annual Report, 2008, page 58)(Photographs: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, pages 58 & 60)Systems and DevelopmentsContainer Terminals Cruise Ship Terminals- Specialists in container handling - Specialits in container handling- Highly qualified staff - Highly qualified staff- 2 international terminals: TCB and TerCat - 2 international terminals: TCB and TerCat- Up to 16-metre draught for all kinds of ships (super-post-panamax) - Up to 16-metre draught for all kinds of ships (super-post-- 17 container cranes panamax)- More than 3 000 metres of berthing line - 17 container cranes
- Rail facilities for handling and shipment - More than 3 000 metres of berthing line- 1 terminal for national and coastal shipping traffic: Estibadora de - Rail facilities for handling and shipmentPonent - 1 terminal for national and coastal shipping traffic: Estibadora- 1 terminal for multipurpose ships with handling of containers and de Ponentconventional cargo: Terminal Port Nou - 1 terminal for multipurpose ships with handling of containers and conventional cargo: Terminal Port Nou - The leading European cruiser port and a Mediterranean turnaround base - 7 international passenger terminals - Wide range of specialised companies in the sector - Leaders in security and specific logistics for cruise traffic - Major private investments in specialised terminals - Consolidation of the city-port relations - ʻMedcruiseʼ member, The Association of Mediterranean Cruise Ports(Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 25)(Photographs: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, pages 41, 61, 52, 51, 54, 23)More Passengers Passing Through BarcelonaThe progression of passenger figures was the most positive of the various traffics flowing through the Port each year, with a total of3,236,976 people arriving or leaving from the Port aboard regular ferries and cruise ships. The tourist cruiser sector experienced the mostoutstanding growth (17.5%), allowing a total of 2,074,554 passengers to be transported. This is a new record for the Port of Barcelona,which consolidated its role as the leading cruiser port in the Mediterranean and pushed its ranking up to number five worldwide, behind thebig four Caribbean tourist ports - Miami, Port Canaveral and Port Everglades in Florida, and Cozumel in Mexico. It is important to point outthat 56% of all cruise passengers passing through the Port of Barcelona are in turnaround (in other words, they start and/or end their cruisein this port, where they embark or disembark). This is especially significant because this type of passengers contributes the most to thelocal economy, because they spend more time in the city.Regular ferry lines provided service to a total of 1,162,422 passengers, an increase of 4.3% over 2007. The progression in passengerflows was helped by the Short Sea Shipping (SSS) services connecting Barcelona with the Italian ports of Genoa, Civitavecchia (Rome)and Livorno. These routes were used by a total of 396,477 passengers, which is a 26.6% increase year-on-year. Coastal shipping withNorth Africa also performed very well, mainly with the consolidation of the line linking Barcelona with the port of Tangiers in Morocco. Therewas a 94% increase up to 41,634 passengers.(Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, pages 54-55)
(Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Annual Report, 2008, page 12)Terminal A– Adossat wharf Due to the fast growing number of home port passengers, and the bigger capacity of the ships, Creuers del Port de Barcelona, the current concessionaire of the Terminal, has decided to demolish the existing cruise Terminal A and build a new one, prepared to operate the future mega cruise ships. The project included the expansion from 3.600 m2 to over 6.200 m2, and incorporates last requeriments concerning security, comfort. Fast passengers and luggage processing and architectural image. Gangways offer wharfand luggage conveyors will ensure passengers not to be mixed with trucks, forklitfs and handling staff.The total investment made by Creuers del Port de Barcelona is near €15 milion. Demolition works started November 2006 and theTerminal was ready in 2008. The total project fully complies with ISPS regulations (International Ship and Port Security Code)Technical specifications - Indoor Area: 3.450 m2 - Berthing line: 700 m. - Ship length: no limit - Draught: 12 m. - Wharf width: 26 m. -Wharf height: 2,1 m. - Turnaround: 3.000 pax. - Distance to city: 2 km.Services - Police - Immigration - Metal detectors - X-Rays machines - Air conditioning - Public telephones (Cash/Visa payment) - Foreignexchange - Duty free shops - Souvenir shops - Delivery service - Bar - restaurant - Parking area for buses - Shuttle bus to city buses -Taxi rank. (Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Terminals, Cruise Ships, 2009)Terminal B – Adossat wharf In response to the continuous increasing passenger traffic, Creuers del Port de Barcelona, SA, the contractor at the terminal, inaugurated in April 2005 the new turnaround cruise terminal. Terminal B is designed to operate next deployments of 140,000 tonnes and 3,600 passenger mega cruise ships in the Mediterranean area after a total investment of over € 10 million. Terminal B has a total of 6,500 sqm., which are divided in two main areas: check-in and luggage claiming area. It is designed with last requirements concerning security, comfort, fast processing operations and image, and it is equipped with 2 wharf gangways and 4 luggage conveyor belts. Miami architectural firm BEA International has been the designer of this new terminal, which will fullycomply with International Shipand Port Security code (ISPS).Technical specifications - Indoor Area: 6.500 m2 - Berthing line: 700 m. - Ship length: no limit - Draught: 12 m. - Wharf width: 21 m. -Wharf height: 2,1 m. - Turnaround: no limit - Distance to city: 2 km.Services - Police - Immigration - Metal detectors - X-Rays machines - 2 passanger gangways - 4 luggage conveyors - Air conditioning -Public telephones (Cash/Visa payment) - Foreign exchange - Duty free shops - Souvenir shops - Bar - restaurant - Parking area forbuses - Shuttle bus to city centre - Taxi rank. (Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Terminals, Cruise Ships, 2009) Terminal C - Adossat wharf This terminal, also equipped with all kind of services, has suffered an important refurbishment made together by Creuers del Port de Barcelona, S.A. and the Port Authority. Its 4,000 sqm. are used in a multipurpose way so as to make it possible to provide service to both turnaround and transit operations. Technical specifications - Indoor Area: 4.000 m2 - Berthing line: 580 m. - Ship length: no limit - Draught: 12 m. - Wharf width: 22 m. - Wharf height: 2,1 m. - Turnaround: 3.000 pax. - Distance to city: 2,5 km. Services - Police - Immigration - Metal detectors - X-Rays machines - Air conditioning - Publictelephones (Cash/Visa payment) - Foreign exchange - Duty free shops - Souvenir shops - Bar - restaurant - Parking area for buses -Shuttle bus to city centre - Taxi rank. (Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Terminals, Cruise Ships, 2009)
Terminal D – Palacruceros - Adossat wharf The Palacruceros is a state-of the-art facility of almost 10.000 sqm in two main floors designed by Luigi Vicini and Andrea Piazza. Amongst its services, it isto enhance the VIP lounge, the Childrenʼs room, a shopping center, the Palacafé with its wonderful sea view “terrasse” or the Internet Point. The total amount invested to its construction, which has been wholly financed by the Italian company, Costa Crociere, S.p.A., has been 12 milion euros. The terminal, that have preference for a Carnival Corporation groupʼs ship, but under a neutral management, foresees an activity of over 170 calls and 400.000 passengers. Technical specifications - Indoor Area: 10.000 m2 - Berthing line: 580 m. - Ship length: no limit - Draught:12 m. - Wharf width: 22 m. - Wharf height: 2,1 m. - Turnaround: no limit pax. - Distance to city: 2,5 km.Services - Police - Immigration - Metal detectors - X-Rays machines - Air conditioning - Public telephones (Cash/Visa payment) - Foreignexchange - Duty free shops - Souvenir shops - Bar - restaurant – terrasse - Internet point - Childrenʼs room - Crew members room -Parking area for buses - Shuttle bus to city centre - Taxi rank. (Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Terminals, Cruise Ships,2009)Terminals North and South – Barcelona wharf These two international terminals are on the Barcelona wharf, with a total of 824 meters of berthing line and are part of the World Trade Center, a State-of-the-Art business centre located at the Barcelona wharf. The North Terminal is prepared to give service to one medium sized vessel and the South Terminal can receive two ships, the biggest one as long as 253 meters. The additional mooring space on the eastern side of the quay can beused by either Terminal Nord or Terminal Sud. Both terminals are sited at such aproximity to the city centre that tourists can walk to Plaça Colom in 5 minutes. Technical specifications - Indoor Area: 5.000 m2 - Berthing line: 230 m.(Nord) – 434 (Sud) – 160 (E) - Ship length: 160 m.(Nord) – 253 (Sud) – 205 (E) - Draught: 8 m.(Nord) – 7,7 m.(Sud) – 9,5 m.(E) -Wharf width: 14 (Nord i Sud) – 18 m.(E) - Wharf height: 2,5 m. - Turnaround: 800 pax. (Nord) – 1.100 pax. (Sud) – Transit only (E) -Distance to city: 400 m.Services - Police - Immigration - Metal detectors - X-Rays machines - 2 passenger gangways - Luggage conveyors - Air conditioning -Public telephones (Cash/Visa payment) - Foreign exchange - Duty free shops - Souvenir shops - Parking area for buses - Taxi rank.(Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Terminals, Cruise Ships, 2009)Terminal M – Port Vell – Espanya wharf In Espanya wharf there is Terminal M–Port Vell, situated in the Maremagnum leisure area. It is the smallest Terminal and provides service to vessels with smaller capacities and lengths. Technical specifications - Indoor Area: 480 m2 - Berthing line: 220 m. - Ship length: 140 m. - Draught: 8,6 m. - Wharf width: 10 m. - Wharf height: 2,35 m. - Turnaround: 200 pax. - Distance to city: 400 m. Services - Air conditioning - Public telephones (Cash/Visa payment) - Souvenir shops - Bars, restaurants and coffee places - Lifts and escalators - Shuttle bus to city centre - Nearby access to metropolitan public transports network - Taxi rank - Other advantages: cinema, lʼAquarium, IMAX. (Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Terminals, Cruise Ships, 2009)Terminal Ferry de Barcelona – Sant Bertran wharf This ferry terminal is provided with all the necessary equipment to serve cruise lines operations with the highest standards of security. Its use is sometimes required when the season gets very busy and basically to transit operations. Technical specifications - Indoor Area: 2.200 m2 - Berthing line: 255 m. - Ship length: 220 m. - Draught: 11 m. - Wharf width: 12 m. - Wharf height: 2,15 m. - Turnaround: 250 pax. - Distance to city: 400 m. Services - Air conditioning - Public telephones (Cash/Visa payment) - Souvenir shops - Bar - restaurant - Lifts and escalators - Nearby access to metropolitan public transports network - Taxis. (Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Terminals, Cruise Ships, 2009)Terminal Z – Drassanes – Barcelona wharf Only on occasional situations this ferry terminal is used for cruise ships. It fulfills with security requirements. Services - Air conditioning - Public telephones (Cash/Visa payment) - Bar - restaurant - Lifts and escalators - Nearby access to metropolitan public transports network - Taxi rank. (Information & Photograph: Port de Barcelona, Terminals, Cruise Ships, 2009)