Library of Bristol Integrated with Tate Bristol - design brief 31-01-13
Nicholas SocratesLibrary of Bristol integrated with Tate BristolDesign Brief
1 The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol 1.1 The Project 1.2 About the Design Brief 1.3 Current Buildings / Situation2 Vision 2.1 Simply Stated: ‘The Best Public Library Integrated with Art Gallery in the World’ 2.2 Build the Knowledge Economy 2.3 Invest in Children, Young People and Families 2.4 Promote Community Culture and Heritage 2.5 Learning Centre 2.6 Integration 2.7 Vision 2.8 Objectives3 Urban Environment 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Global city with a local heart 3.3 Site and surroundings 3.4 A dialogue with the city4 Key Technical Issues 4.1 Core Design Principles 4.2 Integration of New and Emerging Technologies 4.3 Collections Handling and Delivery 4.4 Join Together Words, Images and Sound 4.5 Staffing 4.6 Facilities Management 4.7 Utilities 4.8 Functional Challenges of Integrating the Library of Bristol with Tate Bristol 4.9 Access, Circulation, Ergonomics and Visitor Comfort 4.10 Security 4.11 24-hour use of the building 4.12 Health and Safety 4.13 Environmental Conditions 4.14 Regulations and Standards for Sustainability 4.15 Acoustics 4.16 Public Art Program
5 Functional Specifications (Occurring in both the Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol) 5.1 General Areas 5.2 Functional Areas 5.3 Facilities Management6 TATE BRISTOL: Areas specific to Tate Bristol 6.1 Main Exhibition Spaces 6.2 Exhibition Preparation Space 6.3 Exhibition Storage Space 6.4 Tate Bristol Bar 6.5 Studio Spaces 6.6 Workshops 6.7 Staff Offices7 INTERGRATION: Integrated spaces between the Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol 7.1 Integration 7.2 Catering facilities 7.3 Picnic Space 7.4 Learning Spaces 7.5 Chill out Zones 7.6 Library Park Plinth 7.7 Shared Parking Area8 THE LIBRARY OF BRISTOL: Areas specific to The Library of Bristol 8.1 Reader Services 8.2 Children’s Library 8.3 Business + Learning Zone 8.4 Archives and Heritage9 Strategies 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Sustainability 9.3 Structural & Civil 9.4 Inclusive Design 9.5 Fire Engineering 9.6 Building Services10 Innovative library and archives recommendations 10.1 Innovative library and archive services 10.2 In-depth study into ASRS system options
1 The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol
1 The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol1.1 The Project‘The Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol bring the written word and the art world together to inspire creativity and discovery’.Both the Library of Bristol, integrated with the Tate Bristol will not only be one of the best public libraries and art galleriesin the United Kingdom, but they will also aspire to be a major catalyst for the regeneration of the city of Bristol.1.2 About the Design BriefThe most appropriate time for major decisions in building projects is in the pre-design stage, at the very beginning of aproject. At this stage the range of options is still extensive and decisions and changes to requirements do not yet have costlyconsequences. It is recognised that at the early stages of the project a shortfall of information means that it can be difficult tomake lasting decisions. It is also important to underline that this can lead to delays well into the design and constructionstages. When design and construction begin, decision possibilities and changes become more restrictive, tend to be morecostly, also in terms of time, and can lead to unsatisfactory solutions.Establishing a comprehensive Design Brief in the pre-design stage helps to increase the level of information and knowledge,well before the commencement of the actual design work. The main purpose of this detailed Design Brief, is to map,describe and distil the ambitions and aspirations of the various stakeholders that form the Client body into a foundation forall further decision-making, design work and approvals.Essential project knowledge consists not merely of information supplied by me (the architect and project manager), but alsoknowledge held by the staff and designated users of the two future buildings. This information includes work styles,processes and the resulting spatial requirements. Staff knowledge of the day-to-day working processes is also an essentialcontribution to understanding the functional requirements. The Design Brief is a result of close cooperation with thoseindividuals, both at the existing Bristol Central Library and the existing Tate galleries around the UK (in London: TateModern and Tate Britain, Tate Liverpool and Tate ST Ives). Through a series of interviews and meetings I have acquireddetailed information about the project.At this stage, the Design Brief has identified various competing pressures and aspirations that will require further resolution.Under these conditions this Design Brief of February 2013 it cannot not be viewed as a definitive document, but rather as anon-going part of the design development. It therefore allows for small modifications and some additional elaboration withinthe stated framework. In order to reach the highest level of aspirations for this project it must be recognised that a level ofmanaged flexibility will be of key importance.1.2.1 Centre of DiversityThe design of The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol, must grow out of the multi-ethnic and cultural diversityof Bristol, promoting understanding and community confidence. The city will become a part of the Library of Bristol, andthe Library of Bristol a part of the city. The qualities of the Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol should be self-evident foreveryone. The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol must represent the social heart of the Bristol citizens. TheLibrary of Bristol and Tate Bristol, should be advanced both technologically and functionally, they will offer maximumdiversity. The experience should be surprising and inspiring. This needs to be reflected in bi-monthly programming of boththe Tate Bristol and the library organisation. The building should be easily accessible for adults but especially for young
people and children. The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will be egalitarian, fostering the inclusion of thewidest possible audience.1.3 Current Buildings / Situation1.3.1 IconThe existing Bristol Central library was designed in 1906. To meet the library standards of the time and as such a Grade 1listed building is not easily adaptable to the 21st century way of learning and experiencing a library. Libraries functiondifferently in today’s information and communication age and their physical form and interior layout must embrace thesechanges to provide technological and programmatic flexibility and attractiveness. The Bristol Central library’s Edwardianstyle of architecture has created a psychological barrier to the younger generation. The exterior may appear out-dated and‘uncool’, unable to attract new users, especially those targeted from younger groups.The new site for the Library of Bristol (integrated with Tate Bristol) on Spike Island will create a flow of visitors andprovide an open anchor, an interior public space and a meeting place for pedestrians and they will become the city’s newicons, whilst addressing deficiencies in accessibility, adaptability and lack of space for creative enterprise. The Library ofBristol integrated with Tate Bristol will become a creative and learning quarter for the city.1.3.2 Learning in the 21st Century And BeyondIssues including inflexibility to adapt to new technology, new patterns of use in learning, information and culture cannot besuccessfully addressed. This includes cabling and placement of public computers, natural daylight and ventilation, andflexible group learning environments and quiet area placements. The current library has limited natural daylight, poor levelsof artificial light, erratic temperature regulation and noise problems. Without this flexibility and adaptability to new andemerging technologies, the City of Bristol cannot become a new city of knowledge and creativity.1.3.3 Archives and HeritageBristol boasts significant heritage collections that are of great national importance including the reference and rare printedcollections, yet the level of access to these archives is currently poor, and many are unaware of their existence. The mainspecialisation of the library will be to house the UK’s largest collection of art, art related and artist’s books. This newcollection will be brought together from numerous existing art collection and private collections throughout the UK. Becauseof the Libraries positioning, in close proximity to Spike Island Arts, The Alnofini and of course the new Tate Bristol, thisnew collection of art, art related and artist’s books will be of immeasurable benefit to artists, students and scholars alike.These collections offer enormous potential in supporting regeneration, learning and social cohesion. Legislation governingnational standards for protecting these documents has come about in recognition of their importance to the citizens of Bristol.The book stock numbers over a third of a million titles reflecting the development of printing and publishing over at leastfive centuries.It is generally complementary to the stock held by the Lending Library, with major encyclopaedias, dictionaries, academictextbooks and monographs well represented. Collected works, published letters by literary figures, nineteenth century travelaccounts, books on slavery and theology are special strengths. Here you shall find everything from Newtons Principia to thecollected works of Sigmund Freud.A sharp rise in public interest in archives and local family history demands that the Archives and Heritage collections arestored, accessed and displayed with the respect and reverence they deserve. The Library of Bristol will have a dedicated and
safe space for the display and an efficient retrieval of these collections in order to truly respect the city’s and the nation’sheritage.1.3.4 Physical ObstaclesThe existing Central Library does not provide easy access and it is physically challenging to move around the building. Thestairs are narrow and too few lifts. Accessibility for the disabled is also very limited and poor circulation and way-finding forvisitors creates confusion and a chaotic experience. The current layout prohibits interrelationships between areas, preventingshared knowledge, resources and ideas and casual social interactions. The separation of lending and reference is obsolete asis the arrangement of services and resources.1.3.5 Fulfilling FunctionsThe current entrance foyer does not meet today’s current demands. The entry does not afford any views to the interior spacesor services, so does not attract visitors inside. Meeting rooms and conference spaces cannot cope with increasing demandand are inadequate. Other facilities that are currently inadequate include:• Catering facilities• Exhibition and display areas• Toilet facilities• Cloakrooms (there are none)• Small loading bay with poor access• Moving materials out of archives storage to the public area on the top floor is precarious, risking damage to priceless materials• Access for the disabled is limited and does not include parking and so does not meet current requirements under the Disability Discrimination Act.1.3.6 Building MechanicsEnergy costs for the Central Library are very high and are difficult to manage and procure. It is important that the Library ofBristol is a building that is highly sustainable ecologically and endures the test of time, both aesthetically and physically.
2 Vision2.1 Simply Stated: ‘The Best Public Library Integrated with Art Gallery in the World’The Library of Bristol mission is to deliver the best public library in the UK. A library that will be an asset to the City ofBristol and attract visitors and users both locally and nationwide. To better form a centre of learning joined with creativity,information and culture, the Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol will become integrated, physically and contextually.Bristol has had many identities in its lifetime and is currently re-charting its path to become a knowledge based, creativecity: one that brings together people from all over the UK to do business and to change lives by enriching them culturallyand economically. This knowledge-based economy will be fuelled by its own citizens, and as a result of Bristol ’sinvestment in providing the training and guidance necessary to enter the knowledge and creative workforce. The Library ofBristol integrated with Tate Bristol will be its catalyst.The Library of Bristol integrated with Tate Bristol will be the social and creative heart of the city, connecting people of allages, cultures and backgrounds. As a multifunctional service centre, it will appeal to a broad spectrum of people. Thebuildings will function as a core of information, art and culture centred on people and community life. It will be asupermarket of knowledge and art. The Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol will be a microcosm of Bristol itself, reflecting itseconomic strength and the multiple cultures of its citizens.The fundamental objectives of the Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will be to:• Build the knowledge and creative economy.• Invest in children, young people and families.• Promote community, culture and heritage.2.2 Build the Knowledge EconomyBristol aspires to become an entrepreneurial city by providing extensive and unimpeded provision for learning and business.The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will provide that platform. Through an emphasis on life-long learningand the development of individual skills, citizens will be better placed to take advantage of ever-changing employmentopportunities of the future. The effects of this will be felt throughout the broader community as personal success translatesinto a stronger economic success for the city and the wider city region.The combination of both a high quality reference facility and the provision of resources on demand will facilitate andpromote an environment conducive to learning. Study places in a variety of configurations suitable for private study andgroup work, both tutored and self-paced, will be available. The significant shift of resources to electronic media will openand aid collaboration with other information providers and partners. These types of resources will also make possible thetransformation of space from a traditional library setting to a more adaptable and flexible design where informal events andthe exchange of knowledge can take place.2.3 Invest in Children, Young People and FamiliesA core objective of the Library of Bristol integrated with Tate Bristol will be the necessity for the project to appeal tochildren, young people and families in every sense.The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will be designed to offer an adaptable service where children andyoung people can access resources as they make the transition to adulthood. The spaces must be designed to offer a flexibleand diverse choice of learning settings and styles that are safe, welcoming and stimulating. Interactive technology will bepervasive throughout, encouraging the opportunity to explore and learn by discovery and in different ways.
The provision of informal learning environments will support parents and carers in helping their children to learn. TheChildren’s Library will cater to the specific needs of children and young people. Adjacent to this a dedicated area forteenagers, which will be designed to include both individual study spaces, areas for group working and discussion and aninformal seating environment where interactive and immersive technologies can stimulate and attract new users. The Libraryof Bristol will contain spaces for homework and study, where the progression from one stage of learning to the next isfacilitated will be important to the success of the project.Ultimately, the Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will play a unique role in enabling children and youngpeople to realise their full potential.2.4 Promote Community Culture and HeritageThe Library of Bristol integrated with Tate Bristol will be a major new meeting place, a focal point for citizen andcommunity activity. The design of the Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol will be welcoming and inviting to all, where nobarriers (attitudinal, cultural, emotional, institutional, economical, intellectual, physical or sensory) to participation can exist.It will be fully accessible to people with mobility difficulties and to people with all forms of disability.The design of the Library of Bristol integrated with Tate Bristol must appeal to the citizens of Bristol by instilling a sense ofpride and ownership. As a significant and meaningful community space it should become a landmark that comes to defineBristol as a city. The Library of Bristol integrated with Tate Bristol must genuinely meet the needs of the city, and its manydiverse communities. The key to the future success lies in being inclusive, open and accessible. This must be a place whereeveryone feels they belong.Reaching beyond the city centre, also through the network of community libraries, will be crucial to reinforcing that thelibrary and its services are for all. Library collections such as the Family History Ancestry will support and promote anappreciation of the shared and separate heritage and cultures of Bristol. Major exhibition galleries (within the library) willallow people to view and experience the treasures of the Library of Bristol. Themed exhibitions each year will draw on themillions of items in the city’s archival, illustrative and rare book collections, for example works including Sigmund Freudand Isaac Newton.Exhibition’s taking place in Tate Bristol will include the Tate’s new interest to promote emerging artists. Many of theseemerging artists will be invited to take residence in the Tate Bristol’s studios. Their work will be exhibited and in thededicated Emerging Artists Galleries and they will continue to work on new pieces during their stay, which in turn will beexhibited again. The studio’s will be accessible to the public on specific days and will act as greater publicity for each artist.As well as Tate Bristol being dedicated to emerging talent it will also exhibit the Tate’s new and fast growing collection ofAsian and African contemporary art. Also exhibitions will be curated to connect with national, regional and local culturalevents.City events such as major festivals will be supplemented by these venues. The Library of Bristol integrated with Tate Bristolwill have shared spaces that will be jointly programmed distributing activity over the entire day - from morning to evening.The diversity of facilities, spaces and activities will draw a diverse audience, reflecting the diversity of Bristol itself.2.5.1 Learning CentreThe Library of Bristol will provide a major learning resource for children, young people and adults. The Library of Bristolshould seduce every citizen of Bristol to go to the Library of Bristol. It will be a place to meet and a place for exchange.
The Government’s vision for a ‘learning and creative society’ is one in which everyone will have the opportunity to succeedand upgrade skills throughout their lives. The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will provide a vast array oflearning spaces that will permeate through all areas. The Experience of the Tate Bristol will extend and enhance the learningexperience. These spaces will allow learning and creativity to take place in many forms and at everyone’s own pace.2.5.2 Community ResourceThe Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will be the central point for citizen access and communityparticipation, with the specialised support necessary to help people to realise their personal and democratic rights andaspirations. The nature of a community space should be communicated where the people of Bristol can feel ownership andpride. For all to feel welcome in the Library of Bristol as well as Tate Bristol, unambiguous accessibility is important. Thebuildings will be family and children friendly throughout and it will welcome young people. There can be no barriers,physical or otherwise when entering the building. The removal of all barriers to access including attitudinal, economical,cultural, emotional, institutional, intellectual and physical should be of the highest priority in order to foster and ensure thewidest possible audience.Once inside, there will be clear and immediate different functions and places where one can sit, drink a cup of coffee, viewthe exhibitions, read a book, use the latest gaming technology, study for exams, hang out with friends from school.2.5.3 Centre for LiteratureThe Library of Bristol will need to showcase and provide open access to the rich experience of reading and online resources,which can also tie in with the Tate Bristol. This supports the constant desire to create, grow and liberate ideas. The Libraryof Bristol and Tate Bristol should both employ state of the art displays and lending technologies to entice people to discovernew knowledge, while changing media displays promotes new releases and art exhibitions and activities.The process of the digital revolution has provided the opportunity for the reinvention of the traditional library. It is necessaryto rethink the physical framework of the library and place greater emphasis on showcasing the broad range of resourcesavailable. The Library of Bristol should provide a high quality reference and enquiry services through imaginative andstimulating reader areas for fiction and information access and music in supporting leisure, cultural and learning needs.2.5.4 Memory Bank‘Without libraries what have we? We have no past and no future.’ Ray Bradbury.The Library of Bristol along with Tate Bristol will gather, preserve, present, exhibit and help to interpret the collectivememory and identity of the city and its communities and surroundings. The rich multi-media archive and heritage resourceswill be accentuated through the provision of the highest quality gallery and exhibition space.As well as exposing people to new ideas and opportunities, the Library of Bristol together with the Tate Bristol will creatememorable experiences. Through spaces that appeal to the senses, the facilities and services that the Library of Bristol andTate Bristol offer, memories will be created for generations of local people and visitors.2.5.5 Cyber-entry PointThe Library of Bristol integrated with Tate Bristol will be the entry point to an array of technologies in new media andcommunications, disseminating knowledge and ideas that will further fuel the education of the young and the entirecommunity at large. This will also prove that Bristol is a city on the cutting edge of technology. Technology has the potential
to aid participation learning, which enhances the experience of individuals, encouraging greater self-knowledge andawareness. Touch-ability, interaction and inviting places to explore these technologies will integrate technology and humanexperience.2.5.6 Base for Enterprise, Innovation and RegenerationWorking with individuals and businesses in employment and enterprise, the Library of Bristol will support and inspire acreative and prosperous economy in the city and across the region. The Library of Bristol will provide support and anenabling environment for the earliest stages of business development, creating a solid foundation for sustainable business togrow. Support for business start-ups and creative industries in the city with a focus on developing the knowledge economywill mean that the Library of Bristol will act as a major contributor to economic growth and regeneration. By default it willbecome a strong base for innovation.2.5.7 Destination for Leisure and CultureThe diversity of resources and services presented in the Library of Bristol cannot be completely understood by the term‘library’. The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol is more than a library or art gallery alone. They will offervisitors a place for recreation and cultural expression. The diversity of services on offer means that everyone will be cateredfor. Tate Bristol and The Library of Bristol events will take place in a multitude of spaces both inside and outside thebuilding. The building will seamlessly merge with the urban fabric of the city. One should experience the Library of Bristoland Tate Bristol as a part of the urban promenade, a sequential walk, eventful and lengthy, but also with cross connectionsfor easy and direct use.2.5.8 Creator of Knowledge ResourcesThe Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol will generate new forms of information in digital formats, sharing its uniquecollections for learning, creativity and cultural expression in innovative and imaginative ways. The Library of Bristol andTate Bristol, with its rich diversity of spaces, will foster further engagement with the available resources. The diversity ofstimuli, venues and avenues for expression will mean less distinction between the consumer and producer of knowledge andcreativity. The Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol together will provide an unobstructed platform to facilitate this process.2.5.9 A Promoter of SustainabilityAs a city, Bristol is in an important position to demonstrate through The Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol the mosttechnologically advanced building systems and integrated sustainable principles available. Through the Library of Bristoland Tate Bristol’s own design, management and operations and through highlighting relevant global developments in itsinformation and learning services, the buildings will exhibit the latest in sustainable technologies. Natural lighting would beprovided for in both the main body of the Library of Bristol and for any spaces that line the building’s perimeter. For theTate Bristol, each studio and live-in studio, for the artist’s in residence, which surround the building’s parameter, willemploy natural day lighting. Operable windows at the exterior would benefit individual interior comfort by enabling naturalventilation.Eco-technological strategies work well with more passive measures to create a dramatic structure that is both a socialactivator and successful precedent of sustainable practice that can allow the form of the building to remain true to the drama
of its concept. The best sustainable solutions should enhance aesthetic goals, limit resource consumption, improve buildingperformance, and promote health and productivity.2.5.10 Promoter of Bristol and the RegionThe buildings will be distinctively of Bristol, a statement of Bristol ’s global position and importance as the West ofEngland’s capital. The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will be a people’s palace: warm and welcoming yetwith a strong image and equally strong in functionality.The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will express the identity of Bristol through changing exhibitions aboutthe history of Bristol as well as multimedia displays of events in and around the city. It should be an interactive mediaexperience, enlightening, educating, entertaining and uniquely Bristol.2.5.11 The Interior Presented on the ExteriorThe Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol should become more of an environment than a building. The exterior should readthe interior. There should be clear sightlines from anywhere within the building.Both entrance halls offer a clear overview and functions as the information desk, with public functions, staircases andelevators, shops, café and toilets. From the entrance hall one is offered a view onto some of the functions located on upperand lower floors.The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol’s location on Spike Island presents an opportunity for the engagementwith the public domain. The park plinth should be part of the building. It should encourage people to read a book in the sun,take a break for lunch or meet a friend. The park must be green. The city, with its considerable brickwork and concretebuildings, can very well use that. Any softening – even of the acoustics in the city - seems to be welcome in this part of thecity, in materialisation as well as in scale.2.6 IntegrationOne of the major challenges of the design of The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol is to create a building(s)that embraces both organisations while reflecting their two distinct identities.The project requires the integration of two organisations each with strong individual brands. The Tate Bristol arguably needsno further comment: The Tate, after over one hundred years, has developed a strong brand with a sense of place and purpose.In this case Tate Bristol will specifically place its focus on promoting UK emerging artists with an emphasis on video anddigital art, whilst also housing the Tate’s new growing collection of Asian and African contemporary art (predominantlydrawings, paintings and sculptures). The concept of The Library of Bristol has been developed, albeit without the relatedbrand image.In the integration of these two distinct resources there will emerge two strong brand identities - that of the Library of Bristoland that of the Tate Bristol. This needs to be reflected externally as well as internally, so that two distinct buildings may bedistinctively perceived. Whilst there will be shared areas, including the foyers and related public facilities, it is critical to thesuccess of the scheme that visitors can quickly and easily orientate themselves and make a choice about visiting the TateBristol or the Library of Bristol, whilst being able to immediately appreciate which space they are in, and being able toeffortlessly move between the two.
The benefits gained through the sharing of physical spaces such as, the foyers, meeting rooms, café and the shared exhibitionhall will be complemented and enhanced by collaboration and partnership working in the three key creative areas wherethere is already considerable synergy:1). New Art.2). Children, Young People and Families.3). Cultural Diversity.2.7 Vision - Summary • Reflects changing times and a new opportunity for cultural partnership with the Tate Bristol. • Reflects the aspirations of Bristol in relation to a knowledge economy. • Reflects the aspirations of the city to develop its heritage assets. • Retains a clear focus on people: the Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will achieve results for people, and will offer something for everyone, a truly universal service, • Creates a centre for learning, information arts and culture. • Becomes an enduring beacon for Bristol, raising the city’s international profile and achieving excellence with local communities. • Will be accessible and welcoming to all, reaching out to some of the city’s most disadvantaged citizens. • Will be a universal meeting place, a hub for the region, an engine for the knowledge and creative economies . • The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will link the people of Bristol to the world. It will bring the world to Bristol through written, printed, audio, visual and interactive resources and technologies.2.8 Objectives - SummaryThe Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will:• Build the knowledge economy.• Drive economic and social regeneration, enabling citizens to realise their full potential.• Promote networking and knowledge exchange, enabling people to come together and learn from one another, in a community space that is open and inclusive to all.• Be a hub for learning, creativity, skills development, business and enterprise through the exploitation of information and communications technology.• Support academic and design research, scholarship and study.• Be a model of sustainable design, responsive to technological, social and behavioural change in the information age.• Invest in children, young people and families.• Be physically child and family friendly.• Inspire children and young people as future participants in the world economy.• Promote a love of reading and a need for literacy.• Encourage children and young people to develop skills and gain qualifications.• Foster life-long learning.• Promote community culture and heritage.• Celebrate the city’s heritage to strengthen community cohesion, appealing to and inspiring the widest possible audience.• Be the heart of a regional, local and community library network.
• Provide a focal point for community life, contributing to a high quality of life for local residents.• Celebrate culture through the visual, written, spoken word in print, multimedia, performance and other art forms.• Exhibit and interpret the Tate’s assets to provide inspiration for a learning culture.• Conserve the Library of Bristol’s as well as the Tate’s assets and collections for future generations.
3 Urban Environment3.1 IntroductionIn a response to current cultural movements and developments in the city, the Library of Bristol, integrated with the TateBristol, represents an opportunity to use these contextual conditions as a fundamental basis for the design process.The Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol will become a vital organ in the public domain of the city, and will be required torespond to the dynamic and diverse audience that the Bristol inhabitants represent.A key consideration of the design will be how to translate the city’s context, both physically and socially, into the contentand appearance of the Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol3.2 Global city with a local heart3.2.1 Bristol FabricThe structure of pedestrian, vehicle, boat and train connections has developed into a rich tapestry of squares, roads, rivers,bridges and tunnels. This urban fabric, clearly representing the city’s history, is one of the significant identities of the Bristolcity centre.Seen as a layered network, the upper most dominant layer of this network is the pedestrian route. The Library of Bristol andthe Tate Bristol presents an opportunity to reinforce this established network. The Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol,located on Spike Island will be a key landmark along this riverside pedestrian route - connecting central Bristol back toSpike Island by route and by a landmark on the skyline from across the river.3.2.2 Diversity of culturesThe global aspect of the local heart can be best appreciated when looking at the broad variety of cultures currently inhabitingBristol. It is by far one the most multicultural cities within the UK and therefore more than many places, connected to theoutside world. For the design of the Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol, this would mean finding a way to represent all ofthese people into one/two single building(s). The starting point for this would be the understanding these cultures and theirspecific values.3.2.3 Historic developmentThe industrial revolution has been a major catalyst of physical and social development of the city. It has given an enormousboost in the explosive way the city has grown and is still an image with which the city is being identified.For the city of Bristol, the role of water has been a key factor, particularly in the way the city has improved its economicdevelopment. The expansion of the estuary structure around the industrial era provided the artery for the transportation ofgoods and people related to the city’s industries. The man made floating harbour now offers the opportunity to regenerateand enhance the leisure and cultural experiences of the city.3.3 Site and surroundingsOn the East side of Spike Island, the site for the Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol will replace the existing surface carpark the M-shed. The only building on the site to be demolished will be a medium sized shed/warehouse to theWest/adjacent to M-shed. This will be to accommodate for Tate Bristol.
3.3.1 M-Shed, Library of Bristol, Tate Bristol Plaza.The location and function of the building(s) provides an ideal opportunity to merge an outdoor public space (presently asurface car park) with the building(s), creating a fundamental dialogue and connection between city and the building both inthe physical and metaphorical sense. Potentially being one of Bristol ’s most important public spaces, “Library Square” or“Library Park” is a vital part of the pedestrian route between Cumberland Road and central Bristol. It will become animportant arena for a variety of leisure purposes and events throughout the year.3.3.2 Integration of the Tate Bristol‘The Library of Bristol, integrated with the Tate Bristol’, clearly emphasises the priority within the Design Brief toinvestigate the best way in which the Tate Bristol will be integrated with the Library of Bristol.3.4.1 A dialogue with the city‘We define ‘Public Space’ as those places where an exchange between different social groups is possible and also occurs. Itis in essence a space that is freely accessible for everyone: public is the opposite of private. In philosophical discussions thepublic sphere is the place where society is formed, or at least the arena where the collective will is formed with regards to thefuture of society. But the public realm, as it is also called, also occupies a unique place in society: it is the sphere where weencounter the proverbial ‘other’ and where we must relate to other behaviour, other ideas and other preferences. This meansit is also a domain of surprise and reflection. The public realm is ‘the sphere of social relations’ going beyond our own circleof friendships, family and professional relations. The idea of the public realm is bound up with the ideas of expanding one’smental horizons of experiment, adventure, discovery and surprise.’‘In search of new public domain’ by Maarten Hajer & Arnold Reijndorp’.The library of today should not only be a place to read a book but rather a forum to interact with the city and the worldbeyond. Whilst our need for learning and exchange has remained the same for centuries, the place in which we do sohowever, has turned into a dynamic playground of modern communication and evolution. As a constantly evolving space,the library, owing to digital and cultural developments, is rather a space for content creation not simply access to content.Imagined as a city within the city, the multitude of cultures within the Bristol sphere should be represented by a collection ofidentities within the Library of Bristol. Simply stated: ‘one library, many identities’, in which the human experience formsthe key ingredients in creating the Library of Bristol. Each Bristol citizen will find a specific place of comfort andrecognition.Bristol has one of the youngest age profiles in the whole of Europe, as such the Library of Bristol should dedicate asignificant part of its domain to youth and youth activities. The renewed interpretation of the library’s image will play a vitalrole in involving young people to take full advantage of the current library. Together with the integration of the Tate Bristol,an opportunity will be created to connect a new group of visitors to the World of Art.3.4.2 The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol: the potentialsThe Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol is destined to be the impulse to future development on Spike Island. Ithas the potential to reconnect this area to the core of the city in a meaningful way, establishing important routes andsightlines between Spike Island and the other side of the harbour.
The building has the potential to make Spike Island as a city destination. It will become an important node as a place todwell rather than a transition space as experienced today. The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol together willform an ensemble of buildings that will convey cohesion of the existing urban fabric by reinforcing established edges of theWhapping Wharf development. The ground plane will become a lively activated zone to the benefit of the urban realm. Theuse of good architecture and improvements to public space will give Whapping Wharf and by expansion Spike Islandrenewed importance, reigniting civic pride in its citizens.Given the current area requirements, the building(s) volume offers the potential for extending the public domain to anelevated location affording expansive views across the city. As a landmark, the building(s) will attract a new local, regionaland international audience. Raising the city’s profile but also having a significant impact on the local visitor economy.3.4.3 The best public library integrated with an art gallery in the worldStated to become ‘The best public library integrated with an art gallery in the world’, an important objective of the Libraryof Bristol is to take full advantage of Information Communication Technology (ICT). In this way, the Library of Bristol canexpand its role as a regional centre linked to community, universities and other libraries, extending the reach and benefits ofservices and resources into this network. The many visitors of the library will attract will supplement the amount of visitorsto Tate Bristol and vice versa.
4. Key Technical Issues4.1 Core Design PrinciplesThere are six core principles that underpin the Design Brief:1. Flexibility2. Adaptability3. Sustainability4. Accessibility5. Physically connected and visible to the city6. FunctionalityThese principles are of equal importance and will be applied to the building(s) as a whole. In the following paragraphs, thekey technical issues related to these principles are reviewed.4.2 Integration of New and Emerging TechnologiesThe integration of new technologies is a fundamental part of the new library. The Library of Bristol will be both a physicalas well as a virtual place - where citizens will experience new media, expand their knowledge and meet with each other formany decades to come. There is no doubt that books will continue to be read, but it is clear that new media and technologywill demand its place in the new library:• In the way people acquire information.• In the way information is offered increasingly through multimedia.• In the way Library of Bristol ’s resources can be distributed regionally or nationally.• In new (futuristic) services the library can offer with technology.• By offering possibilities for visitors to create content and provide a place for supported access to networked learning from elsewhere, creating a truly shared learning environment.• The main demand for the new building is to provide room for the integration of continually developing technologies and ICT applications and allow for transformation of core facilities of the library.Furthermore, the building should provide:• 24 hour information – enabling access to information and ticket purchasing even when the library/ gallery is closed• Public access – including self-issue, bookings, payments, catalogue searches and requests.• ICT-enabled learning areas – portable/Wi-Fi technologies helping to create virtual learning environments and interaction with users’ own portable devices.• Interactive and immersive technologies – innovative ways to exhibit, display and enable interaction particularly with the Library of Bristol’s and Tate Bristol’s ‘treasures’, bringing them to life and offering an inspiring and stimulating learning environment.• Content creation – digitisation of resources, web development, image manipulation.• Intelligent building technologies - integration of management information systems to ensure operational sustainability targets are met.
4.3 Collections Handling and Delivery4.3.1 Storage ModelThe establishment of the Tate and the library goes hand in hand with the development of a design model for the storage, care,deployment and access to resources. The major objective, for both, is to increase efficiency, to cater for user needs, future-proofing and great presentation and accessibility of resources.This storage model will result in:• An efficient management of the stocks.• A good preservation of stocks, allowing staff to fulfil their new role, i.e. providing (active) service to the visitors.• Improved physical and virtual accessibility of the stocks.• Improved self-learning and guided support by presentation in themes and providing links between resources.4.3.2 Library Storage and Opening ResourcesThe library collectionsCharacteristics:• Available on open access shelves in the public areas and on non-public ‘stack’ areas, available on request.• 2 million items, including 150,000 on loan + 250,000 on publicly accessible shelves.• Steady dimension of collection.• Need for active stock management.Demand for Library of Bristol:• ‘Activation’ of reserve stacks by improving access to reserve stacks and increase in the visibility and retrieval/negotiated lending of the collections• Efficient storage.• Increased self-service retrieval facilities.• Intuitive and various layouts that enhance people’s experience and improve accessibility of resources.• Effective and efficient use of staff resources and speed of delivery of materials to the user. The study on automated storage has yet to be undertaken and may not necessarily be the best option for the Library of Bristol.The archive collectionsCharacteristics:• Valuable collection to be stored in environmentally controlled conditions.• Wide range of resources (rare books, manuscripts, illustrations, photographs, letters, diaries, etc).• Continuously expanding collection (200 new collections with a total of 40m3/year).Demand for Library of Bristol:• Improved access to collection for visitors (mainly by digital access technology).• Highest standards of storage and care.• Attention to high level of care and conservation, especially because of opening up accessibility to resources.Tate Bristol Storage and Opening ResourcesCharacteristics:• Available on open access shelves in the public areas and on non-public ‘stack’ areas, available on request.
• 8,000 items of art. Including 1,000 on Display and 7,000 in the storage depository.• Need for active stock management.Demand for Library of Bristol:• Efficient storage which meets the need of the art whether it is size or sensitivity to light and temperature.• Effective and efficient use of staff resources and speed of delivery of materials to the exhibitions or other Tate Buildings.4.4 Join Together Words, Images and SoundAlong with the great opportunities for the use of new multi media technologies, the multilateral character of the Library ofBristol will be enhanced by:• The collaboration with the Tate Bristol: creating a shared learning environment.• Resources will be brought to life by exhibitions, events and activities, enabling users and visitors to experience and learn about culture. Formal and informal performance spaces will be particularly important in achieving this.• Showcasing the Tate’s image and sound collections in the Tate Bristol as well as in the Library of Bristol.• The Library its self, too will offer space for other kinds of uses such as galleries, sound booths, spaces for family, group work/learning.• Promote the various cultural content of the Tate Bristol / Library of Bristol externally, to the city, to the network of other libraries and learning environments across the city and region.4.5 Staffing• The main objectives for the new premises of the Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol with the relation to staffing are:• An effective and efficient working environment to achieve excellent customer service with low amount of staff members.• An effective and efficient multifunctional foyer joining efficient logistics, providing overview and security, and opportunities for staff to interact with users.• Foster interaction between the staff of the Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol.In addition:• Exhibitions and display management.• Events, activities and other promotions programming.• Commercial services.• Marketing and communications.• ICT and technical support, both organisational and for users.• Lifelong learning and support and guidance for learners to enable continued personal and skills development.• Access to content and content creation.• Archives and Heritage.• Building Management Services.The design will deliver the most efficient operating environment possible for both Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol.The Library of Bristol and The Tate Bristol will jointly work and share expertise to maximise the use of skills and theefficient deployment of staff. These opportunities are currently being explored and will inform the design.
4.6 Facilities ManagementThe Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will be a large and complex building. The design should enable thefacility to be occupied and operational 24 hours a day (which may become a reality in the future): it will operate as a singlebuilding. High standards of management and maintenance will be essential to the efficient operation and functionality of thebuilding. The building must be designed to be functional, flexible and practical to operate and manage. It must be designedto:• Recognise the specific operational needs and requirements of both the library and the gallery (including studios).• Be highly sustainable and cost effective to operate and maintain.• Be fully flexible and adaptable in terms of infrastructure, controls, plant and internal fabric to meet future needs.• Ensure ease of access to all plant and services for safe service and repair.• Enable effective zoning to enable areas of the building to be in operation while others are closed. The specific needs of both the library and the gallery (including studios) must be taken into account, including consideration of acoustic separation.• Enable easy replacement/maintenance of the fabric of the building to ensure consistently high aesthetic standards are maintained and not compromised.• Incorporate intelligent building technologies to enable the integration of management information systems to ensure operational sustainability targets are being met ideally from two central locations via two central Building Energy Management Systems. This will be required to meet Bristol City Council’s Energy management and Sustainability Section.The desirable degree of integration between Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol has identified several areas of FacilitiesManagement where it could be advantageous for both parties to collaborate. These areas will be explored in more detail and,where it makes sense operationally for both Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol and can be achieved within availableresources, integrated solutions will be put in place.4.7 Utilities4.7.1 New ConnectionsIt is currently unclear as to what the exact nature of the connection of the district energy generation plant will be. The extentof the connection to the district system and the performance of its associated energy generation plant (i.e. efficiency, carbonemissions etc.) will affect the building’s plant space requirements, the sustainability aspirations for the project. It is offundamental importance that this issue is resolved early in the design process to minimise risk to the program and cost planfor the project.The current understanding is that hot water and chilled water will be supplied to the building from the district systemsufficient to cover the base load (circa 75% of the annual demand) but there will be no electrical supply from the districtenergy system. Therefore, secondary heating and cooling systems will need to be located within the building(s) to deal withpeak heating and cooling loads and a separate electrical connection to the grid will be required. On this basis the buildingwould not be served by CHP plant, rather a district heating and cooling system. Further detailed evaluations of the variousoptions available will be carried out during the next design stage.Electrical supplies for certain Life Safety systems and potentially back up systems for the Art depository, galleries, archiveand ICT facilities may be sourced from another grid connection if possible or potentially from on site generation. Gasservices will be provided by the local gas network infrastructure to suit the building needs, such as kitchens within the
catering facilities and a back up plant for critical services if required, Water and drainage connections will be served fromlocal infrastructure. Further analysis of the utilities infrastructure local to the building and the building’s likely energydemands will be carried out at the next design stage.4.8 Functional Challenges of Integrating the Library of Bristol with Tate Bristol4.8.1 Functional integrationThere are a number of complex functional challenges associated with the integration of the library with the art gallery(including live-in studios). In particular, the individual identities of the Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol must beprotected and, indeed, promoted through the design of the integrated building. It is critical to the on-going viability of bothorganisations that the passer-by on Spike Island promenade, the new “library park”, Cumberland Road and from across theharbour should be immediately aware that the building(s) house(s) both the Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol. Similarly,both organisations will have an on-going need to actively promote to the passer-by forthcoming shows, events andexhibitions through imaginative use of easily changeable large-scale advertising positions on the exterior of the buildingwhich can be accomplished through the use of ICT. Front of house, the shared foyer and catering areas will need to bedesigned to be welcoming, accessible and functional for all of the very different types of customers and visitors envisaged,offering opportunities for integration whilst ensuring that each person/group’s particular needs are met. For the back ofhouse design, it is essential to ensure that operations are smoothly integrated such that activities do not adversely impinge onone another.Finally, having entered the building(s) from any point, it must be clear to the visitor how they best access the facilities theyare seeking – the various Library areas, the archives, exhibitions, any of the galleries, the catering facilities, conference ormeeting rooms etc. Issues that will require particularly careful thought include:• Seamlessly joining the front of house and the back of house, and ensuring sufficient staff/public access between the two• Soundproofing measurements need to be taken among the various spaces including, but not limited to any carpentry/metalwork workshops, meeting rooms, library study areas, catering functions, education spaces.• Access to the building e.g. for coach parties, school groups, disabled parking.• Loading bay provision – ensuring the varying needs of the library and the Tate Bristol are both met.• Bar/Catering – providing the correct range of offers needed for different audiences, at different times of the day and evening.• Allowing for sharing and/or separation as appropriate of services such as heating, lighting, water, maintenance, cleaning and security between the library and the Tate Bristol• Maximising the efficiency of storage area requirements.4.8.2 Building ServicesTo facilitate the functional requirements of the integrated Library and Tate Bristol the services integration of services alsopresents a number of challenges to the project.Key elements to be considered are listed below:• Division of the Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol services installations.• Integration of service management with the aspiration of one point of control for the Library/Tate Bristol building(s).• Sustainable design.
4.8.3 Consequential IntegrationThe contractual arrangements between the Tate Bristol and the Library of Bristol relating to the operation of the differentparts of the building are yet to be finalised in particular the arrangements for the shared entrance/foyer space.In order to satisfy the requirements of the Building Regulations in the most cost effective manner, it may be necessary forparts of the building to have clearly defined party walls, so they can be treated as separate buildings. It is likely to requirediscrete elements of the building(s) to be fire separated, thermally separated and with the ability to be individually serviced.Dialogue with Building Control will be required to determine the exact requirements.Although the building must meet all building regulations, it is important that this does not result in the imposition of anunsatisfactory design solution.4.9 Access, Circulation, Ergonomics and Visitor Comfort4.9.1. GeneralThe new premises of the Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol are to be appealing, open, and aims to attract and serve visitors,from a broad spectrum of society including children, elderly, tourists, etc. It will set new standards of access for people withdisabilities enabling ease of access to all areas of the building.It is very important that the new Library is oriented towards the expected increase of footfall from 4,000 a day in the existingCentral Library to up to 10,000 a day. Integration with the Tate Bristol is likely to increase footfall still further.The Tate Bristol’s visitor footfall is predicted to be in the region of 1,000 per day, but again, with the intergration with theLibrary of Bristol it is likely to increase footfall still further.The building(s) must be designed to be highly legible and have simple, effective signage and guiding for intuitive wayfinding. Ease of circulation around the building(s) is paramount, offering a variety of means of getting around the building(s)to suit different user needs.The foyers and entrances will be vital elements of the building. They must be designed to fulfil a number of functions for arange of different audiences throughout the day and evening and able to accommodate the peaks and troughs of people-flowthroughout. The challenge will be to design foyers, which attract new visitors, works equally well for all visitors to pass byor to stay.4.9.2 Visitors & StaffFor staff an efficient access to the building is needed. Besides the main entrance there will be a second entrance with security24/7. This entrance will be open beyond Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol opening hours. From this entrance, an efficientroute to the various departments in the building without crossing the general areas will be required. This also applies for theentrances for the studios for the artists in residence.4.9.3 GoodsVertical access is to be provided via several decentralised cores (staircases, elevators). At least one core will be used fortransportation of goods per building. This elevator and connected spaces (corridors / rooms / doors) should be wide enoughfor the transportation of big items, for example: furniture or large art works. This elevator(s) is connected to the loading bayarea and is not accessible by visitors.
4.9.4 AccessibilityIt is very important that the new building provides an inclusive facility that is accessible for all users. Incorporating theprinciples of inclusive design will benefit the population at large particularly disabled people, older people and parents withchildren. Understanding and considering the access requirements of disabled people is imperative. In doing so, it is possibleto design an inclusive environment that reflects the diversity of people within society and breaks down unnecessary barriers.Key access issues to address in the design of the building include:Approach routes and arrival at the building.Way finding around the site.Main entrances.Reception areas.Vertical and horizontal circulation around the building.High quality places of communication including access to resources.Sanitary accommodation.Lighting.Acoustics.Signage.Emergency egress for disabled people.4.10 SecurityOne of the main conditions for the successful functioning of the Tate Bristol and the Library of Bristol is an appropriatesecurity system, offering excellent security for everyone, without being too perceptible or influencing the building’sattractiveness to visitors.Besides the specific security needs for the various functions in the building the security systems should follow theseprinciples:• Security has to be unobtrusive but effective.• ‘Natural ways’ of security: social control by staff as well by visitors, enabled by creating overview and sightlines Demarcation of areas by layout of areas or furnishing, rather then creating barriers• The security must meet the highest industry standards where needed.• The security system should be very flexible and adaptable.4.11 24-hour use of the buildingDue to the different opening hours of Tate Bristol and the Library of Bristol the building will need time related access andsafety zoning. The zoning should result in a safe and efficient building, with a minimum of safety regulations, security andphysical safety systems. Zoning must be an integral feature of the design, enabling different parts of the building to open atdifferent times of the day, whilst maintaining security in other areas that may be closed. It must be possible to shut downindividual areas both from an operational and a servicing point of view. Key spaces including the foyer, entrance hallmeeting rooms and catering facilities will operate outside the normal opening hours of the main library areas. Parts of thebuilding may need to be open 24 hours, for example loan returns and some study space. A 24-hour return and internet areashould at least be covered, well lit and located in such a way that people feel safe and secure. Of course 24-hour access to the
live-in studios, for the artists in residence is necessary and this access must be separated from any routes connecting thepublic galleries for out-of-hours access.4.12 Health and SafetyThere is a stated intent of making health and safety an integral part of the building(s) and working ethos of the Library ofBristol and Tate Bristol. The strategy of Health and Safety is of major importance due to the mixture of uses in onebuilding(s) complex and the various types of users daily and occasional visitors.The building should provide a healthy environment for staff so accidents and ill-health are eliminated and work forms part ofa satisfying life for the benefit of both the individual and the organisation. Staff members need to be aware of theresponsibility that the conduct of work does not endanger anyone including members of the public.The building should be healthy and safe for visitors too. Safe access to the building and clear routing are the main points ofattention. In addition, information is to be clearly presented in case of emergency. Staff members should have a role increating a safe environment for visitors.As in any public building, there are a number of specific threats identified. Wherever possible the opportunity to reducethese threats and they must be taken into account and designed out of the environment so risks can be minimized.Identification of hazards, risk assessments, implementation of procedures, and provision of adequate resources is to be a partof the design. In cooperation with the client(s), a Health and Safety program is to be developed simultaneously with designdevelopment.4.13 Environmental ConditionsThe design of the building(s) and its installations should ensure that the indoor climate will be comfortable and healthy forall users of the building, for example in terms of temperature, air quality and daylight. The indoor climate should feel naturalin relation to the activities that take place within individual rooms.To achieve the desired internal environments within the various parts of the building, suitable strategies will be developedwith consideration of issues such as air quality, thermal comfort, acoustics, security and level of control and flexibilityrequired.The selection of external environmental design criteria has a significant effect on both the capital cost and operation ofcertain building services. The frequency of abnormal environmental conditions and the risk if internal conditions deviatefrom the desired set points must be reviewed to determine appropriate criteria. Where spaces are being conditioned to strictcriteria, i.e. to preserve archive, the Tate’s collection of art and the exhibition spaces, it is likely to be seen as critical that theplant serving these spaces can maintain the desired conditions at all times. However, in other areas it may be acceptableduring infrequent abnormal external conditions that the internal conditions deviate slightly. Therefore, as a guide thebuilding services systems serving the archive and exhibition areas could be designed with reference to the following externaltemperatures.Extreme seasonal temperature extents are:• Summer 32°C. This represents a 0.01 % occurrence over a 24 hour period.• Winter -7°C. This represents a 0.01% occurrence over a 24 hour period.While the building services serving all other areas of the building could be designed with reference to a different set ofcriteria such as the following, with the likely effect of reduced capital cost and improved efficiency of certain buildingservices.
Acceptable season temperature extents are: • Summer 28°C This represents a 0.34% occurrence over a 24 hour period. • Winter -5°C This represents a 0.9% occurrence over a 24 hour period.The design of the building envelope(s) will be critical in maintaining a high quality indoor environment and limiting thebuilding energy consumption, and will be key consideration during the design process. The design of the building envelopewill reflect not only aesthetic considerations, but will also be configured for optimum thermal performance i.e. the façadedesign will aim to maximise daylight penetration, mitigate excessive solar gain and reduce heat loss.A range of different environmental conditions will be needed to protect the materials and exhibitions whilst allowing publicaccess, however storage areas will not be accessed by the publicThe key considerations are:• Temperature.• Humidity.• Light levels/UV control.• Air quality and dust/particle filtration.• Protection from physical damage.4.14 Regulations and Standards for Sustainability4.14.1 SustainabilityBoth the Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol, as public and educational institutions, have a strong obligation to care forthe physical and social environment. The construction of the building(s) and the building themselves throughout theirlifespan should comply with the following:• Optimum use of natural resources and reduction in the environmental impact inline with the economical and social requirements.• Reduction of energy consumption in the operation of the building.• The sustainability approach is incorporated in the physical and technical layout of the building and should go beyond simply meeting standards and regulations where possible.Main subject of attention:• Physical building(s) layout in relation to compactness, flexibility and adaptability during its lifespan.• Specific needs of functions.• Use of natural resources.• Environmental aspects of construction method and materials.• Maintenance and lifespan aspects.• Minimising the energy demand for heating and cooling.4.14.2 BREEAMThe Design will aim to obtain a BREEAM rating of Excellent for both the new library building and the Tate Bristol andmeeting the Council’s target for renewable technologies and sustainability without undue increase in the cost of the works.The design must source the best sustainable solutions, using the process of consultation, collaboration and engagement withall the key stakeholders. These should enhance aesthetic goals, limit resource consumption, improve building performance
and promote health and productivity. Bristol has a distinguished creative tradition: the Tate Bristol and the Library willreinforce this by employing elegant and innovative engineering.Achieving a BREEAM excellent rating alone will not necessarily achieve the sustainability targets and therefore theSustainability Strategy identified below will need to encompass a wide range of strategies and include the whole life cyclecosting and investment pay back options.4.14.3 Going for Green‘Sustainable development is about ensuring a better quality of life for everyone now and for generations to come by bringingtogether objectives around social, economic and environmental goals’The Bristol City Council is fully committed to the sustainable development of the City and a fundamental objective of this isthe protection and enhancement of the environment. Bristol City Council is also committed to procurement decisions thathave a direct influence on the Sustainability Strategy.4.14.4 Bristol Climate Change StrategyThe Bristol Climate Change Strategy aims to reduce Bristol ’s carbon emissions by 20% from 1990 levels by 2010, and 60%by 2026. The energy targets aim to “ensure that 15% of energy use in Bristol is from renewable sources and that 30% of it isgenerated locally by 2020”.The Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol project will therefore form a key part of this strategy through both theon site application of integrated technologies and also by interfacing with the City’s wider approach to decentralised energysystems.4.14.5 Energy Performance Building DirectiveThe Library of Bristol integrated with the Tate Bristol will require compliance with the Energy Performance BuildingDirective. There are many factors associated with energy performance in buildings and in the course of the project: researchwill be taken to investigate different methods of building design.On completion of the project an Energy Performance Certificate will need to be produced (based on the theoretical CarbonDioxide emissions for the building) and displayed to comply with the new EU directive on Energy Performance in BuildingsAfter 12 months a Display Energy Certificate, which determines the actual Carbon Dioxide emissions based on meteredenergy readings, will need be produced and displayed. During the next design stage preliminary energy performancecalculations will be carried out to inform the design development of the energy efficiency of the proposed design.4.15 AcousticsAs the site is located on the East of Spike Island, the Library of Bristol can be exposed to a certain levels of noise. Thisshould be taken into account.Noise from cars and traffic in general and for example the occasional events taking place on the new “Library Park” or noisefrom the foyer can cause inconvenient noise or vibrations in the building. For the two main functions, the Tate Bristol andthe library, noise control is of great importance. To avoid this generally two measurements have to be taken:Separating structures.Zoning of sound-sensitive and sound producing areas.
In the layout of the building, especially areas containing various functions, or areas with flexible use close attention toacoustic qualities is crucial. Rooms must be acoustically regulated (and comply to standards) to best suit the function of thisrooms and adjacent areas.Floors and slabs between levels must be designed so that impact noise will not spread to adjacent rooms and is not loud inthe room itself. Technical installations in the building should emit as little noise as possible so that they do not cause noisepollution inside or outside the building.4.16 Public Art ProgramThe future Tate Bristol integrated with Library of Bristol as an important public place to gather and to educate, also withregard to local and global issues concerning culture and arts. The wide collection of the Library of Bristol’s archivescontains many pieces worth seeing by the city and more specifically by the visitors to the library. The first task will be tomake a clear inventory of the current collection. Needless to say, that the Tate’s collection too is extensive and would be ofimmeasurable benefit to the citizens of Bristol. In this case, the Tate’s collection housed in Tate Bristol will ebb and flow –migrating to the other Tate Galleries around Britain. However there will be a dedicated depository for up to 10,000 pieces ofart, including the Tate’s collection of audio/visual archives to be permanently housed in the Tate BristolShowcases for these pieces, but also showcases for other pieces of art will be integrated within the design of the building andsite. The object, painting or other kind of pieces should contribute to the experience of the public area.Due to the size of the building and the size of the site, various types and sizes of pieces of art are conceivable, ranging from,for example, small objects in internal or external showcases to a collection of pieces that form a storyline through out the siteand building.The planning for exhibiting art should be in accordance with the Tate’s specific guidance.
5 Functional Specifications (Occurring in both the Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol)
5. Functional Specifications (Occurring in both the Library of Bristol and Tate Bristol)The functional specification states both the operational and aspirational requirements that will form the basis of the designphase tasks. Some of these items have conflicting requirements that must be reconciled and resolved during the next phasesin the design process. It contains detailed information concerning the amount, size and quality of spaces as well as therequired proximity of functions and spaces, requirements concerning the functional and essential technical requirements,image and appearance as well as other requirements specific to the project as known to date. The functional specificationdescribes the functional requirements all areas of the project, encompassing also general service areas and ‘back of house’zones.The Functional Specification can be seen in three main groupings: Library of Bristol only spaces, Tate Bristol only spacesand shared spaces. These are indicated in the colour chart adjoining this document.5.1 General Areas‘General areas’ refers specifically to those spaces that appear throughout the two buildings serving primarily as necessarysupportive function. These areas occur throughout the two buildings.5.1.0 Main Entrance and Foyer - IntroductionThe arrival areas of both the Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol is to function as an extended public space. The locationand function of the building provide an ideal opportunity to merge an outdoor public space with the building creating afundamental dialogue and connection between city and the building(s), both in the physical and metaphorical sense.The arrival space(s) will be the ‘first impression’ of the Library of Bristol and of the Tate Bristol and will therefore be key inensuring an unforgettable experience that will live long in local, regional and international collective memory.The nature of a community space should be communicated where the people of Bristol can feel ownership and pride. Theremoval of all barriers to access including attitudinal, economical, cultural, emotional, institutional, intellectual and physicalshould be of the highest priority in order to foster and ensure the widest possible audience.5.1.1 Main FoyersCore Function:The foyer(s) should be the place from which the flow of arriving people is spread out into the rest of the building. It shouldoffer a number of experiences catering to the diversity of visitor requirements.The foyer space(s) plays a key role in representing the main values and mission of both the Library of Bristol and TateBristol and in expressing the synergies between the two whilst at the same time supporting the distinct brandingrequirements of the two individual organisations.The foyer will become the space where visitors will receive the first information about the activities in the buildings and theoptions available to them. This space should provide and communicate to visitors their customer access choices, service andinformation as well as circulation and navigation information of both the Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol.For the library foyer there will also be a requirement to provide a self-service facility for book return.Generally, the requirement is to provide a highly accessible environment for both specific and diverse target groups. Someusers attend individually, some in small groups and some, in particular school student groups, attend in large numbers. Allshould feel equally at home in this space.Accessibility in every sense of the word is a key consideration.
Relationship + Connections:Adjacent to main entrances.Space Requirements:Design Capacity requirements: The foyer should be able to accommodate an agreed peak or range of visitor capacity basedon 24/7/365 facilities access and a predicted daily footfall of 10,000. In addition, the Tate Bristol will expect a peak capacity(during Christmas and Summer) of 2,500 people per day.Remarks (Specific Requirements):Accessibility is a core requirement in the design of this space.5.1.2 Main EntranceCore Function:Of key consideration is the legibility and accessibility of the main entrance(s) whilst providing an immediate sense of arrival.Although there may be multiple entrances to the building(s) there should be two main entrances (per building) providingaccess to the shared foyer areas. The values of the two organisations must be communicated and the status of the ‘whole’should be integral to and lead naturally into the main foyer.Relationship + Connections:For both buildings, one entrance must access the promenade to the North, the other to the new “Library Park” to the South.Both should directly access their central foyer space housing their central reception facility. Other entrances (required formaximum occupancy and/or fire safety) should be sited in discreet appropriate areas.Close proximity to blue-badge parking facilities, coach and car drop-off points, public parking, taxi bays, bicycle racks andthe closest public transport will be vital. The city’s transport plan and new bus route must be considered in this context toensure that access, business and navigation needs are satisfied in the location and design of the entrances.The entrance should also be a close to ATM, toilets, service lifts and stairs/lifts/escalators.Space Requirements:Occupancy capacity requirements: The entrance area should be able to accommodate an agreed peak or range of visitorcapacity based on 24/7/365 facilities access and a predicted daily footfall of 10,000 for the Library of Bristol and in addition,the Tate Bristol will expect a peak capacity during Christmas and Summer of 2,500 people per day.Remarks (Specific Requirements):The entrance doors should be intelligent and part of the security system and capable of resisting significant attempts atintrusion. Highly robust finishes to be applied to these spaces.5.1.3 Reception and Customer ServicesCore Function:This is where people should have fast and easily accessible information about the Library of Bristol and with the Tate Bristol.The reception area should clearly show that this is the interface between visitors and its respective building. It must behighly visible and capture the attention of people entering the building. It must be absolutely clear that this is a place wherevisitors can get help.This area will link the visitor to the purpose, functions, services, events and facilities of the entire building. As such the areamust communicate openness and accessibility. This area may also provide a tourist information centre and other suchfacilities and will provide an information outlet for the many community partnerships with which each organisation engages.
The area will be supported by self-service information and navigation of the building therefore allowing staff to focus onindividual requirements. Consideration of a modular/ adjustable counter system may facilitate adaptation to various visitordemands.Relationship + Connections:This area needs to be central to the main ground foyer(s). It should be close to public facilities such as toilets, cloakroomsand upper level access – i.e stairs, escalators, lifts to all parts of the building. Adequate and accessible storage will be vital inmaintaining a tidy and clean environment. This area must link to a secure office/non-public space where cash collection,counting and balancing can take place securely.Space Requirements:Occupancy capacity requirements: The entrance area should be able to accommodate an agreed peak or range of visitorcapacity based on 24/7/365 facilities access and a predicted daily footfall of 10,000. In addition, the Tate Bristol will expecta peak capacity during Christmas and summer of 2,500 people per day.Remarks (Specific Requirements):A queue management system is to be provided. It should be clear that this area is ‘neutral territory’.5.1.4 Circulation Foyer(s)Core Function:Flowing from the main foyer, the circulation foyers should direct visitors accessing specific parts of the building i.e. Libraryof Bristol and Tate Bristol. In essence, the two circulation foyers act as a threshold between the main foyer and the specificfunctions of each organisation i.e. Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol. These areas may need to be zoned off and securedaccording to operational requirements.The circulation foyers should reflect the very different and specific individual requirements of the Library of Bristol andTate Bristol. Each foyer needs to consider a generally more constant customer flow with seasonal peaks and the ambition forthem to become a 24/7 operation over time. The Tate Bristol foyers are required on at least two floors: one to the Northpromenade and one to the South “Library Park” on plinth (upper ground) levelEach foyer in the Tate Bristol need to be able to operate independently as customer numbers fluctuate. To maximise use ofeach area for activities independent of exhibitions, the ability to easily zone areas e.g. for meeting spaces, private receptionareas, lecture spaces etc would be advantageous. Effective lighting and acoustic management of the area is key in this regard.Relationship + Connections:The Tate Bristol foyers need to be adjacent to the major exhibition spaces via stairs, escalators, lifts. Both foyers shouldcontain toilets and accessible toilets and provide easy security monitoring. The Library of Bristol foyer should link to theLibrary of Bristol exhibition gallery. Both foyers should flow naturally from the main reception foyer. The Tate Bristol foyerparticularly, must comply with all licensing, health and safety and fire evacuation requirements. They will be close to ATM,toilets and accessible toilets, service lifts and stairs/lifts/escalators.
5.1.5 Cloakroom and Locker FacilitiesCore Function:All visitors to the building(s) should easily access these facilities.This is an area where personal items such as bags and coats can be left. The area may only be staffed at certain timestherefore the space should be designed to retain its function as a self-service cloakroom. These facilities could also becompletely self-service.These could be in a less ‘central location’ but would require an increased security system.The gallery visitors can demand up to 150 ‘coat spaces’ plus up to 50 bags/suitcases/shopping items, at any one time, duringChristmas and summer months. They Library of Bristol demand will be lower but more constant throughout the year.Relationship + Connections:The area needs to be central to each entrance(s). It must be close to toilets, reception and under surveillance of the securitysystems.Space Requirements:Amount: 2 areas (one per building).Dimensions: to be determined.Size: approx. 25m2 gross floor area.Total area: 50m2 gross floor area.Remarks (Specific Requirements):Heighten security risk.5.2.1a Public Toilet FacilitiesCore Function:These facilities will service customers and visitors to the foyer areas. This means that potentially a broad public will usethese facilities. Given the diverse groups of people visiting the building, the facilities should therefore reflect this diversity ofrequirements and include adequate provision for children and parents as well as disabled visitors. Facilities may vary indimension in order to address these needs specifically.Consideration should also be given to the way in which facilities will be used throughout the day. Moments of intense useoccur during lunchtimes and also coincide with both Tate Bristol and the Library of Bristol events. Events taking place in thenew “Library Park” will also place high demands on these facilities.Further, sustainable use of water and cleaning products should be prioritised. This subject is detailed as part of thesustainability strategy.Focus should be placed on the ease of use and robustness. In addition, given the high public usage envisaged for the building,all fixtures, fittings and surfaces selected should be of adequate and appropriate quality to reflect this imperative. Naturally,provision of good light and ventilation are essential.Relationship + Connections:Public toilet facilities should be in close proximity to exhibiting gallery’s entrances and general reception areas, proximity tocleaning services and general maintenance access is also a priority. Catering and bar facilities will also require specific toiletprovision.Space Requirements:Dimensions: 0.90 x 1.50 m per toilet cubicle minimum.
Size: 4m2 gross area per toilet cubicle minimum (includes entrance area).Remarks (Specific Requirements):Allow for effective, deep and high standard cleaning. Allow for self-cleaning functions where possible.Attention to the prevention of misuse and vandalism including the use of anti-graffiti surfaces. Incorporate environmentallyefficient disposal of sanitary waste.Fittings and fixtures to possibly provide for particular cultural needs of users.5.1.1b Staff Toilet FacilitiesCore Function:These facilities will service staff of the Tate Bristol and the Library of Bristol.Similar to the public toilets functional requirements, staff toilets should reflect the diversity of staff requirements includingprovision for disabled staff.For operational purposes these facilities may be located in close proximity to staff areas. Further, sustainable use of waterand cleaning products should be prioritised. This subject is detailed as part of the Sustainability strategy.Focus should be placed on the ease of use and robustness. In addition, all fixtures, fittings and surfaces selected should be ofadequate and appropriate quality. Naturally, provision of good light and ventilation are essential.Relationship + Connections:Catering and bar facilities will also require specific toilet provision.Staff toilet facilities will need to be located close to other staff areas such as staff offices and facilities.Space Requirements:Dimensions: 0.90 x 1.50 m per toilet cubicle minimum.Size: 4m2 gross area per toilet cubicle minimum (includes entrance area).Remarks (Specific Requirements):Allow for effective, deep and high standard cleaning. Allow for self-cleaning functions where possible.Attention to the prevention of misuse and vandalism including the use of anti-graffiti surfaces. Incorporate environmentallyefficient disposal of sanitary waste.Fittings and fixtures to possibly provide for particular cultural needs of users.5.1.2 Accessible ToiletsCore Function:Provision must be made to serve wheelchair, EMV and other mobility impaired users and their caregivers with facilities.Accessible toilets must be of equal standard to other toilets.Thought must be given to robustness, as well as the ease and modesty of ingress and egress. These facilities must beaccessibility compliant and exceed DDA requirements. One accessible toilet should be a full personal care suite and be ableto accommodate a mobile bed and/or allow an EMV, large wheelchair, a hoist, its user and caregivers with comfortableaccess and space to use the facilities with ease. Furthermore, these facilities shall be linked to the emergency responsesystem with easy access for staff to respond.Naturally, provision of good light and ventilation are essential. In addition, given the high public usage envisaged for thebuilding, all fixtures, fittings and surfaces selected should be of adequate and appropriate quality to reflect this imperative.
Further, sustainable use of water and cleaning products should be prioritised. This subject is detailed as part of theSustainability strategy. The provision of at least one facility on every floor of the library building is also required.Relationship + Connections:All facilities should be directly accessible from the exhibition galleries, bar, catered areas and general reception area. Wherea priority is needed, these toilets should be nearer to the service area in question than those for non-disabled customers.Preference is given to locate these facilities close to cleaning services and general maintenance access. Obvious, direct andeasy access to main entrance and exit doors is also required.Space Requirements:Dimensions: 1.60 x 2.80 m per toilet cubicle minimum.Size: 8m2 gross floor area per toilet cubicle minimum (includes entrance area).Remarks (Specific Requirements):Allowance must be made for effective, deep and high standard of cleaning. Where possible self-cleaning functions should beincluded. Attention to the prevention of misuse and vandalism including the use of anti-graffiti surfaces should beincorporated.5.1.3 Cleaner’s Room + StoresCore Function:Cleaner’s rooms and associated store should provide space for all necessary general and specialist equipment and cleaningmaterials, including all necessary sinks, drainage and waste systems to cope with the range of cleaning needs. The provisionof four low level sinks with hoses, a sluice/incinerator or similar waste disposal system for solid matter, two large lockablecupboards for storage of cleaning materials and chemicals, shelves for stocks of sanitary materials, space for spare wastebins, sanitary bins and other equipment, racks for storage of cleaning equipment such as vacuum cleaners and mop buckets,a washing machine and dryer and a domestic sink unit is to be included within this area.It is essential that the space provides a safe and healthy working environment for all users, with specific consideration forthose who will be using chemicals, hot water, steam and other hazardous materials.Relationship + Connections:The space should be accessible to all aspects of the customer service functions with particular focus on exhibition areas andbar/cafe areas. It must have good service lift access to support safe and efficient operations and ease of waste disposal.Access for cleaning staff to the staff briefing/rest room will be required to support necessary meetings and breakrequirements.Space Requirements:Amount: 20.Dimensions: To be determined.Size: 4m2 gross floor area minimum.Remarks (Specific Requirements):Highly robust finishes to be applied to spaces.
5.1.4 General Staff Offices + FacilitiesCore Function:A particular part of both buildings should be determined to accommodate staff, relating specifically to the operationalmanagement of both the Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol related activities. Bearing in mind the need for a durable,adaptable office environment, a maximum amount of flexibility should be integrated within its design. The possibility tocreate multiple variations of floor layouts with regards to furniture is part of that demand. Necessary spaces to house lockersand kitchen areas are required for these functions.Relationship + Connections:As the offices with their necessary functional spaces should be considered a unity, they should be located in close proximityto each other as they provide interdependent services. If adjacent to the cleaner’s room, the staff briefing and rest roomscould accommodate cleaning staff also.Furthermore, this unit will need to be near to the toilets, service lifts and stair/lifts/escalators.Space Requirements:Schedule of accommodation: To be determined.Design Capacity requirements: To be determined.1,500m2 will adequately cover a minimum capacity of 100 workstations.Remarks (Specific Requirements):Office spaces need to be flexible and adaptable to changing user requirements. They must be accessible for disabled staffand visitors.5.2 Buggy + EMV ParkCore Function:The users of the Library of Bristol and the Tate Bristol should be provided with adequate space to safely park buggies andEMVs.These areas could be accommodated close to the outside of the entrances rather than inside the foyer as self-service lock-ups,assuming secure and appropriate locations and ease of access to foyer.This space needs to be very accessible, user-friendly and adaptable to accommodate demand.Consideration of door openings and corridors leading to this area should be sufficiently wide for ease of access andmovement.Relationship + Connections:For the library, proximity to the Children’s Library is required. These areas should also be close to entrance(s) and toilets.Space Requirements:Amount: 1 per building (2).Dimensions: To be determined.Total size: approx. 25m2 gross floor area.Occupancy capacity requirements: The area should accommodate up to 30 buggies and 10 EMVs.Remarks (Specific Requirements):It should be under the surveillance of security systems.