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SEI Electric Vehicles Conference, April 2009

SEI Electric Vehicles Conference, April 2009

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Thomas Theisen Rwe Presentation Transcript

  • 1. RWE E-Mobility Projects Dublin, 18 February 2009 Page 1
  • 2. Daimler and RWE launching into the ages of E-Mobility Page 2
  • 3. In contrast to other new individual transport concepts the “refuelling” infrastructure for electric vehicles (EV) is already in place Page 3
  • 4. Enablers for sustainable market penetration of EVs/PHEVs are there DRIVERS FOR E-MOBILITY TCO and other advantages Range limitation (might be) solved CO2-taxes and Fuel prices Li-Ion-batteries Plug-in hybrids framework > Fuel prices on > EU: Strict fleet > Li-Ion-batteries > Range limitation record level: emission targets with double solved by add-on 1,54 EUR / l1) (2012: <120 g/km) energy density combustion > Long term > EU Penalties on compared to engine (range forecast: real CO2-fleet emission NiMH extender) stable to further incentivy OEMs to > Ranges sufficient > Sufficient rising push e-mobility for everyday use recharge grid > CO2-based taxes > Mass market expected discussed production > Local measures expected for 2010 1) 95 Octane, Mineralölwirtschaftsverband Juni 2008 Page 4
  • 5. Over 20 EV/PHEV models from leading OEMs and newcomers expected to enter market before 2012 OVERVIEW OF EV/PHEV GLOBAL OFFERING (ANNOUNCED) – 2008 TO 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 A, B Think City Subaru Mitsubishi Nissan Cube 'Tata Nano Smart EV Mercedes Toyota VW R1e iMiEV A-class EV? IQ, EV? UP, EV? seg- ment Nice Cars Tata Zero Indica C, D XS 500 F6DM F3e; F3DM e6 Tesla seg- Whitestar? ment, SUV ZAP X Prius Plug-in GM Volt GM Opel E-Flex Saturn Vue? G seg- Tesla Fisker ment Roadster Automotive Page 5
  • 6. Market scenarios: significant increase from 2015 – in 2020 up to 25% of all new cars could be EV/PHEV MARKET SCENARIOS EV/PHEV GERMANY; LOW AND HIGH [2012 – 2030] EV/PHEV of registration of new cars Germany [%] > State incentives to reach CO2 Low <1% 1% 2% 2% fleet-targets (penalties for High 1% 4% 23% 23% OEMs, CO2-taxes) 2012 2015 2020 2030 > Resulting pricing with positive Total EV pool Germany ['000] impact on demand for 15.000 EV/PHEV Low 2.400 > 2012-target of 120 g/km High 2.100 achievable with optimizing conventional technologies 350 > 2020-target of 95 g/km 20 25 85 250 requires introduction of 2012 2015 2020 2030 EV/PHEV Total electricity demand [TWh] > Total demand to reach 19 TWh Low 0.02 0.1 0,4 2.8 – 3 % of total gross production High 0.04 0.4 3.2 19.0 (637 TWh) in Germany 2012 2015 2020 2030 Page 6
  • 7. RWE´s E-Mobility activities at a glance • Effects of the mass market introduction on the grid G4V Project Deliverable: • System Services Deliverable: EU-Level (7th FRP) • Bi-directionality System solution System solution • EU-scope Roll-Out/ Roll-Out/ Bi-directionality National Approach • Development/ Test of Key Bi-directionality components • Systemintegration and – Deliverable: Deliverable: Overall scalability of an Master system Specification Specification System • Business Modelling Control Center Control Center (List of Requ.)) Pilotproject Berlin (List of Requ.)) (Demonstration) • Pilotproject: Demomstration of Master system (Feasibilty/ EV´s Deliverable: Lessons Learnt) Deliverable: Battery • Analyses of customer First medium First medium acceptance scale realization scale realization • Derivation of further development needs/ Private Public charging Optimization loop charging E-DeMa - Entwicklung und Demonstration dezentral vernetzter Energiesysteme hin zum E-Energy Standardization efforts Marktplatz der Zukunft Page 7
  • 8. EV implication on Electricity Grids > A mass market of EVs requires: Car manufacturer Energy suppliers – Innovative interactions between Customer- Interface Billing customer and several stakeholders Charging point Car Charging- at home control – A common hardware solution for maximum customer convenience (socket – connector- charging point) Balancing & Billing Car Information Identification Public Management charging poles – Innovative communication and data handling based on standardized metering protocols State of Energy Energy Battery Generation charge manage- & Supply ment Page 8
  • 9. The G4V project aims in respect of the current call are… > enabling the mass roll out of electric vehicles > seize the opportunities of the different stakeholder > minimize the risks for the electricity grids > ensure customer convienience Page 9
  • 10. A sufficient recharge grid is a main driver for market penetration of EVs/PHEVs POTENTIAL LOCATIONS FOR RECHARGING STATIONS At home Public parking At work Curb side Type of location > Own garage or > Customer > Employee > Curb side parking space parking parking > Public Ownership > Private > Private > Private (City/ real estate municipality) > Existing > New > Exisiting > Existing Power connection of development / connection of connection of supply facility owner / connection owner facility owner employer with the grid Page 10
  • 11. Different scenarios have been developed to simulate effects on grid SCENARIOS FOR SIMULATION OF GRID IMPACT Market stage Innovators Early adapters Mainstream market > 100.000 EVs > 1.000.000 EVs/PHEVs > 10,000,000 EVs > 8.000 km/a > 15,000 km/a > 12,000 km/a > 0,1 kWh/km > 0.15 kWh/km > 0.25 kWh/km Market data > ~ 4 kWh/d > ~ 7.5 kWh/d > ~ 10 kWh/d > 400 MWh/d > 7,500 MWh/d > 100 GWh/d > 4.6kW one phase > 14kW 3 phase > 44 kW 3 phase Power > 230V 20A > 0.4kV 20A > 0.4kV 63A connection > not exposed (V2G-applications) Neglectable impact on Small impact on grid Significant impact on Effects grid and generation and generation grid and generation Page 11
  • 12. Limited effect on urban grid with reasonable connection power SIMULATION OF GRID IMPACT FOR URBAN GRID Urban grid 14,91% 11,40% 16,00% 9,65% 8,77% 14,00% Overloaded equipment 12,00% 10,00% 5,26% 8,00% 0,00% 0,00% 60  … 6,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,88% 14  … 4,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 4.… 2,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 3,… 0,00% Connection power 2,50% 10,00% 25,00% 2,50% 10,00% 25,00% 19 Uhr 3 Uhr Market penetration Source: Grid study Fraunhofer / RWTH Aachen Page 12
  • 13. E-Mobility Target is the development and demonstration of the „Master System“ which can handle the moving mobile customers Targets of the RWE E-Mobility projects Intelli- Safe Controlled Added Vehicle Control Master gent Re- Data Electricty Value Interface Center system charger network Grid Services > Interface > intelli- > Test of > Usage > Centrali > Creation > Creation R&D Vehcile gente Data- of E- zed of the of a list – Recharg network Mobility Intellige baseme of Recharg ing pole for function nce for nt for require- eing Commu ality of E- V2G ments pole nication Smart Mobility and for a Grid G4V Master system Technical Test in Mülheim a.d.R. Pilot and Demonstration in Berlin > Technical Test of technical/physical > Funcionality test of the Master System in Developments in Mülheim with a small Berlin Technical circle of customers with EVs (3-5 EV) > Large scale demonstration with broad Test and numbers of E-Vehicles and Customer Demon- > Development of customer solutions via stration the real test bed Page 13
  • 14. Huge existing demand on technical development in Infrastructure for EV is adressed in the E-Mobility projects Vehicle Safe Data-/ Added Interface / Control Master Battery EV / PHEVs Electricity value Recharging Center System Network services Pole Vertraulich Fahrzeug Ladestation Control Center ("Konsument") ("Vermittler & Schalter") ("Intelligenz") Ladeanfrage Nutzer Vermittlung Datenbank ID Anfrage ID Anfrage Freigabe Zähler startet Freigabe Vermittlung Strom fließt Freigabe Ticket, Ticket oder oder Absage nach Absage , max. 5 sec. Absage Fehler Signal Gesicherte Powerline Internet Verbindung Verbindung über Stecker (IP VPN) RWE AG 28.08.2008 SEITE 7 > Li-Ion- > Problems in > Massmarket > Derzeit > Centarlized > Technical > Holistic Battery with driving maturity of vernetzte Intelligenz requirements Management Energy ranges will Commu- Lade- / for a mass for of a broad density 2x be solved nicationssolu Daten- und market realization of infrastructure opposite to with Hybrid tions are not Strominfra- introduction V2G / G4V- for E-Mobiliy NiMH concepts available struktur nicht nescessary r concepts isn´t exist in > Useful (ICE/Range > No intelligent verfügbar > Great R&D- isn´t there in the moment Range Extender) Recharging > Hoher F&E efforts are the moment > Great R&D capacity concept Aufwand für needed efforts are > Massmarket existing Entwicklung needed capability in Smart Grid 2010 für E- possible Mobilität notwendig Focus of existing Technology focus of RWE E-Mobility project Initatives Page 14
  • 15. In the large scale Project E-Mobility Berlin the Master system will be developed and the Maturity of the technical solutions for a massenmarket prepared Stage I (2009) Stage II (2010/2011) Technical Trial Mülheim a.d.Ruhr and Demon- Development Master System Demonstration in Berlin stration > Development of an integrated > Functionality Test of the scalability of the Control > Large- Master System – Key components: Center – handling of greater numbers E-Vehicles and scale – Elektric Vehicle, incl. Battery- Customers Demon- technology > Customer solutions in a real Environment stration in Gemany – Recharging Infrastructure, incl. – Examination of Customer behaviour & to Nessescary Communication acceptance accelerate technology – Sufficient numbers and „supply“ area to define the the mass – Electricity Supply, incl. optimal Recharging Infrasstructure market Generation mix and Integration of – Waht are the attractive Locations for Recharging introducti Vehicle-to-grid functionalities poles on > Clear Orientation on Customer > In Summ > 100 E-Fahrzeuge of the brand smart / > Projects Solutions Mercedes-Benz and in the first instance ca. 500 with further Recharging points provided by RWE Partners – Mobility offers > In a pre phase all technical trials in Mülheim – Integration of local B2B partner Page 15
  • 16. Beside the technical developments some other obstacles has to be solved – dedicated parking space: Detailing of the Location View > In front of shops (Douglas) und Cinema „Paris“ > First two parking lots side by side on the mid street area > West of Uhlandstraße Kriterien für Standortwahl > Passer-by frequency: niedrig hoch > Attractiveness of Shops: niedrig hoch > Estm. parking time [min]: <30  30-60 >60 > Further Advantages: High visbility from both Street sides Section of City map Parking informations Managing time: 09:00 – 22:00 (Zone 7) Free of charge: 22:00 – 09:00 Page 16
  • 17. Standardisation is needed to enable the EV user to re- charge at any charging station without different connectors Hardware Communication Cable/ connection Communication protocols 1 > On the basis of the load needed 3 2 Mechanical protection 1 TCP/IP (e.g. Powerline) 2 Communication via TCP/IP in the grid (e.g. DSL via concentrator) or wireless communication TCP/IP (e.g.. GSM) 3 Optional: wireless communication TCP/IP (e.g. GSM) Page 17
  • 18. Standardization benefits customers, utilities and OEMs Benefits from standardization For customers For Utilities/OEMs > High convenience > Cost benefits – One single solution worldwide – No sunk costs for proprietary interim – No adapters or different cables needed solutions > Faster electric vehicle run-up/market – Shared development and success standardization costs > No retrofit costs for adopting to new – Economies of scale charging systems Page 18
  • 19. An OEM/Utility standardization initiative was started end of 2008 to accelerate and improve standards definition Page 19
  • 20. OEM/Utility standardization initiative will ensure a common technical approach REASONS FOR IMPLEMENTING THE OEM/UTILITY STANDARDIZATION INITIATIVE OEM/Utility standardization initiative Benefits of OEM/Utility standardization process initiative > One single position to speed up the standardization process > One common standard already for the first generation infrastructure/ OEM/Utility Standardization Initiative vehicles 25:11 29:01 > Clear development roadmap 20:02 11:03 Page 20
  • 21. Let us work together to construct the pathway which makes the mass market introduction of E-Mobility possible !!! Page 21
  • 22. More time to talk ? More questions ? > Backup Page 22
  • 23. Electric mobility enables efficient integration of RES Network integration is decisive for business model: “Vehicle to Grid” (V2G) requires “Grid for Vehicle” (G4V) Use of “plug-in” capable vehicles as distributed mass storage systems for providing system services + Error tolerant + Regionally controllable + Cost effective due to double use + Additional energy sales Bottlenecks: - Battery storage (techn.) - Grid connection (economic) - Poss. greater loads in the low voltage Just 660,000 vehicles would be able to provide sector in the low tension grid more balancing power (for approx. 1h) than all of the German pumped-storage hydroelectricity plants combined. Source: Fraunhofer ISI, Fraunhofer ICT, RWTH Aachen Page 23 23
  • 24. Electric mobility enables efficient integration of RES - a high potential to absorb electricity surplus 45.000 40.000 BEV: ~14 mio. vehicles FCV: ~6 mio. vehicles 35.000 30.000 Output in MW Electricity surplus: 28 TWh 25.000 40GW 48 GW 30GW 38 GW 20.000 28 GW 20 GW BEV: ~4,5 mio. vehicles FCV: ~2 mio. vehicles 15.000 10.000 48 GW 5.000 Electricity surplus: 9 TWh 38 GW 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0 0 50 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Hours per year Source: Fraunhofer ISI, Fraunhofer ICT, RWTH Aachen Page 24 24
  • 25. Suburban grid with fewer capacity reserve than urban grid SIMULATION OF GRID IMPACT FOR SUBURBAN GRID Suburban grid 61,16% 61,16% 70,00% 42,98% 39,67% Overloaded equipment 60,00% 50,00% 28,93% 40,00% 13,22% 0,00% 19,83% 30,00% 0,00% 9,92% 0,00% 0,00% 14 kW 20,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 6,61% 10,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 3,7 kW 0,00% Connection power 2,50% 10,00% 25% 2,50% 10,00% 25% 19 Uhr 3 Uhr Market penetration Source: Grid study Fraunhofer / RWTH Aachen Page 25
  • 26. E-Mobility was the initiator of the de facto- standardization efforts in Europe Essential contribution for the Innovation position Germany Innovative Informations- and Innovative Innovations in Positioning of the Communication technologies Systemintegration electricty network for E-Mobility > Entwicklung innovativer > Innovationen in der System- > Entwicklung Grundlagen für Informations- und integration von Elektrofahrzeug, Aufrüstung Stromnetz mit Kommunikationslösungen im Ladeinfrastruktur, Stromnetz- und intelligenten Funktionen Bereich E-Mobilität zentrale Intelligenz (Control (Beispiel: Integration Multi-Utility- > Entwicklung neuer und / oder Center) in Deutschland Communication (MUC)) Adaption bestehender > Erstmalige großflächige > Grundlagenentwicklung von Protokolle / Standards für Demonstration in Deutschland V2G- und G4V-Anwendungen Datenaustausch durch Gesamtsystemlösung > Schaffung Quasi-Standard für (damit Erhöhung Potenzial Schnittstelle Ladestation Erneuerbare Energie) Page 26
  • 27. Coding of charge cable power limit Vehicle Cable Charge Spot 16A 16A R3 R3 32A 32A R2 R2 63A 63A 63A R1 R1 Page 27
  • 28. Use of three phase power Power vs. copper cross section for single phase, two phase (phase-to-phase) and three phase 50 Three phase 400V (4 wire) 45 Three phase 400V (5 wire) 40 Maximum power [kW] Phase-to-phase 400V (3 35 wire) 30 Single phase 230V (3 wire) 25 20 DIN VDE 0298 Teil 4:2003 Empfohlene Werte für die 15 Strombelastbarkeit 10 von Kabel und Leitungen für feste Verlegung in 5 Gebäuden 0 d fl ibl L it 0 20 40 60 80 Total copper cross section [mm²] Page 28