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Management of UK Heritage


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Presentation to a delegation of Chinese culural ambassadors, looking at the general administration of UK heritage, including buildings, sites, movable heritage, monuments, national parks and …

Presentation to a delegation of Chinese culural ambassadors, looking at the general administration of UK heritage, including buildings, sites, movable heritage, monuments, national parks and coastline.

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  • 1. The Management System of the UK’s Cultural Objects and the UN Heritage Reserves and
    The Management System and Modes of National Parks
    Nick Poole, Chief Executive, Collections Trust
  • 2. Thank you!
  • 3. AGENDA
    Lecture 1: UK Cultural Sector, structure & governance
    Lecture 2: Survey & Registration System of Heritage
    Lecture 3: Protection technologies
    Lecture 4: Finance for Heritage Protection
    Questions and answers
  • 4. Introduction
    Chief Executive of the Collections Trust
    Formerly a Government adviser on Heritage Policy
    UK representative on Culture in the European Union
    Councillor of the Museums Association
    Covering issues including Cultural Property, technology and the law
  • 5. The Collections Trust
    Independent UK charity
    Campaigning for the public right to access and engage with Collections.
    Promoting best practice
    Encouraging innovation
    Representing the sector
  • 6. The Collections Trust
    Funded by the UK Government, the European Commission and through trading activity
    Publishing standards, advice and guidance through:
    Advice and guidance on issues of Cultural Property:
  • 7. The Collections Trust
    Publishing professional standards jointly with the British Standards Institute
    Building professional networks and communities
    Working with broadcasters (such as the BBC) to digitise cultural content and share it with a mass audience
  • 8. The UK ‘Home Nations’
    Northern Ireland
  • 9. The UK ‘Administrative Regions’
    9 Regions, each with a Government office
    East Midlands
    East of England
    North East
    North West
    West Midlands
    South East
    South West
  • 10. The UK Culture Sector: Definition
    Museums enable people to explore collections for inspiration, learning and enjoyment.
    They are institutions that collect, safeguard and make accessible artefacts and specimens, which they hold in trust for society.
    This definition includes art galleries with collections of works of art, as well as museums with historical collections of objects.
    - UK Museums Association
  • 11. The UK Culture Sector: Basic Facts
    2,500 museums in the UK
    1,880 Accredited under the Museum Accreditation Scheme
    4 out of the top 5 tourist attractions are museums
    Employing approx. 40,000 paid & volunteer staff
    40.3m visits during 2008/09
    Net contribution to tourist economy = £1.1bn per annum
  • 12. The UK Culture Sector: Top 10 attractions
    Tate Modern 4,915,376
    British Museum 4,837,878
    National Gallery 4,562,471
    Natural History Museum 3,754,496
    Science Museum 2,440,253
    Victoria & Albert Museum 2,372,919
    National Portrait Gallery 1,601,448
    Tate Britain 1,597,359
    National Railway Museum 902,149
    The Lowry 850,000
  • 13. The UK Culture Sector: Visitors
    Adults 78%
    Children 22%
    Overseas 38%
  • 14. Government Responsibility for Culture
    Gordon Brown, Prime Minister
    Cabinet Ministers
    Ben Bradshaw
    Secretary of State for Culture
    Sion SimonCreative Industries Minister
    Barbara Follett
    Tourism and Culture Minister
    Gerry Sutcliffe
    Sports Minister
  • 15. Government Agencies for Culture
    Department for Culture, Media and Sport
    Government Agencies
    Museums, Libraries, Archives Council
    English Heritage
    Heritage Lottery Fund
  • 16. Museums, Libraries & Archives Council
    Sponsored by DCMS
    Lead strategic agency for the sector
    Putting people first
    Working for excellence
    Learning at the core
    Delivering change
    Promoting partnership
  • 17. The UK Culture Sector
  • 18. The UK Culture Sector: Structure
    Main museum types/groups:
    National Museums
    Local Authority Museums
    Independent Museums
    University Museums
    Regimental Museums
  • 19. The UK Culture Sector: Structure
    Central Government
    Department for Culture, Media & Sport
    Ministry of Defence
    National Museums
    Military/Regimental Museums
  • 20. The UK Culture Sector: Structure
    Central Government
    Higher Education Funding Council
    Local Government
    Local Authority Museums
    University Museums
  • 21. Fact File: National Museums
    Established under charter from the Crown
    Funded directly by the Department for Culture
    21 museums, incl. Tate, British Museum, V&A
    13 ‘National’ and 8 ‘sponsored’
    Incl. National museums & galleries of Scotland and Wales
    Academic analogue status (ie. the same as Universities)
    Receive £320m each year
  • 22. UK Culture Sector: Size (by type)
  • 23. UK Culture Sector: Workforce
    40,000 professional & volunteer staff
    More than 50% unpaid volunteer
    Mostly post-graduate qualified
  • 24. UK Culture Sector: Workforce by type
  • 25. UK Culture Sector: Funding
    Funding sources:
    Central Government
    Local Government
    Trading income
    Exhibition income
    Net expenditure = £3.34 per capita of population
  • 26. UK Culture Sector: Free Admission for Museums
    Universal free access since 2001
    124% increase in visitors
    9 million extra visits each year
    National Maritime Museum up by 154%
    Natural History Museum up by 127%
    National Museums Liverpool up by 239%
  • 27. UK Culture Sector: Governance
    Governance varies by type
    Most common type is a ‘Charitable Trust’
    Venue operates as an independent entity
    Governed by a ‘Board of Directors’
    Charitable status confers preferential tax arrangements
  • 28. UK Culture Sector: Standards
    A strong commitment to UK & international professional standards
    The Museum Accreditation Scheme accounts for 75% of the sector
    Requires minimum standards from all museums
    Tied to Government and other funding sources
  • 29. Standards: Museum Accreditation Scheme
    Based on an annual self-assessment
    Reviewed by a panel of experts
    4 priorities:
    Governance & management
    User services
    Visitor facilities
    Collections Management
  • 30. Standards: SPECTRUM
    Published in 1994
    UK and International standard for Knowledge & Information Management in museums
    Translated into 4 languages and adopted throughout Europe
    12 of the 14 major Collections Management Systems
    Free for non-commercial use
  • 31. Standards: Benchmarks for Collections Care
    Developed by the Museums, Libraries & Archives Council and Collections Trust
    Defines ‘good’, ‘better’ and ‘best’ practice for museums
    An interactive tool used to support planning
    Enables funders to assess the quality of Collections Care
  • 32. Standards in the Care of Collections
    Larger & Working Objects
    Musical Instruments
    Touring Exhibitions
    Costume & Textiles
  • 33. Standards: CT/BSI PAS 197
    Developed jointly by the Collections Trust and British Standards Institute
    A new national standard for professional Collections Management
    Shared between museums, archives and libraries
  • 34.
  • 35. Standards
    Supporting the sector:
    Funders: MLA, DCMS, HLF, Charitable Trusts and Foundations
    Agencies: Collections Trust, Museums Association, Special Interest Groups
    Agents: Development Officers, Consultants, Expert Advisers, Curatorial Advisers
    Professionals: Managers, staff, Boards
    Volunteers: Students, retired people, others
  • 36. End of Lecture 1
  • 37. Break
  • 38. Lecture 2
    Survey and Registration System of Cultural Heritage
  • 39. Primary Agencies
    Department for Culture, Media and Sport
    Museums, Libraries & Archives Council
    English Heritage
    National Trust
    Collections Trust
    Individual heritage organisations and sites
    Funding organisations
  • 40. Overall aim
    Strategic, targeted investment of resources and policy to deliver:
    Public Sector Efficiency
    Public Value
    Based on up-to-date research (evidence-based policy)
  • 41. Priorities for Heritage Protection Policy
    Reviewing science behind Environmental standards
    Promoting more cost-effective practice
    Updating attitudes to risk
    Using technology for outreach
    Changing attitudes towards acquisition
  • 42. Surveying Heritage
    5 primary mechanisms:
    Museum Accreditation Scheme
    Collections Surveys/Collection Level Description
    National Monuments Record
    Culture Grid database of cultural sites
    Individual organisation surveys and inspections
  • 43. Heritage/Environment Agencies
    Department for Culture, Media and Sport
    National Trust
    English Heritage
  • 44. English Heritage
    Government’s adviser on the built environment
    Advising on the preservation of the Historic Environment
    Promoting public engagement
    Promoting education and research
  • 45. English Heritage: Registration
    Maintaining registers of the UK’s historic buildings, monuments and landscapes:
    National Monuments Record
    Blue Plaques
    Maritime Archaeology
    Landscape Protection
    Aerial Survey
    Scientific Research
  • 46. English Heritage: National Monuments Record
    Based at the National Monuments Record Centre in Swindon
    10 million archive items including plans, maps and aerial photographs
    Searchable database of all English Heritage sitesand landscapes
  • 47. English Heritage: Blue Plaques
    Scheme to mark the buildings inhabited by famous historical figures
    Based in London
    Running for over 140 years
    Nominated by members of the public
  • 48. English Heritage: Maritime Archaeology
    Responsibility established in the 2002 Heritage Act
    Responsible for:
    Coastal planning
    Protection of Wrecks and Wreck sites
    Undersea archaeology
  • 49. English Heritage: Landscape Protection
    Visual assessment of the landscape
    Aerial Survey
    Metric Survey
    Time Team
    National Parks
    Ordnance Survey (maps)
  • 50. English Heritage: Aerial Survey
    Photography from the sky & visual assessment
    National Mapping Programme
    Aerial Photographs
    Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) technology
    Satellite images
  • 51. English Heritage: Metric Survey
    Support to English Heritage on metric surveying (using visual instruments):
    Theodoloite – equipment for surveying
    Photogrammetry – using photographs
    3D computer-aided modelling
  • 52.
  • 53. English Heritage: Time Team
    Joint programme between Channel 4 & English Heritage
    Weekly investigation of archaeological sites
    Presented by Tony Robinson
  • 54. Listing
    6 main lists:
    Schedule of Monuments
    Register of Parks and Gardens
    Register of Historic Battlefields
    World Heritage sites
    Conservation Areas
    Listed Buildings
  • 55. Listing: Schedule of Monuments
    Registration of more than 31,000 sites :
    Archaeological sites
    Listed monuments are protected under law
    Must be of national importance
  • 56. Wansdyke, Wiltshire
    Thought to be created through military excavation.
  • 57. Norman church, Knowlton, Devon
    Church built in top of prehistoric burial site
  • 58. Jewish Cemetary, Ponsharden, Cornwall
  • 59. Listing: Register of Parks & Gardens
    Registration of 1,450 parks & gardens
  • 60. Listing: Register of Historic Battlefields
    Lists 43 historically significant battlefields
    Listed on the UK Battlefield Resource Centre
    Battlefields as sites of potential archaeological interest
  • 61. Listing: World Heritage Sites
    Based on the 1972 UNESCO World Heritage Convention
    878 World Heritage Sites
    27 in the UK...
  • 62. Stonehenge
  • 63. Kew Gardens
  • 64. Tower of London
  • 65. Listing: Conservation Areas
    Conservation Areas are protected by their Local Government Authority
    First created in 1967, there are now 8000 in the UK
    In a Conservation Area, the council has control over:
    Building works
  • 66. Listing: Listed Buildings
    Listing recognises and celebrates the particular historical significance of a building
    372,905 in the UK
  • 67. Listing: Listed Buildings
    Owners must obtain special consent to do building work
    A listed building is not protected in all cases, but the Local Government may choose to protect it
    Chosen on the basis of architectural, social or historical significance.
  • 68. Key Heritage Law
    National Heritage Act (2002)
    Protection of Wrecks Act (1973)
  • 69. End of Lecture 2
  • 70. Lunch
  • 71. Lecture 3
    Maritime Heritage Protection
  • 72. Overview
    Department for Culture holds national responsibility
    English Heritage is responsible for surveying and recommending action
    Action is taken by Local Governments
    Using private contractors
  • 73. Protection of Wrecks Act 1978
    An offence to:
    Interfere with wrecks
    Remove anything
    Carry out salvage operations
    Drop anchor or any other material
    Any disturbance (such as excavation) must be licensed
    Currently protects 60 wreck sites
  • 74. Advisory Committee for Historic Wrecks
    Meets 3 times annually
    Approves licenses for exploration and work
    Funded by English Heritage:
  • 75. End of Lecture 3
  • 76. Lecture 4
    Protection Technology of Stone Heritage and Ancient Architecture
  • 77. Key agents in building conservation
    Department for Culture, Media and Sport
    National Trust
    English Heritage
    Historic Royal Palaces
  • 78. Overview
    DCMS and English Heritage set national strategy for building preservation
    Responsibility for implementation, monitoring and management is with the individual site or venue
    Techniques and technologies are selected according to the needs of the site or venue
  • 79. National Heritage Science Programme
    A programme to fund innovative research into materials and techniques for conservation and preservation
    Funded by the academic sector
    £8.1m grant programme to develop research
  • 80. National Heritage Science Programme
    Fragmentation in research efforts
    Limited communication between heritage community and academic/scientific research
    Working towards joint priorities and funding programmes
  • 81. English Heritage Conservation Policy
    Sets out the following principles:
    The environment is a shared resource
    Everyone should participate in it
    Understanding the significance of places
    Places should be managed
    Decisions about heritage should be transparent
    Decisions must be documented and learnt from
  • 82. National Trust
    Independent charitable organisation
    Working to preserve the UK’s buildings, countryside and coastline
    Educating the UK population about the importance of the environment
    3.56m UK members
  • 83. Current Priorities in Building Conservation
    Preventive conservation
    Pollutants and environmental damage
    Techniques and processes
    Risk Management
    Flood Damage
    Fire Protection
    Dating Technologies
  • 84. Preventive Conservation
    Taking action to prevent deterioration/decay of buildings and collections
    Active monitoring and environmental control
    Passive conservation through good management and housekeeping
  • 85. Pollutants & Environmental Damage
    Research programmes looking at:
    Wet deposition rates & factors such as surface geometry
    Dry deposition rates & impact of local factors (eg. wind)
    Effect of local variations in climate
    Materials such as glass & long-term impact
  • 86. Pollutants & Environmental Damage
    Looking at the impact of pollutants such as:
    Carbon dioxide
    Sulphur dioxide
    Nitrogen oxides
    Particulates (smoke, fumes)
    On different materials & building
  • 87. Water Damage
    Combination of technologies:
    Flood detectors
    Relative Humidity Monitoring
    ‘RH papers’, strips of paper that react to moisture
    Hygrometers for measuring moisture over time
    Laser surveys
    Boreholes at archaeological sites
  • 88. Fire Damage
    Combination of causes:
    Electrical fault
    Heating equipment
    Hot works
  • 89. Fire Damage
    Management systems:
    Fire detection systems
    Fire supression systems
    Water mist
    Controlled oxygen environments
  • 90. Case Study: IMPACT
    Centre for Sustainable Heritage, UCL
    Software to assess the levels of reactive pollutants such as nitrogen oxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide inside heritage buildings.
    Enables heritage managers to test scenarios by varying levels of pollutants for different building compositions
  • 91.
  • 92. Heritage Materials Conservation
    Research programmes include:
    Plastics conservation
    Paper conservation
    Archaeological materials
  • 93. Risk Management
    Disaster Planning and Emergency Preparedness
    Understanding the connection between risks to the building and risks to the object
    Modelling changes in the building envelope and predictive studies
  • 94. Protection Technologies
    Temperature monitors
    Building Management Systems
    Relative Humidity monitors
  • 95. Case Study:
    Dover Castle Great Tower Project
    12th Century Great Tower at Dover Castle
    Understanding the needs of the building
    Assessing the expectations of the public
    Deciding on techniques for conservation/preservation
  • 96. Case Study:
    Dover Castle Great Tower Project
    Preserving the integrity of the building
    Re-presenting it as though prepared for a 12th century event or celebration
    Cosmetic alterations to the building interior without significant structuralwork
  • 97. Case Study:
    Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford upon Avon
    An building in the ‘art deco’ style from 1932
    Extensive programme of modernisation
  • 98.
  • 99.
  • 100. Other risks
    Climate change causing flood damage
  • 101. Other risks
    Increases in pest infestations resulting from climate change
  • 102. Other risks
    Closure and repurposing of heritage buildings
  • 103. Primary risks to heritage
    Damage from soluble salts in walls
    Weather damage to stonework
    Freezing/unfreezing of building material
    Flood damage
    Biological attack of interior timbers & roofs
    Corrosion of metal
    Corrosion of steel or iron supports in statues & concrete
  • 104. End of Lecture 3
  • 105. Break
  • 106. Lecture 4
    Funding Heritage Protection
  • 107. Funders of Heritage Protection
    Department for Culture, Media and Sport
    Department for Business, Innovation & Skills
    National Trust
    English Heritage
    Heritage Lottery Fund
    Research Councils
  • 108. Heritage Lottery Fund
    Set up by the UK Government to fund heritage
    £4.3bn invested since 1994
    Over 18,800 projects
  • 109. Heritage Lottery Fund
    Help conserve heritage
    Help people make decisions about their heritage
    Help people learn about their heritage
    Average grants £50,000 - £100,000
  • 110. Heritage Lottery Fund
    People's memories and experiences
    Histories of people, communities, places and events
    Cultural traditions
    Historic buildings and townscapes
    Archaeological sites
    Collections of items, archives or other materials
    Natural and designed landscapes
    Habitats and species
    Sites and collections
  • 111. Case Study: Clissold Park
    19th Century public park in London
    Awarded £4.46m
    Restoration of the park ground
    Provision of new visitor facilities
    Improved interpretation of the site
    Improvements to the river
  • 112. Case Study: Astley Castle
    12th Century Castle, devastated by fire in 1978
    Grant of £2.3m
    Clearance of rubble and debris
    Salvage of usable material/stone
    Strengthening of remaining features
    Building new elements
  • 113.
  • 114. Funding Requirements
    All funding recipients are required to meet certain obligations
    All have to provide a Building Management Plan and a Conservation Management Plan, detailing how the building, site or monument will be maintained.
    Require sustainability plans
  • 115. Research Councils
    Funded by the UK Government
    Investing £2.8bn per year in scientific research
    Developing joint programmes and interdisciplinary research between different communities
  • 116. Research Councils
    Arts & Humanities
    Biotechnology & Biological Sciences
    Engineering & Physical Sciences
    Economic & Social Research
    Medical Research
    Natural Environment
    Science and Technology
    AHRC is the main funder of research into
    Conservation & conservation science
  • 117. Arts & Humanities Research Council
    Established in 2005
    Funding up to £100m per year for research
    Joint funding programme with the EPSRC
    Wide variety of funded projects, from measurement to new techniques, models and methods
  • 118. Example projects
    3D laser scanning techniques
    Historic musical instrument conservation
    Digital restoration of medieval music
    Redisplay of museum collections
    History of underwater telegraphs
    Papyrus and Egyptian materials
    Textile conservation
    Visual Arts data
  • 119. Other Funders for Heritage
    Charitable Trusts & Foundations
    Educational funds
    Corporate sponsors
    Local Government
    Private donors
    European Commission
  • 120. CalousteGulbenkian Foundation
    Funding good causes
    Cultural Understanding
    Fulfilling Potential
    Sustaining the Environment
    Sponsored the Gulbenkian Prize
    (now the Art Fund Prize)
  • 121. Pilgrim Trust
    Funding conservation and preservation of heritage
    New use to historic buildings
    Preserving buildings of outstanding merit
    Preserving religious buildings
    Recording information
  • 122. Other Heritage Funders
    Allchurches Trust
    Architectural Heritage Fund
    Jill Franklin Trust
    Historic Churches Preservation Trust
    Manifold Trust
  • 123. Total Funding to Heritage
    Impossible to estimate
    In excess of £1bn from public sources (Government)
    More from private sources (private benefactors)
    More from income earned through retail and other services
    An estimated £3.5bn in conservation funding each year
  • 124. Future Priorities
    Joint programmes
    Developing joined-up approaches to funding
    Cost-savings and more efficient practice
  • 125. Lords Science & Heritage Inquiry
    Held during 2005-06
    The largest inquiry into the current state of conservation science
    Found a very fragmented picture, with little coordination
    Requested the DCMS to develop a National Heritage Science Strategy
  • 126.
  • 127. National Heritage Science Strategy
    The role of science in managing heritage
    Use of science in understanding the past
    Skills requirement
    Equipment and resources
  • 128. National Heritage Science Strategy
    Revisiting the science behind environmental standards
    Acceptable limits for humidity and pollutants
    Understanding the impact of visitors & use
    New methods of cleaning
  • 129. National Heritage Science Strategy
    Better understanding of:
    Impact of multi-pollutant urban environments
    Impact of inappropriate materials for repair
    Interaction of moisture, salt and biological agents
    Impact of vibration damage
    Impact of fire-resistant treatment
  • 130. End of Lecture 4
  • 131. Lecture 5
    Historic Houses
  • 132. Funders of Heritage Protection
    Department for Culture, Media and Sport
    National Trust
    English Heritage
    Historic Houses Association
  • 133. Privately-owned Heritage in the UK
    More of the UK’s Heritage is in private ownership than in the ownership of English Heritage, National Trust and the Government.
    There are more than 1,500 privately owned historic houses, castles and gardens around the UK
    Many are operated as commercial attractions, 4 out of 5 operate at a loss
  • 134. Privately-owned Heritage in the UK
    The majority are Grade II* or Grade I
    They are not governed by law
    They do have to meet defined standards in order to receive funding, for example from the Heritage Lottery Fund
    Many are running light industrial activity, business activity, farming and many other forms of use
  • 135. Privately-owned Heritage in the UK
    Historic Houses Association is an independent membership organisation
    Works closely with English Heritage and the National Trust
    Funds the Heritage Conservation Programe
    Some works are covered under a Government Indemnity Scheme
  • 136. Historic House
  • 137. Witley Court
  • 138. Lecture 6
    National Parks
  • 139. Funders of National Parks
    Department for Environment, Food, Rural Affairs
    National Trust
    English Heritage
    National Parks
    Natural England
  • 140. National Parks in the UK
    14 National Parks
    Each represented by a National Park Authority
    Employ 12,000 people
    Generate £177m per year
    Support their local economies through tourism
  • 141. National Parks website
  • 142. English National Parks
    England - Dartmoor, Exmoor, Lake District, New Forest, Northumberland, North York Moors, Peak District, the Yorkshire Dales and the Broads which has equivalent status to a National Park. The South Downs will become a National Park but has not yet officially been designated.
    Wales - Brecon Beacons, Pembrokeshire Coast and Snowdonia
    Scotland - Cairngorms and Loch Lomond and the Trossachs.
  • 143.
  • 144. National Park Authorities
    Independent public bodies that:
    Conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage; and
    Promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of National Parks by the public.
  • 145. History of National Parks
    In 1945, before any National Parks had been created in the UK, John Dower wrote a report to the government, describing what National Parks should do. He said that for 'the Nation's benefit' the government should make sure;
    the characteristic landscape beauty is strictly preserved;
    access and facilities for open-air enjoyment are amply provided;
    wildlife and buildings and places of architectural and historic interest are suitably protected;
    established farming use is effectively maintained.
  • 146. International Union for the Conservation ofNature
    In 1969, the IUCN created the international definition of a National Park
    Definition extended in 1971:
    Minimum size of 1000 hectares
    Statutory legal protection
    Staff and a budget
  • 147. Designation of National Parks
    1951 - Peak District, Lake District, Snowdonia and Dartmoor
    1952 - Pembrokeshire Coast and North York Moors
    1954 - Yorkshire Dales and Exmoor
    1956 - Northumberland
    1957 - Brecon Beacons
    1989 - The Broads given equivalent status to a National Park
    2002 - Loch Lomond & The Trossachs
    2003 - Cairngorms
    2005 - New Forest
  • 148. Brecon Beacons
  • 149. Brecon Beacons
  • 150. Brecon Beacons
  • 151. Loch Lomond
  • 152. Loch Lomond
  • 153. Norfolk Broads
  • 154. History of National Parks
    In 1945, before any National Parks had been created in the UK, John Dower wrote a report to the government, describing what National Parks should do. He said that for 'the Nation's benefit' the government should make sure;
    the characteristic landscape beauty is strictly preserved;
    access and facilities for open-air enjoyment are amply provided;
    wildlife and buildings and places of architectural and historic interest are suitably protected;
    established farming use is effectively maintained.
  • 155. Ownership of National Parks
    The majority are private land, owned by:
    Private landowners
    Forestry Commission
    National Trust
    But usage of this land is very closely controlled
  • 156. Types of National Park Land
    Many different types of terrain
  • 157. ‘Living In’
    Active use and management of National Park land is encouraged. Including:
    Grazing animals
    Harvesting wood
    Digging for peat
    Growing hay
    Other types of farming
  • 158. Preservation Challenges
    Research into the preservation management of:
    Wetland, lakes and rivers
    Woodlands and forests
  • 159. Preservation Challenges: Moorland
    Man-made environments
    Controlled by:
    Animal husbandry
    Controlled burning
  • 160. Moorland
  • 161. Preservation Challenges: Wetland
    Working to preserve freshwater habitats
    Controlling fish stock
    Encouraging salmon farming
    Dredging lakes
    Controlling plant life
    Fencing off cattle & sheep
    Supporting bird life
  • 162. Preservation Challenges: Forests
    Controlling the growth of forests
    Encouraging sustainable use
    Coppicing (a form of controlled cutting)
  • 163. Case Study: Lake District
    Designated in 1951
    Widespread grazing and use have eroded scrub (tree cover) in higher areas
    Limited shelter driving soil erosion
    Programme to plant 3 new ‘upland’ forests
  • 164. Case Study: Lake District
    Analysis of topography
    Analysis of soil types across the park
    Placement of different trees to suit different environments
    Eg. Birch on steep slopes, ash in wetlands and oak in grassy
    Replanting programme
  • 165. Lake District
  • 166. Lake District
  • 167. Case Study: Hay Time Project
    Working with farmers to restore grassland/meadow
    In response to a change in farming practice (ploughing, re-seeding), which is having a dramatic effect on hay meadows
    Impact on biodiversity and species propagation
  • 168.
  • 169. Usage of National Parks
    Defined by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949
    Planning and use
  • 170. Preservation Challenges: Grassland
    Working to preserve freshwater habitats
    Controlling fish stock
    Encouraging salmon farming
    Dredging lakes
    Controlling plant life
    Fencing off cattle & sheep
    Supporting bird life
  • 171. Fact File: Forestry Commission
    Government Department responsible for forests and woodlands
    Climate change
  • 172. Fact File: Natural England
    Helps interpret the natural environment for:
  • 173. Other types
    Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
    Sites of Specific Scientific Interest
    National Nature Reserves
  • 174. Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
    Established at the same time as National parks (1949)
    Designated areas of the countryside
    49 in total
    Cared for by Local Governments, community and volunteer groups
  • 175. Sites of Specific Scientific Interest (SSSI)
    Locations and habitats for scientifically important wildlife, species, fauna
    No building is permitted on these sites
    Building near these sites is heavily regulated
  • 176. National Nature Reserves
    These are smaller sites that are important areas of wildlife habitat, with no buildings or roads
    There are over 210 National Nature Reserves in the UK
    They have high ecological value and are used as study areas for students and scientists.
  • 177. Role of National Nature Reserves
    Can be declared by Natural England and proposed by the public
    Covering 92,000 hectares of the UK
    Largest is the Wash (8,000)
    Managed by Natural England and other groups including the Society for Protection of Birds
  • 178. Heritage Coast
    Conserved as part of the UK’s heritage
    Covers approximately 33% of the coastline (1050 km)
  • 179. Heritage Coast
    Conserve, protect and enhance the natural beauty of the coasts, their marine flora and fauna, and their heritage features.
    Facilitate and enhance their enjoyment, understanding and appreciation by the public.
    Maintain and improve the health of inshore waters affecting Heritage Coasts and their beaches through appropriate environmental management measures.
    Take account of the needs of agriculture, forestry and fishing, and of the economic and social needs of the small communities on these coasts.
  • 180. Heritage Coasts around the UK
    1. North Northumberland
    2. Durham
    3. North Yorkshire and Cleveland
    4. Flamborough Headland
    5. Spurn
    6. North Norfolk
    7. Suffolk
    8. South Foreland
    9. Dover - Folkestone
    10. Sussex
    11. Tennyson
    12. Hamstead
    13. Purbeck
    14. West Dorset
    15. East Devon
    16. South Devon
    17. Rame Head
    18. Gribbin Head - Polperro
    19. The Roseland
    20. The Lizard
    21. Isles of Scilly
    22. Penwith
    23. Godreavy - Portreath
    24. St Agnes
    25. Trevose Head
    26. Pentire Point - Widemouth
    27. Hartland
    28. Hartland (Devon)
    29. Lundy
    30. North Devon
    31. Exmoor
    32. St Bees Head
  • 181. Challenges
    Managing the balance between preservation and use
    Managing the benefit to science/industry
    Educating the public
  • 182. Conclusions
    The UK has a very active commitment to preserving and providing public access to all forms of heritage
    Managing heritage depends on standards and good practice, which need to be underpinned by good scientific knowledge
    Managing heritage is expensive, and we need to keep making the case
  • 183. Conclusions
    National parks, museums, historic houses, churches, castles, are all part of our national identity and make a vital contribution both to cultural life and to the tourism economy.