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Management of UK Heritage
 

Management of UK Heritage

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Presentation to a delegation of Chinese culural ambassadors, looking at the general administration of UK heritage, including buildings, sites, movable heritage, monuments, national parks and ...

Presentation to a delegation of Chinese culural ambassadors, looking at the general administration of UK heritage, including buildings, sites, movable heritage, monuments, national parks and coastline.

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    Management of UK Heritage Management of UK Heritage Presentation Transcript

    • The Management System of the UK’s Cultural Objects and the UN Heritage Reserves and
      The Management System and Modes of National Parks
      Nick Poole, Chief Executive, Collections Trust
    • Thank you!
    • AGENDA
      Introductions
      Lecture 1: UK Cultural Sector, structure & governance
      Lecture 2: Survey & Registration System of Heritage
      Lecture 3: Protection technologies
      Lecture 4: Finance for Heritage Protection
      Questions and answers
    • Introduction
      Chief Executive of the Collections Trust
      Formerly a Government adviser on Heritage Policy
      UK representative on Culture in the European Union
      Councillor of the Museums Association
      Covering issues including Cultural Property, technology and the law
    • The Collections Trust
      Independent UK charity
      Campaigning for the public right to access and engage with Collections.
      Promoting best practice
      Encouraging innovation
      Representing the sector
    • The Collections Trust
      Funded by the UK Government, the European Commission and through trading activity
      Publishing standards, advice and guidance through:
      www.collectionslink.org.uk
      Advice and guidance on issues of Cultural Property:
      www.culturalpropertyadvice.gov.uk
    • The Collections Trust
      Publishing professional standards jointly with the British Standards Institute
      Building professional networks and communities
      Working with broadcasters (such as the BBC) to digitise cultural content and share it with a mass audience
    • The UK ‘Home Nations’
      England
      Wales
      Scotland
      Northern Ireland
    • The UK ‘Administrative Regions’
      9 Regions, each with a Government office
      London
      East Midlands
      East of England
      North East
      North West
      West Midlands
      Yorkshire
      South East
      South West
    • The UK Culture Sector: Definition
      Museums enable people to explore collections for inspiration, learning and enjoyment.
      They are institutions that collect, safeguard and make accessible artefacts and specimens, which they hold in trust for society.
      This definition includes art galleries with collections of works of art, as well as museums with historical collections of objects.
      - UK Museums Association
    • The UK Culture Sector: Basic Facts
      2,500 museums in the UK
      1,880 Accredited under the Museum Accreditation Scheme
      4 out of the top 5 tourist attractions are museums
      Employing approx. 40,000 paid & volunteer staff
      40.3m visits during 2008/09
      Net contribution to tourist economy = £1.1bn per annum
    • The UK Culture Sector: Top 10 attractions
      Tate Modern 4,915,376
      British Museum 4,837,878
      National Gallery 4,562,471
      Natural History Museum 3,754,496
      Science Museum 2,440,253
      Victoria & Albert Museum 2,372,919
      National Portrait Gallery 1,601,448
      Tate Britain 1,597,359
      National Railway Museum 902,149
      The Lowry 850,000
    • The UK Culture Sector: Visitors
      Adults 78%
      Children 22%
      Overseas 38%
    • Government Responsibility for Culture
      Gordon Brown, Prime Minister
      Cabinet Ministers
      Ben Bradshaw
      Secretary of State for Culture
      Sion SimonCreative Industries Minister
      Barbara Follett
      Tourism and Culture Minister
      Gerry Sutcliffe
      Sports Minister
    • Government Agencies for Culture
      Department for Culture, Media and Sport
      Government Agencies
      Museums, Libraries, Archives Council
      English Heritage
      Heritage Lottery Fund
    • Museums, Libraries & Archives Council
      Sponsored by DCMS
      Lead strategic agency for the sector
      Putting people first
      Working for excellence
      Learning at the core
      Delivering change
      Promoting partnership
    • The UK Culture Sector
      Structure
      Size
      Workforce
      Funding
      Governance
      Standards
    • The UK Culture Sector: Structure
      Main museum types/groups:
      National Museums
      Local Authority Museums
      Independent Museums
      University Museums
      Regimental Museums
    • The UK Culture Sector: Structure
      Central Government
      Department for Culture, Media & Sport
      Ministry of Defence
      National Museums
      Military/Regimental Museums
    • The UK Culture Sector: Structure
      Central Government
      Higher Education Funding Council
      Local Government
      Universities
      Local Authority Museums
      University Museums
    • Fact File: National Museums
      Established under charter from the Crown
      Funded directly by the Department for Culture
      21 museums, incl. Tate, British Museum, V&A
      13 ‘National’ and 8 ‘sponsored’
      Incl. National museums & galleries of Scotland and Wales
      Academic analogue status (ie. the same as Universities)
      Receive £320m each year
    • UK Culture Sector: Size (by type)
    • UK Culture Sector: Workforce
      40,000 professional & volunteer staff
      More than 50% unpaid volunteer
      Mostly post-graduate qualified
    • UK Culture Sector: Workforce by type
    • UK Culture Sector: Funding
      Funding sources:
      Central Government
      Local Government
      Trusts/Foundations
      Grants
      Trading income
      Exhibition income
      Net expenditure = £3.34 per capita of population
    • UK Culture Sector: Free Admission for Museums
      Universal free access since 2001
      124% increase in visitors
      9 million extra visits each year
      National Maritime Museum up by 154%
      Natural History Museum up by 127%
      National Museums Liverpool up by 239%
    • UK Culture Sector: Governance
      Governance varies by type
      Most common type is a ‘Charitable Trust’
      Venue operates as an independent entity
      Governed by a ‘Board of Directors’
      Charitable status confers preferential tax arrangements
    • UK Culture Sector: Standards
      A strong commitment to UK & international professional standards
      The Museum Accreditation Scheme accounts for 75% of the sector
      Requires minimum standards from all museums
      Tied to Government and other funding sources
    • Standards: Museum Accreditation Scheme
      Based on an annual self-assessment
      Reviewed by a panel of experts
      4 priorities:
      Governance & management
      User services
      Visitor facilities
      Collections Management
    • Standards: SPECTRUM
      Published in 1994
      UK and International standard for Knowledge & Information Management in museums
      Translated into 4 languages and adopted throughout Europe
      12 of the 14 major Collections Management Systems
      Free for non-commercial use
    • Standards: Benchmarks for Collections Care
      Developed by the Museums, Libraries & Archives Council and Collections Trust
      Defines ‘good’, ‘better’ and ‘best’ practice for museums
      An interactive tool used to support planning
      Enables funders to assess the quality of Collections Care
      Also...
    • Standards in the Care of Collections
      Geology
      Archaeology
      Biology
      Larger & Working Objects
      Musical Instruments
      Touring Exhibitions
      Costume & Textiles
      Photography
    • Standards: CT/BSI PAS 197
      Developed jointly by the Collections Trust and British Standards Institute
      A new national standard for professional Collections Management
      Shared between museums, archives and libraries
    • Standards
      Supporting the sector:
      Funders: MLA, DCMS, HLF, Charitable Trusts and Foundations
      Agencies: Collections Trust, Museums Association, Special Interest Groups
      Agents: Development Officers, Consultants, Expert Advisers, Curatorial Advisers
      Professionals: Managers, staff, Boards
      Volunteers: Students, retired people, others
    • End of Lecture 1
      Questions?
    • Break
    • Lecture 2
      Survey and Registration System of Cultural Heritage
    • Primary Agencies
      Department for Culture, Media and Sport
      Museums, Libraries & Archives Council
      English Heritage
      National Trust
      Collections Trust
      Individual heritage organisations and sites
      Funding organisations
    • Overall aim
      Strategic, targeted investment of resources and policy to deliver:
      Public Sector Efficiency
      Public Value
      Based on up-to-date research (evidence-based policy)
    • Priorities for Heritage Protection Policy
      Reviewing science behind Environmental standards
      Promoting more cost-effective practice
      Updating attitudes to risk
      Using technology for outreach
      Changing attitudes towards acquisition
    • Surveying Heritage
      5 primary mechanisms:
      Museum Accreditation Scheme
      Collections Surveys/Collection Level Description
      National Monuments Record
      Culture Grid database of cultural sites
      Individual organisation surveys and inspections
    • Heritage/Environment Agencies
      Department for Culture, Media and Sport
      Agencies
      National Trust
      English Heritage
      CABE
    • English Heritage
      Government’s adviser on the built environment
      Advising on the preservation of the Historic Environment
      Promoting public engagement
      Promoting education and research
    • English Heritage: Registration
      Maintaining registers of the UK’s historic buildings, monuments and landscapes:
      National Monuments Record
      Blue Plaques
      Maritime Archaeology
      Landscape Protection
      Aerial Survey
      Scientific Research
      Listing
    • English Heritage: National Monuments Record
      Based at the National Monuments Record Centre in Swindon
      10 million archive items including plans, maps and aerial photographs
      Searchable database of all English Heritage sitesand landscapes
    • English Heritage: Blue Plaques
      Scheme to mark the buildings inhabited by famous historical figures
      Based in London
      Running for over 140 years
      Nominated by members of the public
    • English Heritage: Maritime Archaeology
      Responsibility established in the 2002 Heritage Act
      Responsible for:
      Coastal planning
      Protection of Wrecks and Wreck sites
      Undersea archaeology
    • English Heritage: Landscape Protection
      Visual assessment of the landscape
      Aerial Survey
      Metric Survey
      Time Team
      National Parks
      Ordnance Survey (maps)
    • English Heritage: Aerial Survey
      Photography from the sky & visual assessment
      National Mapping Programme
      Aerial Photographs
      Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) technology
      Satellite images
    • English Heritage: Metric Survey
      Support to English Heritage on metric surveying (using visual instruments):
      Theodoloite – equipment for surveying
      Photogrammetry – using photographs
      3D computer-aided modelling
    • English Heritage: Time Team
      Joint programme between Channel 4 & English Heritage
      Weekly investigation of archaeological sites
      Presented by Tony Robinson
    • Listing
      6 main lists:
      Schedule of Monuments
      Register of Parks and Gardens
      Register of Historic Battlefields
      World Heritage sites
      Conservation Areas
      Listed Buildings
    • Listing: Schedule of Monuments
      Registration of more than 31,000 sites :
      Castles
      Archaeological sites
      Monasteries
      Listed monuments are protected under law
      Must be of national importance
    • Wansdyke, Wiltshire
      Thought to be created through military excavation.
    • Norman church, Knowlton, Devon
      Church built in top of prehistoric burial site
    • Jewish Cemetary, Ponsharden, Cornwall
    • Listing: Register of Parks & Gardens
      Registration of 1,450 parks & gardens
    • Listing: Register of Historic Battlefields
      Lists 43 historically significant battlefields
      Listed on the UK Battlefield Resource Centre
      Battlefields as sites of potential archaeological interest
    • Listing: World Heritage Sites
      Based on the 1972 UNESCO World Heritage Convention
      878 World Heritage Sites
      27 in the UK...
    • Stonehenge
    • Kew Gardens
    • Tower of London
    • Listing: Conservation Areas
      Conservation Areas are protected by their Local Government Authority
      First created in 1967, there are now 8000 in the UK
      In a Conservation Area, the council has control over:
      Demolition
      Building works
      Trees
    • Listing: Listed Buildings
      Listing recognises and celebrates the particular historical significance of a building
      372,905 in the UK
    • Listing: Listed Buildings
      Owners must obtain special consent to do building work
      A listed building is not protected in all cases, but the Local Government may choose to protect it
      Chosen on the basis of architectural, social or historical significance.
    • Key Heritage Law
      National Heritage Act (2002)
      Protection of Wrecks Act (1973)
    • End of Lecture 2
      Questions?
    • Lunch
    • Lecture 3
      Maritime Heritage Protection
    • Overview
      Department for Culture holds national responsibility
      English Heritage is responsible for surveying and recommending action
      Action is taken by Local Governments
      Using private contractors
    • Protection of Wrecks Act 1978
      An offence to:
      Interfere with wrecks
      Remove anything
      Carry out salvage operations
      Drop anchor or any other material
      Any disturbance (such as excavation) must be licensed
      Currently protects 60 wreck sites
    • Advisory Committee for Historic Wrecks
      Meets 3 times annually
      Approves licenses for exploration and work
      Funded by English Heritage:
      Excavation/archaeology
      Markers
    • End of Lecture 3
      Questions?
    • Lecture 4
      Protection Technology of Stone Heritage and Ancient Architecture
    • Key agents in building conservation
      Department for Culture, Media and Sport
      Agencies
      National Trust
      English Heritage
      IHBC
      Historic Royal Palaces
    • Overview
      DCMS and English Heritage set national strategy for building preservation
      Responsibility for implementation, monitoring and management is with the individual site or venue
      Techniques and technologies are selected according to the needs of the site or venue
    • National Heritage Science Programme
      A programme to fund innovative research into materials and techniques for conservation and preservation
      Funded by the academic sector
      £8.1m grant programme to develop research
    • National Heritage Science Programme
      Fragmentation in research efforts
      Limited communication between heritage community and academic/scientific research
      Working towards joint priorities and funding programmes
    • English Heritage Conservation Policy
      Sets out the following principles:
      The environment is a shared resource
      Everyone should participate in it
      Understanding the significance of places
      Places should be managed
      Decisions about heritage should be transparent
      Decisions must be documented and learnt from
    • National Trust
      Independent charitable organisation
      Working to preserve the UK’s buildings, countryside and coastline
      Educating the UK population about the importance of the environment
      3.56m UK members
    • Current Priorities in Building Conservation
      Preventive conservation
      Pollutants and environmental damage
      Materials
      Techniques and processes
      Cleaning
      Risk Management
      Flood Damage
      Fire Protection
      Dating Technologies
    • Preventive Conservation
      Taking action to prevent deterioration/decay of buildings and collections
      Active monitoring and environmental control
      Passive conservation through good management and housekeeping
    • Pollutants & Environmental Damage
      Research programmes looking at:
      Wet deposition rates & factors such as surface geometry
      Dry deposition rates & impact of local factors (eg. wind)
      Effect of local variations in climate
      Materials such as glass & long-term impact
    • Pollutants & Environmental Damage
      Looking at the impact of pollutants such as:
      Carbon dioxide
      Sulphur dioxide
      Nitrogen oxides
      Particulates (smoke, fumes)
      On different materials & building
      types
    • Water Damage
      Combination of technologies:
      Flood detectors
      Relative Humidity Monitoring
      ‘RH papers’, strips of paper that react to moisture
      Hygrometers for measuring moisture over time
      Laser surveys
      Boreholes at archaeological sites
    • Fire Damage
      Combination of causes:
      Arson
      Electrical fault
      Smoking
      Heating equipment
      Lightening
      Hot works
    • Fire Damage
      Management systems:
      Fire detection systems
      Fire supression systems
      Sprinklers
      Water mist
      Controlled oxygen environments
    • Case Study: IMPACT
      Centre for Sustainable Heritage, UCL
      Software to assess the levels of reactive pollutants such as nitrogen oxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide inside heritage buildings.
      Enables heritage managers to test scenarios by varying levels of pollutants for different building compositions
    • Heritage Materials Conservation
      Research programmes include:
      Plastics conservation
      Paper conservation
      Archaeological materials
    • Risk Management
      Disaster Planning and Emergency Preparedness
      Understanding the connection between risks to the building and risks to the object
      Modelling changes in the building envelope and predictive studies
    • Protection Technologies
      Temperature monitors
      Building Management Systems
      Relative Humidity monitors
    • Case Study:
      Dover Castle Great Tower Project
      12th Century Great Tower at Dover Castle
      Process:
      Understanding the needs of the building
      Assessing the expectations of the public
      Deciding on techniques for conservation/preservation
    • Case Study:
      Dover Castle Great Tower Project
      Preserving the integrity of the building
      Re-presenting it as though prepared for a 12th century event or celebration
      Cosmetic alterations to the building interior without significant structuralwork
    • Case Study:
      Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford upon Avon
      An building in the ‘art deco’ style from 1932
      Extensive programme of modernisation
    • Other risks
      Climate change causing flood damage
    • Other risks
      Increases in pest infestations resulting from climate change
    • Other risks
      Closure and repurposing of heritage buildings
    • Primary risks to heritage
      Damage from soluble salts in walls
      Weather damage to stonework
      Freezing/unfreezing of building material
      Flood damage
      Biological attack of interior timbers & roofs
      Corrosion of metal
      Corrosion of steel or iron supports in statues & concrete
    • End of Lecture 3
      Questions?
    • Break
    • Lecture 4
      Funding Heritage Protection
    • Funders of Heritage Protection
      Department for Culture, Media and Sport
      Department for Business, Innovation & Skills
      Agencies
      National Trust
      English Heritage
      Heritage Lottery Fund
      Research Councils
    • Heritage Lottery Fund
      Set up by the UK Government to fund heritage
      £4.3bn invested since 1994
      Over 18,800 projects
    • Heritage Lottery Fund
      Priorities:
      Help conserve heritage
      Help people make decisions about their heritage
      Help people learn about their heritage
      Average grants £50,000 - £100,000
    • Heritage Lottery Fund
      People's memories and experiences
      Histories of people, communities, places and events
      Cultural traditions
      Historic buildings and townscapes
      Archaeological sites
      Collections of items, archives or other materials
      Natural and designed landscapes
      Habitats and species
      Sites and collections
    • Case Study: Clissold Park
      19th Century public park in London
      Awarded £4.46m
      Restoration of the park ground
      Provision of new visitor facilities
      Improved interpretation of the site
      Improvements to the river
    • Case Study: Astley Castle
      12th Century Castle, devastated by fire in 1978
      Grant of £2.3m
      Clearance of rubble and debris
      Salvage of usable material/stone
      Strengthening of remaining features
      Building new elements
    • Funding Requirements
      All funding recipients are required to meet certain obligations
      All have to provide a Building Management Plan and a Conservation Management Plan, detailing how the building, site or monument will be maintained.
      Require sustainability plans
    • Research Councils
      Funded by the UK Government
      Investing £2.8bn per year in scientific research
      Developing joint programmes and interdisciplinary research between different communities
    • Research Councils
      Arts & Humanities
      Biotechnology & Biological Sciences
      Engineering & Physical Sciences
      Economic & Social Research
      Medical Research
      Natural Environment
      Science and Technology
      AHRC is the main funder of research into
      Conservation & conservation science
    • Arts & Humanities Research Council
      Established in 2005
      Funding up to £100m per year for research
      Joint funding programme with the EPSRC
      Wide variety of funded projects, from measurement to new techniques, models and methods
    • Example projects
      3D laser scanning techniques
      Historic musical instrument conservation
      Digital restoration of medieval music
      Redisplay of museum collections
      History of underwater telegraphs
      Papyrus and Egyptian materials
      Textile conservation
      Visual Arts data
    • Other Funders for Heritage
      Charitable Trusts & Foundations
      Educational funds
      Bequests
      Corporate sponsors
      Local Government
      Private donors
      European Commission
    • CalousteGulbenkian Foundation
      Funding good causes
      Cultural Understanding
      Fulfilling Potential
      Sustaining the Environment
      Innovation
      Sponsored the Gulbenkian Prize
      (now the Art Fund Prize)
    • Pilgrim Trust
      Funding conservation and preservation of heritage
      New use to historic buildings
      Preserving buildings of outstanding merit
      Preserving religious buildings
      Recording information
    • Other Heritage Funders
      Allchurches Trust
      Architectural Heritage Fund
      Jill Franklin Trust
      Historic Churches Preservation Trust
      Manifold Trust
    • Total Funding to Heritage
      Impossible to estimate
      In excess of £1bn from public sources (Government)
      More from private sources (private benefactors)
      More from income earned through retail and other services
      An estimated £3.5bn in conservation funding each year
    • Future Priorities
      Joint programmes
      Developing joined-up approaches to funding
      Cost-savings and more efficient practice
    • Lords Science & Heritage Inquiry
      Held during 2005-06
      The largest inquiry into the current state of conservation science
      Found a very fragmented picture, with little coordination
      Requested the DCMS to develop a National Heritage Science Strategy
    • National Heritage Science Strategy
      The role of science in managing heritage
      Use of science in understanding the past
      Skills requirement
      Equipment and resources
    • National Heritage Science Strategy
      Revisiting the science behind environmental standards
      Acceptable limits for humidity and pollutants
      Understanding the impact of visitors & use
      New methods of cleaning
    • National Heritage Science Strategy
      Better understanding of:
      Impact of multi-pollutant urban environments
      Impact of inappropriate materials for repair
      Interaction of moisture, salt and biological agents
      Impact of vibration damage
      Impact of fire-resistant treatment
    • End of Lecture 4
      Questions?
    • Lecture 5
      Historic Houses
    • Funders of Heritage Protection
      Department for Culture, Media and Sport
      Agencies
      National Trust
      English Heritage
      Historic Houses Association
    • Privately-owned Heritage in the UK
      More of the UK’s Heritage is in private ownership than in the ownership of English Heritage, National Trust and the Government.
      There are more than 1,500 privately owned historic houses, castles and gardens around the UK
      Many are operated as commercial attractions, 4 out of 5 operate at a loss
    • Privately-owned Heritage in the UK
      The majority are Grade II* or Grade I
      They are not governed by law
      They do have to meet defined standards in order to receive funding, for example from the Heritage Lottery Fund
      Many are running light industrial activity, business activity, farming and many other forms of use
    • Privately-owned Heritage in the UK
      Historic Houses Association is an independent membership organisation
      Works closely with English Heritage and the National Trust
      Funds the Heritage Conservation Programe
      Some works are covered under a Government Indemnity Scheme
    • Historic House
    • Witley Court
    • Lecture 6
      National Parks
    • Funders of National Parks
      Department for Environment, Food, Rural Affairs
      Agencies
      National Trust
      English Heritage
      National Parks
      Natural England
    • National Parks in the UK
      14 National Parks
      Each represented by a National Park Authority
      Employ 12,000 people
      Generate £177m per year
      Support their local economies through tourism
    • National Parks website
      www.nationalparks.gov.uk
    • English National Parks
      England - Dartmoor, Exmoor, Lake District, New Forest, Northumberland, North York Moors, Peak District, the Yorkshire Dales and the Broads which has equivalent status to a National Park. The South Downs will become a National Park but has not yet officially been designated.
      Wales - Brecon Beacons, Pembrokeshire Coast and Snowdonia
      Scotland - Cairngorms and Loch Lomond and the Trossachs.
    • National Park Authorities
      Independent public bodies that:
      Conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage; and
      Promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of National Parks by the public.
    • History of National Parks
      In 1945, before any National Parks had been created in the UK, John Dower wrote a report to the government, describing what National Parks should do. He said that for 'the Nation's benefit' the government should make sure;
      the characteristic landscape beauty is strictly preserved;
      access and facilities for open-air enjoyment are amply provided;
      wildlife and buildings and places of architectural and historic interest are suitably protected;
      established farming use is effectively maintained.
    • International Union for the Conservation ofNature
      In 1969, the IUCN created the international definition of a National Park
      Definition extended in 1971:
      Minimum size of 1000 hectares
      Statutory legal protection
      Staff and a budget
    • Designation of National Parks
      1951 - Peak District, Lake District, Snowdonia and Dartmoor
      1952 - Pembrokeshire Coast and North York Moors
      1954 - Yorkshire Dales and Exmoor
      1956 - Northumberland
      1957 - Brecon Beacons
      1989 - The Broads given equivalent status to a National Park
      2002 - Loch Lomond & The Trossachs
      2003 - Cairngorms
      2005 - New Forest
    • Brecon Beacons
    • Brecon Beacons
    • Brecon Beacons
    • Loch Lomond
    • Loch Lomond
    • Norfolk Broads
    • History of National Parks
      In 1945, before any National Parks had been created in the UK, John Dower wrote a report to the government, describing what National Parks should do. He said that for 'the Nation's benefit' the government should make sure;
      the characteristic landscape beauty is strictly preserved;
      access and facilities for open-air enjoyment are amply provided;
      wildlife and buildings and places of architectural and historic interest are suitably protected;
      established farming use is effectively maintained.
    • Ownership of National Parks
      The majority are private land, owned by:
      Farmers
      Private landowners
      Forestry Commission
      National Trust
      But usage of this land is very closely controlled
    • Types of National Park Land
      Forests
      Farms
      Mountains
      Wetlands
      Lakes
      Many different types of terrain
    • ‘Living In’
      Active use and management of National Park land is encouraged. Including:
      Grazing animals
      Harvesting wood
      Digging for peat
      Growing hay
      Other types of farming
    • Preservation Challenges
      Research into the preservation management of:
      Moorland
      Wetland, lakes and rivers
      Woodlands and forests
      Grassland
    • Preservation Challenges: Moorland
      Man-made environments
      Controlled by:
      Animal husbandry
      Controlled burning
    • Moorland
    • Preservation Challenges: Wetland
      Working to preserve freshwater habitats
      Controlling fish stock
      Encouraging salmon farming
      Dredging lakes
      Controlling plant life
      Fencing off cattle & sheep
      Supporting bird life
    • Preservation Challenges: Forests
      Controlling the growth of forests
      Encouraging sustainable use
      Coppicing (a form of controlled cutting)
    • Case Study: Lake District
      Designated in 1951
      Widespread grazing and use have eroded scrub (tree cover) in higher areas
      Limited shelter driving soil erosion
      Programme to plant 3 new ‘upland’ forests
    • Case Study: Lake District
      Project:
      Analysis of topography
      Analysis of soil types across the park
      Placement of different trees to suit different environments
      Eg. Birch on steep slopes, ash in wetlands and oak in grassy
      Replanting programme
    • Lake District
    • Lake District
    • Case Study: Hay Time Project
      Project:
      Working with farmers to restore grassland/meadow
      In response to a change in farming practice (ploughing, re-seeding), which is having a dramatic effect on hay meadows
      Impact on biodiversity and species propagation
    • Usage of National Parks
      Defined by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949
      Controlling:
      Purchase
      Development
      Transportation
      Planning and use
    • Preservation Challenges: Grassland
      Working to preserve freshwater habitats
      Controlling fish stock
      Encouraging salmon farming
      Dredging lakes
      Controlling plant life
      Fencing off cattle & sheep
      Supporting bird life
    • Fact File: Forestry Commission
      Government Department responsible for forests and woodlands
      Priorities:
      Climate change
      Deforestation
      Industry
      Research
    • Fact File: Natural England
      Helps interpret the natural environment for:
      Farmers
      Schoolchildren
      Teachers
      Researchers
      Owners
    • Other types
      Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
      Sites of Specific Scientific Interest
      National Nature Reserves
    • Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
      Established at the same time as National parks (1949)
      Designated areas of the countryside
      49 in total
      Cared for by Local Governments, community and volunteer groups
    • Sites of Specific Scientific Interest (SSSI)
      Locations and habitats for scientifically important wildlife, species, fauna
      No building is permitted on these sites
      Building near these sites is heavily regulated
    • National Nature Reserves
      These are smaller sites that are important areas of wildlife habitat, with no buildings or roads
      There are over 210 National Nature Reserves in the UK
      They have high ecological value and are used as study areas for students and scientists.
    • Role of National Nature Reserves
      Can be declared by Natural England and proposed by the public
      Covering 92,000 hectares of the UK
      Largest is the Wash (8,000)
      Managed by Natural England and other groups including the Society for Protection of Birds
    • Heritage Coast
      Conserved as part of the UK’s heritage
      Covers approximately 33% of the coastline (1050 km)
    • Heritage Coast
      Conserve, protect and enhance the natural beauty of the coasts, their marine flora and fauna, and their heritage features.
      Facilitate and enhance their enjoyment, understanding and appreciation by the public.
      Maintain and improve the health of inshore waters affecting Heritage Coasts and their beaches through appropriate environmental management measures.
      Take account of the needs of agriculture, forestry and fishing, and of the economic and social needs of the small communities on these coasts.
    • Heritage Coasts around the UK
      1. North Northumberland
      2. Durham
      3. North Yorkshire and Cleveland
      4. Flamborough Headland
      5. Spurn
      6. North Norfolk
      7. Suffolk
      8. South Foreland
      9. Dover - Folkestone
      10. Sussex
      11. Tennyson
      12. Hamstead
      13. Purbeck
      14. West Dorset
      15. East Devon
      16. South Devon
      17. Rame Head
      18. Gribbin Head - Polperro
      19. The Roseland
      20. The Lizard
      21. Isles of Scilly
      22. Penwith
      23. Godreavy - Portreath
      24. St Agnes
      25. Trevose Head
      26. Pentire Point - Widemouth
      27. Hartland
      28. Hartland (Devon)
      29. Lundy
      30. North Devon
      31. Exmoor
      32. St Bees Head
    • Challenges
      Managing the balance between preservation and use
      Managing the benefit to science/industry
      Educating the public
    • Conclusions
      The UK has a very active commitment to preserving and providing public access to all forms of heritage
      Managing heritage depends on standards and good practice, which need to be underpinned by good scientific knowledge
      Managing heritage is expensive, and we need to keep making the case
    • Conclusions
      National parks, museums, historic houses, churches, castles, are all part of our national identity and make a vital contribution both to cultural life and to the tourism economy.