Management of UK Heritage


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Presentation to a delegation of Chinese culural ambassadors, looking at the general administration of UK heritage, including buildings, sites, movable heritage, monuments, national parks and coastline.

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Management of UK Heritage

  1. 1. The Management System of the UK’s Cultural Objects and the UN Heritage Reserves and <br />The Management System and Modes of National Parks <br />Nick Poole, Chief Executive, Collections Trust<br />
  2. 2. Thank you!<br />
  3. 3. AGENDA<br />Introductions<br />Lecture 1: UK Cultural Sector, structure & governance<br />Lecture 2: Survey & Registration System of Heritage<br />Lecture 3: Protection technologies<br />Lecture 4: Finance for Heritage Protection<br />Questions and answers<br />
  4. 4. Introduction<br />Chief Executive of the Collections Trust<br />Formerly a Government adviser on Heritage Policy<br />UK representative on Culture in the European Union<br />Councillor of the Museums Association<br />Covering issues including Cultural Property, technology and the law<br />
  5. 5. The Collections Trust<br />Independent UK charity<br />Campaigning for the public right to access and engage with Collections. <br />Promoting best practice<br />Encouraging innovation<br />Representing the sector<br />
  6. 6. The Collections Trust<br />Funded by the UK Government, the European Commission and through trading activity<br />Publishing standards, advice and guidance through: <br /><br />Advice and guidance on issues of Cultural Property:<br /><br />
  7. 7. The Collections Trust<br />Publishing professional standards jointly with the British Standards Institute<br />Building professional networks and communities<br />Working with broadcasters (such as the BBC) to digitise cultural content and share it with a mass audience<br />
  8. 8. The UK ‘Home Nations’<br />England<br />Wales<br />Scotland<br />Northern Ireland<br />
  9. 9. The UK ‘Administrative Regions’<br />9 Regions, each with a Government office<br />London<br />East Midlands<br />East of England<br />North East<br />North West<br />West Midlands<br />Yorkshire<br />South East<br />South West<br />
  10. 10. The UK Culture Sector: Definition<br />Museums enable people to explore collections for inspiration, learning and enjoyment.<br />They are institutions that collect, safeguard and make accessible artefacts and specimens, which they hold in trust for society.<br />This definition includes art galleries with collections of works of art, as well as museums with historical collections of objects.<br />- UK Museums Association<br />
  11. 11. The UK Culture Sector: Basic Facts<br />2,500 museums in the UK<br />1,880 Accredited under the Museum Accreditation Scheme<br />4 out of the top 5 tourist attractions are museums<br />Employing approx. 40,000 paid & volunteer staff<br />40.3m visits during 2008/09<br />Net contribution to tourist economy = £1.1bn per annum<br />
  12. 12. The UK Culture Sector: Top 10 attractions<br />Tate Modern 4,915,376<br />British Museum 4,837,878<br />National Gallery 4,562,471<br />Natural History Museum 3,754,496<br />Science Museum 2,440,253<br />Victoria & Albert Museum 2,372,919<br />National Portrait Gallery 1,601,448<br />Tate Britain 1,597,359<br />National Railway Museum 902,149<br />The Lowry 850,000<br />
  13. 13. The UK Culture Sector: Visitors<br />Adults 78%<br />Children 22%<br />Overseas 38%<br />
  14. 14. Government Responsibility for Culture<br />Gordon Brown, Prime Minister<br />Cabinet Ministers<br />Ben Bradshaw<br />Secretary of State for Culture<br />Sion SimonCreative Industries Minister<br />Barbara Follett<br />Tourism and Culture Minister<br />Gerry Sutcliffe<br />Sports Minister<br />
  15. 15. Government Agencies for Culture<br />Department for Culture, Media and Sport<br />Government Agencies<br />Museums, Libraries, Archives Council<br />English Heritage<br />Heritage Lottery Fund<br />
  16. 16. Museums, Libraries & Archives Council<br />Sponsored by DCMS<br />Lead strategic agency for the sector<br />Putting people first<br />Working for excellence<br />Learning at the core<br />Delivering change<br />Promoting partnership<br />
  17. 17. The UK Culture Sector<br />Structure<br />Size<br />Workforce<br />Funding<br />Governance<br />Standards<br />
  18. 18. The UK Culture Sector: Structure<br />Main museum types/groups:<br />National Museums<br />Local Authority Museums<br />Independent Museums<br />University Museums<br />Regimental Museums<br />
  19. 19. The UK Culture Sector: Structure<br />Central Government<br />Department for Culture, Media & Sport<br />Ministry of Defence<br />National Museums<br />Military/Regimental Museums<br />
  20. 20. The UK Culture Sector: Structure<br />Central Government<br />Higher Education Funding Council<br />Local Government<br />Universities<br />Local Authority Museums<br />University Museums<br />
  21. 21. Fact File: National Museums<br />Established under charter from the Crown<br />Funded directly by the Department for Culture<br />21 museums, incl. Tate, British Museum, V&A<br />13 ‘National’ and 8 ‘sponsored’<br />Incl. National museums & galleries of Scotland and Wales<br />Academic analogue status (ie. the same as Universities)<br />Receive £320m each year<br />
  22. 22. UK Culture Sector: Size (by type)<br />
  23. 23. UK Culture Sector: Workforce<br />40,000 professional & volunteer staff<br />More than 50% unpaid volunteer<br />Mostly post-graduate qualified<br />
  24. 24. UK Culture Sector: Workforce by type<br />
  25. 25. UK Culture Sector: Funding<br />Funding sources: <br />Central Government<br />Local Government<br />Trusts/Foundations<br />Grants<br />Trading income<br />Exhibition income<br />Net expenditure = £3.34 per capita of population<br />
  26. 26. UK Culture Sector: Free Admission for Museums<br />Universal free access since 2001<br />124% increase in visitors<br />9 million extra visits each year<br />National Maritime Museum up by 154%<br />Natural History Museum up by 127%<br />National Museums Liverpool up by 239%<br />
  27. 27. UK Culture Sector: Governance<br />Governance varies by type<br />Most common type is a ‘Charitable Trust’<br />Venue operates as an independent entity<br />Governed by a ‘Board of Directors’<br />Charitable status confers preferential tax arrangements<br />
  28. 28. UK Culture Sector: Standards<br />A strong commitment to UK & international professional standards<br />The Museum Accreditation Scheme accounts for 75% of the sector<br />Requires minimum standards from all museums<br />Tied to Government and other funding sources<br />
  29. 29. Standards: Museum Accreditation Scheme<br />Based on an annual self-assessment<br />Reviewed by a panel of experts<br />4 priorities:<br />Governance & management<br />User services<br />Visitor facilities<br />Collections Management<br />
  30. 30. Standards: SPECTRUM<br />Published in 1994<br />UK and International standard for Knowledge & Information Management in museums<br />Translated into 4 languages and adopted throughout Europe<br />12 of the 14 major Collections Management Systems<br />Free for non-commercial use<br />
  31. 31. Standards: Benchmarks for Collections Care<br />Developed by the Museums, Libraries & Archives Council and Collections Trust<br />Defines ‘good’, ‘better’ and ‘best’ practice for museums<br />An interactive tool used to support planning<br />Enables funders to assess the quality of Collections Care<br />Also...<br />
  32. 32. Standards in the Care of Collections<br />Geology<br />Archaeology<br />Biology<br />Larger & Working Objects<br />Musical Instruments<br />Touring Exhibitions<br />Costume & Textiles<br />Photography<br />
  33. 33. Standards: CT/BSI PAS 197<br />Developed jointly by the Collections Trust and British Standards Institute<br />A new national standard for professional Collections Management<br />Shared between museums, archives and libraries<br />
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Standards<br />Supporting the sector:<br />Funders: MLA, DCMS, HLF, Charitable Trusts and Foundations<br />Agencies: Collections Trust, Museums Association, Special Interest Groups <br />Agents: Development Officers, Consultants, Expert Advisers, Curatorial Advisers<br />Professionals: Managers, staff, Boards<br />Volunteers: Students, retired people, others<br />
  36. 36. End of Lecture 1<br />Questions?<br />
  37. 37. Break<br />
  38. 38. Lecture 2<br />Survey and Registration System of Cultural Heritage<br />
  39. 39. Primary Agencies<br />Department for Culture, Media and Sport<br />Museums, Libraries & Archives Council <br />English Heritage<br />National Trust<br />Collections Trust<br />Individual heritage organisations and sites<br />Funding organisations<br />
  40. 40. Overall aim<br />Strategic, targeted investment of resources and policy to deliver:<br />Public Sector Efficiency<br />Public Value<br />Based on up-to-date research (evidence-based policy)<br />
  41. 41. Priorities for Heritage Protection Policy<br />Reviewing science behind Environmental standards<br />Promoting more cost-effective practice<br />Updating attitudes to risk<br />Using technology for outreach<br />Changing attitudes towards acquisition<br />
  42. 42. Surveying Heritage<br />5 primary mechanisms:<br />Museum Accreditation Scheme <br />Collections Surveys/Collection Level Description<br />National Monuments Record<br />Culture Grid database of cultural sites<br />Individual organisation surveys and inspections<br />
  43. 43. Heritage/Environment Agencies<br />Department for Culture, Media and Sport<br />Agencies<br />National Trust<br />English Heritage<br />CABE<br />
  44. 44. English Heritage<br />Government’s adviser on the built environment<br />Advising on the preservation of the Historic Environment<br />Promoting public engagement <br />Promoting education and research<br />
  45. 45. English Heritage: Registration<br />Maintaining registers of the UK’s historic buildings, monuments and landscapes:<br />National Monuments Record<br />Blue Plaques<br />Maritime Archaeology<br />Landscape Protection<br />Aerial Survey<br />Scientific Research<br />Listing <br />
  46. 46. English Heritage: National Monuments Record<br />Based at the National Monuments Record Centre in Swindon<br />10 million archive items including plans, maps and aerial photographs<br />Searchable database of all English Heritage sitesand landscapes<br />
  47. 47. English Heritage: Blue Plaques<br />Scheme to mark the buildings inhabited by famous historical figures<br />Based in London<br />Running for over 140 years<br />Nominated by members of the public<br />
  48. 48. English Heritage: Maritime Archaeology<br />Responsibility established in the 2002 Heritage Act<br />Responsible for:<br />Coastal planning<br />Protection of Wrecks and Wreck sites<br />Undersea archaeology<br />
  49. 49. English Heritage: Landscape Protection<br />Visual assessment of the landscape<br />Aerial Survey<br />Metric Survey<br />Time Team<br />National Parks<br />Ordnance Survey (maps)<br />
  50. 50. English Heritage: Aerial Survey<br />Photography from the sky & visual assessment<br />National Mapping Programme<br />Aerial Photographs<br />Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) technology<br />Satellite images<br />
  51. 51. English Heritage: Metric Survey<br />Support to English Heritage on metric surveying (using visual instruments):<br />Theodoloite – equipment for surveying<br />Photogrammetry – using photographs <br />3D computer-aided modelling<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53. English Heritage: Time Team<br />Joint programme between Channel 4 & English Heritage<br />Weekly investigation of archaeological sites<br />Presented by Tony Robinson<br />
  54. 54. Listing<br />6 main lists:<br />Schedule of Monuments<br />Register of Parks and Gardens<br />Register of Historic Battlefields<br />World Heritage sites<br />Conservation Areas<br />Listed Buildings<br />
  55. 55. Listing: Schedule of Monuments<br />Registration of more than 31,000 sites :<br />Castles<br />Archaeological sites<br />Monasteries<br />Listed monuments are protected under law<br />Must be of national importance<br />
  56. 56. Wansdyke, Wiltshire<br />Thought to be created through military excavation. <br />
  57. 57. Norman church, Knowlton, Devon<br />Church built in top of prehistoric burial site<br />
  58. 58. Jewish Cemetary, Ponsharden, Cornwall<br />
  59. 59. Listing: Register of Parks & Gardens<br />Registration of 1,450 parks & gardens<br />
  60. 60. Listing: Register of Historic Battlefields<br />Lists 43 historically significant battlefields<br />Listed on the UK Battlefield Resource Centre<br />Battlefields as sites of potential archaeological interest<br />
  61. 61. Listing: World Heritage Sites<br />Based on the 1972 UNESCO World Heritage Convention<br />878 World Heritage Sites<br />27 in the UK...<br />
  62. 62. Stonehenge<br />
  63. 63. Kew Gardens<br />
  64. 64. Tower of London<br />
  65. 65. Listing: Conservation Areas<br />Conservation Areas are protected by their Local Government Authority<br />First created in 1967, there are now 8000 in the UK <br />In a Conservation Area, the council has control over:<br />Demolition<br />Building works<br />Trees<br />
  66. 66. Listing: Listed Buildings<br />Listing recognises and celebrates the particular historical significance of a building<br />372,905 in the UK<br />
  67. 67. Listing: Listed Buildings<br />Owners must obtain special consent to do building work<br />A listed building is not protected in all cases, but the Local Government may choose to protect it<br />Chosen on the basis of architectural, social or historical significance.<br />
  68. 68. Key Heritage Law<br />National Heritage Act (2002)<br />Protection of Wrecks Act (1973)<br />
  69. 69. End of Lecture 2<br />Questions?<br />
  70. 70. Lunch<br />
  71. 71. Lecture 3<br />Maritime Heritage Protection<br />
  72. 72. Overview<br />Department for Culture holds national responsibility<br />English Heritage is responsible for surveying and recommending action<br />Action is taken by Local Governments<br />Using private contractors<br />
  73. 73. Protection of Wrecks Act 1978<br />An offence to:<br />Interfere with wrecks<br />Remove anything<br />Carry out salvage operations<br />Drop anchor or any other material<br />Any disturbance (such as excavation) must be licensed<br />Currently protects 60 wreck sites<br />
  74. 74. Advisory Committee for Historic Wrecks<br />Meets 3 times annually<br />Approves licenses for exploration and work<br />Funded by English Heritage: <br />Excavation/archaeology<br />Markers<br />
  75. 75. End of Lecture 3<br />Questions?<br />
  76. 76. Lecture 4<br />Protection Technology of Stone Heritage and Ancient Architecture<br />
  77. 77. Key agents in building conservation<br />Department for Culture, Media and Sport<br />Agencies<br />National Trust<br />English Heritage<br />IHBC<br />Historic Royal Palaces<br />
  78. 78. Overview<br />DCMS and English Heritage set national strategy for building preservation<br />Responsibility for implementation, monitoring and management is with the individual site or venue<br />Techniques and technologies are selected according to the needs of the site or venue<br />
  79. 79. National Heritage Science Programme<br />A programme to fund innovative research into materials and techniques for conservation and preservation<br />Funded by the academic sector<br />£8.1m grant programme to develop research<br />
  80. 80. National Heritage Science Programme<br />Fragmentation in research efforts<br />Limited communication between heritage community and academic/scientific research<br />Working towards joint priorities and funding programmes<br />
  81. 81. English Heritage Conservation Policy<br />Sets out the following principles:<br />The environment is a shared resource<br />Everyone should participate in it<br />Understanding the significance of places<br />Places should be managed<br />Decisions about heritage should be transparent<br />Decisions must be documented and learnt from<br />
  82. 82. National Trust<br />Independent charitable organisation<br />Working to preserve the UK’s buildings, countryside and coastline<br />Educating the UK population about the importance of the environment<br />3.56m UK members<br />
  83. 83. Current Priorities in Building Conservation <br />Preventive conservation<br />Pollutants and environmental damage<br />Materials <br />Techniques and processes<br />Cleaning<br />Risk Management<br />Flood Damage<br />Fire Protection<br />Dating Technologies<br />
  84. 84. Preventive Conservation <br />Taking action to prevent deterioration/decay of buildings and collections<br />Active monitoring and environmental control<br />Passive conservation through good management and housekeeping<br />
  85. 85. Pollutants & Environmental Damage<br />Research programmes looking at: <br />Wet deposition rates & factors such as surface geometry<br />Dry deposition rates & impact of local factors (eg. wind)<br />Effect of local variations in climate<br />Materials such as glass & long-term impact<br />
  86. 86. Pollutants & Environmental Damage<br />Looking at the impact of pollutants such as:<br />Carbon dioxide<br />Sulphur dioxide<br />Nitrogen oxides<br />Particulates (smoke, fumes)<br />On different materials & building<br />types<br />
  87. 87. Water Damage<br />Combination of technologies:<br />Flood detectors<br />Relative Humidity Monitoring<br />‘RH papers’, strips of paper that react to moisture<br />Hygrometers for measuring moisture over time<br />Laser surveys<br />Boreholes at archaeological sites<br />
  88. 88. Fire Damage<br />Combination of causes:<br />Arson<br />Electrical fault<br />Smoking<br />Heating equipment<br />Lightening<br />Hot works<br />
  89. 89. Fire Damage<br />Management systems:<br />Fire detection systems<br />Fire supression systems<br />Sprinklers<br />Water mist<br />Controlled oxygen environments<br />
  90. 90. Case Study: IMPACT<br />Centre for Sustainable Heritage, UCL<br />Software to assess the levels of reactive pollutants such as nitrogen oxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide inside heritage buildings. <br />Enables heritage managers to test scenarios by varying levels of pollutants for different building compositions<br />
  91. 91.
  92. 92. Heritage Materials Conservation<br />Research programmes include:<br />Plastics conservation<br />Paper conservation<br />Archaeological materials<br />
  93. 93. Risk Management<br />Disaster Planning and Emergency Preparedness<br />Understanding the connection between risks to the building and risks to the object<br />Modelling changes in the building envelope and predictive studies<br />
  94. 94. Protection Technologies<br />Temperature monitors<br />Building Management Systems<br />Relative Humidity monitors<br />
  95. 95. Case Study:<br />Dover Castle Great Tower Project<br />12th Century Great Tower at Dover Castle<br />Process:<br />Understanding the needs of the building<br />Assessing the expectations of the public<br />Deciding on techniques for conservation/preservation<br />
  96. 96. Case Study:<br />Dover Castle Great Tower Project<br />Preserving the integrity of the building<br />Re-presenting it as though prepared for a 12th century event or celebration<br />Cosmetic alterations to the building interior without significant structuralwork<br />
  97. 97. Case Study:<br />Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford upon Avon<br />An building in the ‘art deco’ style from 1932<br />Extensive programme of modernisation<br />
  98. 98.
  99. 99.
  100. 100. Other risks<br />Climate change causing flood damage<br />
  101. 101. Other risks<br />Increases in pest infestations resulting from climate change<br />
  102. 102. Other risks<br />Closure and repurposing of heritage buildings<br />
  103. 103. Primary risks to heritage<br />Damage from soluble salts in walls<br />Weather damage to stonework<br />Freezing/unfreezing of building material<br />Flood damage<br />Biological attack of interior timbers & roofs<br />Corrosion of metal<br />Corrosion of steel or iron supports in statues & concrete<br />
  104. 104. End of Lecture 3<br />Questions?<br />
  105. 105. Break<br />
  106. 106. Lecture 4<br />Funding Heritage Protection<br />
  107. 107. Funders of Heritage Protection<br />Department for Culture, Media and Sport<br />Department for Business, Innovation & Skills<br />Agencies<br />National Trust<br />English Heritage<br />Heritage Lottery Fund<br />Research Councils<br />
  108. 108. Heritage Lottery Fund<br />Set up by the UK Government to fund heritage<br />£4.3bn invested since 1994<br />Over 18,800 projects<br />
  109. 109. Heritage Lottery Fund<br />Priorities:<br />Help conserve heritage<br />Help people make decisions about their heritage<br />Help people learn about their heritage<br />Average grants £50,000 - £100,000<br />
  110. 110. Heritage Lottery Fund<br />People&apos;s memories and experiences<br />Histories of people, communities, places and events<br />Cultural traditions<br />Historic buildings and townscapes<br />Archaeological sites<br />Collections of items, archives or other materials<br />Natural and designed landscapes<br />Habitats and species<br />Sites and collections<br />
  111. 111. Case Study: Clissold Park<br />19th Century public park in London<br />Awarded £4.46m <br />Restoration of the park ground<br />Provision of new visitor facilities<br />Improved interpretation of the site<br />Improvements to the river<br />
  112. 112. Case Study: Astley Castle<br />12th Century Castle, devastated by fire in 1978<br />Grant of £2.3m<br />Clearance of rubble and debris<br />Salvage of usable material/stone<br />Strengthening of remaining features<br />Building new elements<br />
  113. 113.
  114. 114. Funding Requirements<br />All funding recipients are required to meet certain obligations<br />All have to provide a Building Management Plan and a Conservation Management Plan, detailing how the building, site or monument will be maintained. <br />Require sustainability plans<br />
  115. 115. Research Councils<br />Funded by the UK Government<br />Investing £2.8bn per year in scientific research<br />Developing joint programmes and interdisciplinary research between different communities<br />
  116. 116. Research Councils<br />Arts & Humanities<br />Biotechnology & Biological Sciences<br />Engineering & Physical Sciences<br />Economic & Social Research<br />Medical Research<br />Natural Environment<br />Science and Technology<br />AHRC is the main funder of research into <br />Conservation & conservation science<br />
  117. 117. Arts & Humanities Research Council<br />Established in 2005<br />Funding up to £100m per year for research<br />Joint funding programme with the EPSRC<br />Wide variety of funded projects, from measurement to new techniques, models and methods<br />
  118. 118. Example projects<br />3D laser scanning techniques<br />Historic musical instrument conservation<br />Digital restoration of medieval music<br />Redisplay of museum collections<br />History of underwater telegraphs<br />Papyrus and Egyptian materials<br />Textile conservation<br />Visual Arts data<br />
  119. 119. Other Funders for Heritage<br />Charitable Trusts & Foundations<br />Educational funds<br />Bequests <br />Corporate sponsors<br />Local Government<br />Private donors<br />European Commission<br />
  120. 120. CalousteGulbenkian Foundation<br />Funding good causes<br />Cultural Understanding<br />Fulfilling Potential<br />Sustaining the Environment<br />Innovation<br />Sponsored the Gulbenkian Prize <br />(now the Art Fund Prize)<br />
  121. 121. Pilgrim Trust<br />Funding conservation and preservation of heritage<br />New use to historic buildings<br />Preserving buildings of outstanding merit<br />Preserving religious buildings<br />Recording information<br />
  122. 122. Other Heritage Funders<br />Allchurches Trust<br />Architectural Heritage Fund<br />Jill Franklin Trust<br />Historic Churches Preservation Trust<br />Manifold Trust<br />
  123. 123. Total Funding to Heritage<br />Impossible to estimate<br />In excess of £1bn from public sources (Government)<br />More from private sources (private benefactors)<br />More from income earned through retail and other services<br />An estimated £3.5bn in conservation funding each year<br />
  124. 124. Future Priorities<br />Joint programmes<br />Developing joined-up approaches to funding<br />Cost-savings and more efficient practice<br />
  125. 125. Lords Science & Heritage Inquiry<br />Held during 2005-06<br />The largest inquiry into the current state of conservation science<br />Found a very fragmented picture, with little coordination<br />Requested the DCMS to develop a National Heritage Science Strategy<br />
  126. 126.
  127. 127. National Heritage Science Strategy<br />The role of science in managing heritage<br />Use of science in understanding the past<br />Skills requirement<br />Equipment and resources<br />
  128. 128. National Heritage Science Strategy<br />Revisiting the science behind environmental standards<br />Acceptable limits for humidity and pollutants<br />Understanding the impact of visitors & use<br />New methods of cleaning<br />
  129. 129. National Heritage Science Strategy<br />Better understanding of:<br />Impact of multi-pollutant urban environments<br />Impact of inappropriate materials for repair<br />Interaction of moisture, salt and biological agents<br />Impact of vibration damage<br />Impact of fire-resistant treatment<br />
  130. 130. End of Lecture 4<br />Questions?<br />
  131. 131. Lecture 5<br />Historic Houses<br />
  132. 132. Funders of Heritage Protection<br />Department for Culture, Media and Sport<br />Agencies<br />National Trust<br />English Heritage<br />Historic Houses Association<br />
  133. 133. Privately-owned Heritage in the UK<br />More of the UK’s Heritage is in private ownership than in the ownership of English Heritage, National Trust and the Government. <br />There are more than 1,500 privately owned historic houses, castles and gardens around the UK<br />Many are operated as commercial attractions, 4 out of 5 operate at a loss<br />
  134. 134. Privately-owned Heritage in the UK<br />The majority are Grade II* or Grade I<br />They are not governed by law<br />They do have to meet defined standards in order to receive funding, for example from the Heritage Lottery Fund<br />Many are running light industrial activity, business activity, farming and many other forms of use<br />
  135. 135. Privately-owned Heritage in the UK<br />Historic Houses Association is an independent membership organisation<br />Works closely with English Heritage and the National Trust<br />Funds the Heritage Conservation Programe<br />Some works are covered under a Government Indemnity Scheme<br />
  136. 136. Historic House<br />
  137. 137. Witley Court<br />
  138. 138. Lecture 6<br />National Parks<br />
  139. 139. Funders of National Parks<br />Department for Environment, Food, Rural Affairs<br />Agencies<br />National Trust<br />English Heritage<br />National Parks<br />Natural England<br />
  140. 140. National Parks in the UK<br />14 National Parks<br />Each represented by a National Park Authority<br />Employ 12,000 people<br />Generate £177m per year<br />Support their local economies through tourism<br />
  141. 141. National Parks website<br /><br />
  142. 142. English National Parks<br />England - Dartmoor, Exmoor, Lake District, New Forest, Northumberland, North York Moors, Peak District, the Yorkshire Dales and the Broads which has equivalent status to a National Park. The South Downs will become a National Park but has not yet officially been designated.<br />Wales - Brecon Beacons, Pembrokeshire Coast and Snowdonia<br />Scotland - Cairngorms and Loch Lomond and the Trossachs.<br />
  143. 143.
  144. 144. National Park Authorities<br />Independent public bodies that:<br />Conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage; and<br />Promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of National Parks by the public.<br />
  145. 145. History of National Parks<br />In 1945, before any National Parks had been created in the UK, John Dower wrote a report to the government, describing what National Parks should do. He said that for &apos;the Nation&apos;s benefit&apos; the government should make sure;<br />the characteristic landscape beauty is strictly preserved;<br />access and facilities for open-air enjoyment are amply provided;<br />wildlife and buildings and places of architectural and historic interest are suitably protected;<br />established farming use is effectively maintained.<br />
  146. 146. International Union for the Conservation ofNature<br />In 1969, the IUCN created the international definition of a National Park<br />Definition extended in 1971:<br />Minimum size of 1000 hectares<br />Statutory legal protection<br />Staff and a budget<br />
  147. 147. Designation of National Parks<br />1951 - Peak District, Lake District, Snowdonia and Dartmoor<br />1952 - Pembrokeshire Coast and North York Moors<br />1954 - Yorkshire Dales and Exmoor<br />1956 - Northumberland<br />1957 - Brecon Beacons<br />1989 - The Broads given equivalent status to a National Park<br />2002 - Loch Lomond & The Trossachs<br />2003 - Cairngorms<br />2005 - New Forest <br />
  148. 148. Brecon Beacons<br />
  149. 149. Brecon Beacons<br />
  150. 150. Brecon Beacons<br />
  151. 151. Loch Lomond<br />
  152. 152. Loch Lomond<br />
  153. 153. Norfolk Broads<br />
  154. 154. History of National Parks<br />In 1945, before any National Parks had been created in the UK, John Dower wrote a report to the government, describing what National Parks should do. He said that for &apos;the Nation&apos;s benefit&apos; the government should make sure;<br />the characteristic landscape beauty is strictly preserved;<br />access and facilities for open-air enjoyment are amply provided;<br />wildlife and buildings and places of architectural and historic interest are suitably protected;<br />established farming use is effectively maintained.<br />
  155. 155. Ownership of National Parks<br />The majority are private land, owned by:<br />Farmers<br />Private landowners<br />Forestry Commission<br />National Trust<br />But usage of this land is very closely controlled<br />
  156. 156. Types of National Park Land<br />Forests<br />Farms<br />Mountains<br />Wetlands<br />Lakes<br />Many different types of terrain<br />
  157. 157. ‘Living In’<br />Active use and management of National Park land is encouraged. Including: <br />Grazing animals<br />Harvesting wood<br />Digging for peat<br />Growing hay<br />Other types of farming<br />
  158. 158. Preservation Challenges<br />Research into the preservation management of:<br />Moorland<br />Wetland, lakes and rivers<br />Woodlands and forests<br />Grassland<br />
  159. 159. Preservation Challenges: Moorland<br />Man-made environments<br />Controlled by:<br />Animal husbandry<br />Controlled burning<br />
  160. 160. Moorland<br />
  161. 161. Preservation Challenges: Wetland<br />Working to preserve freshwater habitats<br />Controlling fish stock<br />Encouraging salmon farming<br />Dredging lakes<br />Controlling plant life<br />Fencing off cattle & sheep<br />Supporting bird life<br />
  162. 162. Preservation Challenges: Forests<br />Controlling the growth of forests<br />Encouraging sustainable use<br />Coppicing (a form of controlled cutting) <br />
  163. 163. Case Study: Lake District<br />Designated in 1951<br />Widespread grazing and use have eroded scrub (tree cover) in higher areas<br />Limited shelter driving soil erosion<br />Programme to plant 3 new ‘upland’ forests<br />
  164. 164. Case Study: Lake District<br />Project:<br />Analysis of topography<br />Analysis of soil types across the park<br />Placement of different trees to suit different environments<br />Eg. Birch on steep slopes, ash in wetlands and oak in grassy<br />Replanting programme<br />
  165. 165. Lake District<br />
  166. 166. Lake District<br />
  167. 167. Case Study: Hay Time Project<br />Project:<br />Working with farmers to restore grassland/meadow<br />In response to a change in farming practice (ploughing, re-seeding), which is having a dramatic effect on hay meadows<br />Impact on biodiversity and species propagation <br />
  168. 168.
  169. 169. Usage of National Parks<br />Defined by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949<br />Controlling: <br />Purchase<br />Development<br />Transportation<br />Planning and use<br />
  170. 170. Preservation Challenges: Grassland<br />Working to preserve freshwater habitats<br />Controlling fish stock<br />Encouraging salmon farming<br />Dredging lakes<br />Controlling plant life<br />Fencing off cattle & sheep<br />Supporting bird life<br />
  171. 171. Fact File: Forestry Commission<br />Government Department responsible for forests and woodlands<br />Priorities: <br />Climate change<br />Deforestation<br />Industry<br />Research<br />
  172. 172. Fact File: Natural England<br />Helps interpret the natural environment for:<br />Farmers<br />Schoolchildren<br />Teachers<br />Researchers<br />Owners <br />
  173. 173. Other types<br />Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty<br />Sites of Specific Scientific Interest<br />National Nature Reserves<br />
  174. 174. Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty<br />Established at the same time as National parks (1949)<br />Designated areas of the countryside<br />49 in total<br />Cared for by Local Governments, community and volunteer groups<br />
  175. 175. Sites of Specific Scientific Interest (SSSI)<br />Locations and habitats for scientifically important wildlife, species, fauna<br />No building is permitted on these sites<br />Building near these sites is heavily regulated<br />
  176. 176. National Nature Reserves<br />These are smaller sites that are important areas of wildlife habitat, with no buildings or roads<br />There are over 210 National Nature Reserves in the UK <br />They have high ecological value and are used as study areas for students and scientists.<br />
  177. 177. Role of National Nature Reserves<br />Can be declared by Natural England and proposed by the public<br />Covering 92,000 hectares of the UK<br />Largest is the Wash (8,000)<br />Managed by Natural England and other groups including the Society for Protection of Birds<br />
  178. 178. Heritage Coast<br />Conserved as part of the UK’s heritage<br />Covers approximately 33% of the coastline (1050 km)<br />
  179. 179. Heritage Coast<br />Conserve, protect and enhance the natural beauty of the coasts, their marine flora and fauna, and their heritage features.<br />Facilitate and enhance their enjoyment, understanding and appreciation by the public.<br />Maintain and improve the health of inshore waters affecting Heritage Coasts and their beaches through appropriate environmental management measures.<br />Take account of the needs of agriculture, forestry and fishing, and of the economic and social needs of the small communities on these coasts.<br />
  180. 180. Heritage Coasts around the UK<br />1. North Northumberland<br />2. Durham<br />3. North Yorkshire and Cleveland<br />4. Flamborough Headland<br />5. Spurn<br />6. North Norfolk<br />7. Suffolk<br />8. South Foreland<br />9. Dover - Folkestone<br />10. Sussex<br />11. Tennyson<br />12. Hamstead<br />13. Purbeck<br />14. West Dorset<br />15. East Devon<br />16. South Devon<br />17. Rame Head<br />18. Gribbin Head - Polperro<br />19. The Roseland<br />20. The Lizard<br />21. Isles of Scilly<br />22. Penwith<br />23. Godreavy - Portreath<br />24. St Agnes<br />25. Trevose Head<br />26. Pentire Point - Widemouth<br />27. Hartland<br />28. Hartland (Devon)<br />29. Lundy<br />30. North Devon<br />31. Exmoor<br />32. St Bees Head<br />
  181. 181. Challenges<br />Managing the balance between preservation and use<br />Managing the benefit to science/industry<br />Educating the public<br />
  182. 182. Conclusions<br />The UK has a very active commitment to preserving and providing public access to all forms of heritage<br />Managing heritage depends on standards and good practice, which need to be underpinned by good scientific knowledge<br />Managing heritage is expensive, and we need to keep making the case<br />
  183. 183. Conclusions<br />National parks, museums, historic houses, churches, castles, are all part of our national identity and make a vital contribution both to cultural life and to the tourism economy.<br />