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Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
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Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
Management of UK Heritage
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Management of UK Heritage

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Presentation to a delegation of Chinese culural ambassadors, looking at the general administration of UK heritage, including buildings, sites, movable heritage, monuments, national parks and …

Presentation to a delegation of Chinese culural ambassadors, looking at the general administration of UK heritage, including buildings, sites, movable heritage, monuments, national parks and coastline.

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  • 1. The Management System of the UK’s Cultural Objects and the UN Heritage Reserves and <br />The Management System and Modes of National Parks <br />Nick Poole, Chief Executive, Collections Trust<br />
  • 2. Thank you!<br />
  • 3. AGENDA<br />Introductions<br />Lecture 1: UK Cultural Sector, structure &amp; governance<br />Lecture 2: Survey &amp; Registration System of Heritage<br />Lecture 3: Protection technologies<br />Lecture 4: Finance for Heritage Protection<br />Questions and answers<br />
  • 4. Introduction<br />Chief Executive of the Collections Trust<br />Formerly a Government adviser on Heritage Policy<br />UK representative on Culture in the European Union<br />Councillor of the Museums Association<br />Covering issues including Cultural Property, technology and the law<br />
  • 5. The Collections Trust<br />Independent UK charity<br />Campaigning for the public right to access and engage with Collections. <br />Promoting best practice<br />Encouraging innovation<br />Representing the sector<br />
  • 6. The Collections Trust<br />Funded by the UK Government, the European Commission and through trading activity<br />Publishing standards, advice and guidance through: <br />www.collectionslink.org.uk<br />Advice and guidance on issues of Cultural Property:<br />www.culturalpropertyadvice.gov.uk<br />
  • 7. The Collections Trust<br />Publishing professional standards jointly with the British Standards Institute<br />Building professional networks and communities<br />Working with broadcasters (such as the BBC) to digitise cultural content and share it with a mass audience<br />
  • 8. The UK ‘Home Nations’<br />England<br />Wales<br />Scotland<br />Northern Ireland<br />
  • 9. The UK ‘Administrative Regions’<br />9 Regions, each with a Government office<br />London<br />East Midlands<br />East of England<br />North East<br />North West<br />West Midlands<br />Yorkshire<br />South East<br />South West<br />
  • 10. The UK Culture Sector: Definition<br />Museums enable people to explore collections for inspiration, learning and enjoyment.<br />They are institutions that collect, safeguard and make accessible artefacts and specimens, which they hold in trust for society.<br />This definition includes art galleries with collections of works of art, as well as museums with historical collections of objects.<br />- UK Museums Association<br />
  • 11. The UK Culture Sector: Basic Facts<br />2,500 museums in the UK<br />1,880 Accredited under the Museum Accreditation Scheme<br />4 out of the top 5 tourist attractions are museums<br />Employing approx. 40,000 paid &amp; volunteer staff<br />40.3m visits during 2008/09<br />Net contribution to tourist economy = £1.1bn per annum<br />
  • 12. The UK Culture Sector: Top 10 attractions<br />Tate Modern 4,915,376<br />British Museum 4,837,878<br />National Gallery 4,562,471<br />Natural History Museum 3,754,496<br />Science Museum 2,440,253<br />Victoria &amp; Albert Museum 2,372,919<br />National Portrait Gallery 1,601,448<br />Tate Britain 1,597,359<br />National Railway Museum 902,149<br />The Lowry 850,000<br />
  • 13. The UK Culture Sector: Visitors<br />Adults 78%<br />Children 22%<br />Overseas 38%<br />
  • 14. Government Responsibility for Culture<br />Gordon Brown, Prime Minister<br />Cabinet Ministers<br />Ben Bradshaw<br />Secretary of State for Culture<br />Sion SimonCreative Industries Minister<br />Barbara Follett<br />Tourism and Culture Minister<br />Gerry Sutcliffe<br />Sports Minister<br />
  • 15. Government Agencies for Culture<br />Department for Culture, Media and Sport<br />Government Agencies<br />Museums, Libraries, Archives Council<br />English Heritage<br />Heritage Lottery Fund<br />
  • 16. Museums, Libraries &amp; Archives Council<br />Sponsored by DCMS<br />Lead strategic agency for the sector<br />Putting people first<br />Working for excellence<br />Learning at the core<br />Delivering change<br />Promoting partnership<br />
  • 17. The UK Culture Sector<br />Structure<br />Size<br />Workforce<br />Funding<br />Governance<br />Standards<br />
  • 18. The UK Culture Sector: Structure<br />Main museum types/groups:<br />National Museums<br />Local Authority Museums<br />Independent Museums<br />University Museums<br />Regimental Museums<br />
  • 19. The UK Culture Sector: Structure<br />Central Government<br />Department for Culture, Media &amp; Sport<br />Ministry of Defence<br />National Museums<br />Military/Regimental Museums<br />
  • 20. The UK Culture Sector: Structure<br />Central Government<br />Higher Education Funding Council<br />Local Government<br />Universities<br />Local Authority Museums<br />University Museums<br />
  • 21. Fact File: National Museums<br />Established under charter from the Crown<br />Funded directly by the Department for Culture<br />21 museums, incl. Tate, British Museum, V&amp;A<br />13 ‘National’ and 8 ‘sponsored’<br />Incl. National museums &amp; galleries of Scotland and Wales<br />Academic analogue status (ie. the same as Universities)<br />Receive £320m each year<br />
  • 22. UK Culture Sector: Size (by type)<br />
  • 23. UK Culture Sector: Workforce<br />40,000 professional &amp; volunteer staff<br />More than 50% unpaid volunteer<br />Mostly post-graduate qualified<br />
  • 24. UK Culture Sector: Workforce by type<br />
  • 25. UK Culture Sector: Funding<br />Funding sources: <br />Central Government<br />Local Government<br />Trusts/Foundations<br />Grants<br />Trading income<br />Exhibition income<br />Net expenditure = £3.34 per capita of population<br />
  • 26. UK Culture Sector: Free Admission for Museums<br />Universal free access since 2001<br />124% increase in visitors<br />9 million extra visits each year<br />National Maritime Museum up by 154%<br />Natural History Museum up by 127%<br />National Museums Liverpool up by 239%<br />
  • 27. UK Culture Sector: Governance<br />Governance varies by type<br />Most common type is a ‘Charitable Trust’<br />Venue operates as an independent entity<br />Governed by a ‘Board of Directors’<br />Charitable status confers preferential tax arrangements<br />
  • 28. UK Culture Sector: Standards<br />A strong commitment to UK &amp; international professional standards<br />The Museum Accreditation Scheme accounts for 75% of the sector<br />Requires minimum standards from all museums<br />Tied to Government and other funding sources<br />
  • 29. Standards: Museum Accreditation Scheme<br />Based on an annual self-assessment<br />Reviewed by a panel of experts<br />4 priorities:<br />Governance &amp; management<br />User services<br />Visitor facilities<br />Collections Management<br />
  • 30. Standards: SPECTRUM<br />Published in 1994<br />UK and International standard for Knowledge &amp; Information Management in museums<br />Translated into 4 languages and adopted throughout Europe<br />12 of the 14 major Collections Management Systems<br />Free for non-commercial use<br />
  • 31. Standards: Benchmarks for Collections Care<br />Developed by the Museums, Libraries &amp; Archives Council and Collections Trust<br />Defines ‘good’, ‘better’ and ‘best’ practice for museums<br />An interactive tool used to support planning<br />Enables funders to assess the quality of Collections Care<br />Also...<br />
  • 32. Standards in the Care of Collections<br />Geology<br />Archaeology<br />Biology<br />Larger &amp; Working Objects<br />Musical Instruments<br />Touring Exhibitions<br />Costume &amp; Textiles<br />Photography<br />
  • 33. Standards: CT/BSI PAS 197<br />Developed jointly by the Collections Trust and British Standards Institute<br />A new national standard for professional Collections Management<br />Shared between museums, archives and libraries<br />
  • 34.
  • 35. Standards<br />Supporting the sector:<br />Funders: MLA, DCMS, HLF, Charitable Trusts and Foundations<br />Agencies: Collections Trust, Museums Association, Special Interest Groups <br />Agents: Development Officers, Consultants, Expert Advisers, Curatorial Advisers<br />Professionals: Managers, staff, Boards<br />Volunteers: Students, retired people, others<br />
  • 36. End of Lecture 1<br />Questions?<br />
  • 37. Break<br />
  • 38. Lecture 2<br />Survey and Registration System of Cultural Heritage<br />
  • 39. Primary Agencies<br />Department for Culture, Media and Sport<br />Museums, Libraries &amp; Archives Council <br />English Heritage<br />National Trust<br />Collections Trust<br />Individual heritage organisations and sites<br />Funding organisations<br />
  • 40. Overall aim<br />Strategic, targeted investment of resources and policy to deliver:<br />Public Sector Efficiency<br />Public Value<br />Based on up-to-date research (evidence-based policy)<br />
  • 41. Priorities for Heritage Protection Policy<br />Reviewing science behind Environmental standards<br />Promoting more cost-effective practice<br />Updating attitudes to risk<br />Using technology for outreach<br />Changing attitudes towards acquisition<br />
  • 42. Surveying Heritage<br />5 primary mechanisms:<br />Museum Accreditation Scheme <br />Collections Surveys/Collection Level Description<br />National Monuments Record<br />Culture Grid database of cultural sites<br />Individual organisation surveys and inspections<br />
  • 43. Heritage/Environment Agencies<br />Department for Culture, Media and Sport<br />Agencies<br />National Trust<br />English Heritage<br />CABE<br />
  • 44. English Heritage<br />Government’s adviser on the built environment<br />Advising on the preservation of the Historic Environment<br />Promoting public engagement <br />Promoting education and research<br />
  • 45. English Heritage: Registration<br />Maintaining registers of the UK’s historic buildings, monuments and landscapes:<br />National Monuments Record<br />Blue Plaques<br />Maritime Archaeology<br />Landscape Protection<br />Aerial Survey<br />Scientific Research<br />Listing <br />
  • 46. English Heritage: National Monuments Record<br />Based at the National Monuments Record Centre in Swindon<br />10 million archive items including plans, maps and aerial photographs<br />Searchable database of all English Heritage sitesand landscapes<br />
  • 47. English Heritage: Blue Plaques<br />Scheme to mark the buildings inhabited by famous historical figures<br />Based in London<br />Running for over 140 years<br />Nominated by members of the public<br />
  • 48. English Heritage: Maritime Archaeology<br />Responsibility established in the 2002 Heritage Act<br />Responsible for:<br />Coastal planning<br />Protection of Wrecks and Wreck sites<br />Undersea archaeology<br />
  • 49. English Heritage: Landscape Protection<br />Visual assessment of the landscape<br />Aerial Survey<br />Metric Survey<br />Time Team<br />National Parks<br />Ordnance Survey (maps)<br />
  • 50. English Heritage: Aerial Survey<br />Photography from the sky &amp; visual assessment<br />National Mapping Programme<br />Aerial Photographs<br />Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) technology<br />Satellite images<br />
  • 51. English Heritage: Metric Survey<br />Support to English Heritage on metric surveying (using visual instruments):<br />Theodoloite – equipment for surveying<br />Photogrammetry – using photographs <br />3D computer-aided modelling<br />
  • 52.
  • 53. English Heritage: Time Team<br />Joint programme between Channel 4 &amp; English Heritage<br />Weekly investigation of archaeological sites<br />Presented by Tony Robinson<br />
  • 54. Listing<br />6 main lists:<br />Schedule of Monuments<br />Register of Parks and Gardens<br />Register of Historic Battlefields<br />World Heritage sites<br />Conservation Areas<br />Listed Buildings<br />
  • 55. Listing: Schedule of Monuments<br />Registration of more than 31,000 sites :<br />Castles<br />Archaeological sites<br />Monasteries<br />Listed monuments are protected under law<br />Must be of national importance<br />
  • 56. Wansdyke, Wiltshire<br />Thought to be created through military excavation. <br />
  • 57. Norman church, Knowlton, Devon<br />Church built in top of prehistoric burial site<br />
  • 58. Jewish Cemetary, Ponsharden, Cornwall<br />
  • 59. Listing: Register of Parks &amp; Gardens<br />Registration of 1,450 parks &amp; gardens<br />
  • 60. Listing: Register of Historic Battlefields<br />Lists 43 historically significant battlefields<br />Listed on the UK Battlefield Resource Centre<br />Battlefields as sites of potential archaeological interest<br />
  • 61. Listing: World Heritage Sites<br />Based on the 1972 UNESCO World Heritage Convention<br />878 World Heritage Sites<br />27 in the UK...<br />
  • 62. Stonehenge<br />
  • 63. Kew Gardens<br />
  • 64. Tower of London<br />
  • 65. Listing: Conservation Areas<br />Conservation Areas are protected by their Local Government Authority<br />First created in 1967, there are now 8000 in the UK <br />In a Conservation Area, the council has control over:<br />Demolition<br />Building works<br />Trees<br />
  • 66. Listing: Listed Buildings<br />Listing recognises and celebrates the particular historical significance of a building<br />372,905 in the UK<br />
  • 67. Listing: Listed Buildings<br />Owners must obtain special consent to do building work<br />A listed building is not protected in all cases, but the Local Government may choose to protect it<br />Chosen on the basis of architectural, social or historical significance.<br />
  • 68. Key Heritage Law<br />National Heritage Act (2002)<br />Protection of Wrecks Act (1973)<br />
  • 69. End of Lecture 2<br />Questions?<br />
  • 70. Lunch<br />
  • 71. Lecture 3<br />Maritime Heritage Protection<br />
  • 72. Overview<br />Department for Culture holds national responsibility<br />English Heritage is responsible for surveying and recommending action<br />Action is taken by Local Governments<br />Using private contractors<br />
  • 73. Protection of Wrecks Act 1978<br />An offence to:<br />Interfere with wrecks<br />Remove anything<br />Carry out salvage operations<br />Drop anchor or any other material<br />Any disturbance (such as excavation) must be licensed<br />Currently protects 60 wreck sites<br />
  • 74. Advisory Committee for Historic Wrecks<br />Meets 3 times annually<br />Approves licenses for exploration and work<br />Funded by English Heritage: <br />Excavation/archaeology<br />Markers<br />
  • 75. End of Lecture 3<br />Questions?<br />
  • 76. Lecture 4<br />Protection Technology of Stone Heritage and Ancient Architecture<br />
  • 77. Key agents in building conservation<br />Department for Culture, Media and Sport<br />Agencies<br />National Trust<br />English Heritage<br />IHBC<br />Historic Royal Palaces<br />
  • 78. Overview<br />DCMS and English Heritage set national strategy for building preservation<br />Responsibility for implementation, monitoring and management is with the individual site or venue<br />Techniques and technologies are selected according to the needs of the site or venue<br />
  • 79. National Heritage Science Programme<br />A programme to fund innovative research into materials and techniques for conservation and preservation<br />Funded by the academic sector<br />£8.1m grant programme to develop research<br />
  • 80. National Heritage Science Programme<br />Fragmentation in research efforts<br />Limited communication between heritage community and academic/scientific research<br />Working towards joint priorities and funding programmes<br />
  • 81. English Heritage Conservation Policy<br />Sets out the following principles:<br />The environment is a shared resource<br />Everyone should participate in it<br />Understanding the significance of places<br />Places should be managed<br />Decisions about heritage should be transparent<br />Decisions must be documented and learnt from<br />
  • 82. National Trust<br />Independent charitable organisation<br />Working to preserve the UK’s buildings, countryside and coastline<br />Educating the UK population about the importance of the environment<br />3.56m UK members<br />
  • 83. Current Priorities in Building Conservation <br />Preventive conservation<br />Pollutants and environmental damage<br />Materials <br />Techniques and processes<br />Cleaning<br />Risk Management<br />Flood Damage<br />Fire Protection<br />Dating Technologies<br />
  • 84. Preventive Conservation <br />Taking action to prevent deterioration/decay of buildings and collections<br />Active monitoring and environmental control<br />Passive conservation through good management and housekeeping<br />
  • 85. Pollutants &amp; Environmental Damage<br />Research programmes looking at: <br />Wet deposition rates &amp; factors such as surface geometry<br />Dry deposition rates &amp; impact of local factors (eg. wind)<br />Effect of local variations in climate<br />Materials such as glass &amp; long-term impact<br />
  • 86. Pollutants &amp; Environmental Damage<br />Looking at the impact of pollutants such as:<br />Carbon dioxide<br />Sulphur dioxide<br />Nitrogen oxides<br />Particulates (smoke, fumes)<br />On different materials &amp; building<br />types<br />
  • 87. Water Damage<br />Combination of technologies:<br />Flood detectors<br />Relative Humidity Monitoring<br />‘RH papers’, strips of paper that react to moisture<br />Hygrometers for measuring moisture over time<br />Laser surveys<br />Boreholes at archaeological sites<br />
  • 88. Fire Damage<br />Combination of causes:<br />Arson<br />Electrical fault<br />Smoking<br />Heating equipment<br />Lightening<br />Hot works<br />
  • 89. Fire Damage<br />Management systems:<br />Fire detection systems<br />Fire supression systems<br />Sprinklers<br />Water mist<br />Controlled oxygen environments<br />
  • 90. Case Study: IMPACT<br />Centre for Sustainable Heritage, UCL<br />Software to assess the levels of reactive pollutants such as nitrogen oxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide inside heritage buildings. <br />Enables heritage managers to test scenarios by varying levels of pollutants for different building compositions<br />
  • 91.
  • 92. Heritage Materials Conservation<br />Research programmes include:<br />Plastics conservation<br />Paper conservation<br />Archaeological materials<br />
  • 93. Risk Management<br />Disaster Planning and Emergency Preparedness<br />Understanding the connection between risks to the building and risks to the object<br />Modelling changes in the building envelope and predictive studies<br />
  • 94. Protection Technologies<br />Temperature monitors<br />Building Management Systems<br />Relative Humidity monitors<br />
  • 95. Case Study:<br />Dover Castle Great Tower Project<br />12th Century Great Tower at Dover Castle<br />Process:<br />Understanding the needs of the building<br />Assessing the expectations of the public<br />Deciding on techniques for conservation/preservation<br />
  • 96. Case Study:<br />Dover Castle Great Tower Project<br />Preserving the integrity of the building<br />Re-presenting it as though prepared for a 12th century event or celebration<br />Cosmetic alterations to the building interior without significant structuralwork<br />
  • 97. Case Study:<br />Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford upon Avon<br />An building in the ‘art deco’ style from 1932<br />Extensive programme of modernisation<br />
  • 98.
  • 99.
  • 100. Other risks<br />Climate change causing flood damage<br />
  • 101. Other risks<br />Increases in pest infestations resulting from climate change<br />
  • 102. Other risks<br />Closure and repurposing of heritage buildings<br />
  • 103. Primary risks to heritage<br />Damage from soluble salts in walls<br />Weather damage to stonework<br />Freezing/unfreezing of building material<br />Flood damage<br />Biological attack of interior timbers &amp; roofs<br />Corrosion of metal<br />Corrosion of steel or iron supports in statues &amp; concrete<br />
  • 104. End of Lecture 3<br />Questions?<br />
  • 105. Break<br />
  • 106. Lecture 4<br />Funding Heritage Protection<br />
  • 107. Funders of Heritage Protection<br />Department for Culture, Media and Sport<br />Department for Business, Innovation &amp; Skills<br />Agencies<br />National Trust<br />English Heritage<br />Heritage Lottery Fund<br />Research Councils<br />
  • 108. Heritage Lottery Fund<br />Set up by the UK Government to fund heritage<br />£4.3bn invested since 1994<br />Over 18,800 projects<br />
  • 109. Heritage Lottery Fund<br />Priorities:<br />Help conserve heritage<br />Help people make decisions about their heritage<br />Help people learn about their heritage<br />Average grants £50,000 - £100,000<br />
  • 110. Heritage Lottery Fund<br />People&amp;apos;s memories and experiences<br />Histories of people, communities, places and events<br />Cultural traditions<br />Historic buildings and townscapes<br />Archaeological sites<br />Collections of items, archives or other materials<br />Natural and designed landscapes<br />Habitats and species<br />Sites and collections<br />
  • 111. Case Study: Clissold Park<br />19th Century public park in London<br />Awarded £4.46m <br />Restoration of the park ground<br />Provision of new visitor facilities<br />Improved interpretation of the site<br />Improvements to the river<br />
  • 112. Case Study: Astley Castle<br />12th Century Castle, devastated by fire in 1978<br />Grant of £2.3m<br />Clearance of rubble and debris<br />Salvage of usable material/stone<br />Strengthening of remaining features<br />Building new elements<br />
  • 113.
  • 114. Funding Requirements<br />All funding recipients are required to meet certain obligations<br />All have to provide a Building Management Plan and a Conservation Management Plan, detailing how the building, site or monument will be maintained. <br />Require sustainability plans<br />
  • 115. Research Councils<br />Funded by the UK Government<br />Investing £2.8bn per year in scientific research<br />Developing joint programmes and interdisciplinary research between different communities<br />
  • 116. Research Councils<br />Arts &amp; Humanities<br />Biotechnology &amp; Biological Sciences<br />Engineering &amp; Physical Sciences<br />Economic &amp; Social Research<br />Medical Research<br />Natural Environment<br />Science and Technology<br />AHRC is the main funder of research into <br />Conservation &amp; conservation science<br />
  • 117. Arts &amp; Humanities Research Council<br />Established in 2005<br />Funding up to £100m per year for research<br />Joint funding programme with the EPSRC<br />Wide variety of funded projects, from measurement to new techniques, models and methods<br />
  • 118. Example projects<br />3D laser scanning techniques<br />Historic musical instrument conservation<br />Digital restoration of medieval music<br />Redisplay of museum collections<br />History of underwater telegraphs<br />Papyrus and Egyptian materials<br />Textile conservation<br />Visual Arts data<br />
  • 119. Other Funders for Heritage<br />Charitable Trusts &amp; Foundations<br />Educational funds<br />Bequests <br />Corporate sponsors<br />Local Government<br />Private donors<br />European Commission<br />
  • 120. CalousteGulbenkian Foundation<br />Funding good causes<br />Cultural Understanding<br />Fulfilling Potential<br />Sustaining the Environment<br />Innovation<br />Sponsored the Gulbenkian Prize <br />(now the Art Fund Prize)<br />
  • 121. Pilgrim Trust<br />Funding conservation and preservation of heritage<br />New use to historic buildings<br />Preserving buildings of outstanding merit<br />Preserving religious buildings<br />Recording information<br />
  • 122. Other Heritage Funders<br />Allchurches Trust<br />Architectural Heritage Fund<br />Jill Franklin Trust<br />Historic Churches Preservation Trust<br />Manifold Trust<br />
  • 123. Total Funding to Heritage<br />Impossible to estimate<br />In excess of £1bn from public sources (Government)<br />More from private sources (private benefactors)<br />More from income earned through retail and other services<br />An estimated £3.5bn in conservation funding each year<br />
  • 124. Future Priorities<br />Joint programmes<br />Developing joined-up approaches to funding<br />Cost-savings and more efficient practice<br />
  • 125. Lords Science &amp; Heritage Inquiry<br />Held during 2005-06<br />The largest inquiry into the current state of conservation science<br />Found a very fragmented picture, with little coordination<br />Requested the DCMS to develop a National Heritage Science Strategy<br />
  • 126.
  • 127. National Heritage Science Strategy<br />The role of science in managing heritage<br />Use of science in understanding the past<br />Skills requirement<br />Equipment and resources<br />
  • 128. National Heritage Science Strategy<br />Revisiting the science behind environmental standards<br />Acceptable limits for humidity and pollutants<br />Understanding the impact of visitors &amp; use<br />New methods of cleaning<br />
  • 129. National Heritage Science Strategy<br />Better understanding of:<br />Impact of multi-pollutant urban environments<br />Impact of inappropriate materials for repair<br />Interaction of moisture, salt and biological agents<br />Impact of vibration damage<br />Impact of fire-resistant treatment<br />
  • 130. End of Lecture 4<br />Questions?<br />
  • 131. Lecture 5<br />Historic Houses<br />
  • 132. Funders of Heritage Protection<br />Department for Culture, Media and Sport<br />Agencies<br />National Trust<br />English Heritage<br />Historic Houses Association<br />
  • 133. Privately-owned Heritage in the UK<br />More of the UK’s Heritage is in private ownership than in the ownership of English Heritage, National Trust and the Government. <br />There are more than 1,500 privately owned historic houses, castles and gardens around the UK<br />Many are operated as commercial attractions, 4 out of 5 operate at a loss<br />
  • 134. Privately-owned Heritage in the UK<br />The majority are Grade II* or Grade I<br />They are not governed by law<br />They do have to meet defined standards in order to receive funding, for example from the Heritage Lottery Fund<br />Many are running light industrial activity, business activity, farming and many other forms of use<br />
  • 135. Privately-owned Heritage in the UK<br />Historic Houses Association is an independent membership organisation<br />Works closely with English Heritage and the National Trust<br />Funds the Heritage Conservation Programe<br />Some works are covered under a Government Indemnity Scheme<br />
  • 136. Historic House<br />
  • 137. Witley Court<br />
  • 138. Lecture 6<br />National Parks<br />
  • 139. Funders of National Parks<br />Department for Environment, Food, Rural Affairs<br />Agencies<br />National Trust<br />English Heritage<br />National Parks<br />Natural England<br />
  • 140. National Parks in the UK<br />14 National Parks<br />Each represented by a National Park Authority<br />Employ 12,000 people<br />Generate £177m per year<br />Support their local economies through tourism<br />
  • 141. National Parks website<br />www.nationalparks.gov.uk<br />
  • 142. English National Parks<br />England - Dartmoor, Exmoor, Lake District, New Forest, Northumberland, North York Moors, Peak District, the Yorkshire Dales and the Broads which has equivalent status to a National Park. The South Downs will become a National Park but has not yet officially been designated.<br />Wales - Brecon Beacons, Pembrokeshire Coast and Snowdonia<br />Scotland - Cairngorms and Loch Lomond and the Trossachs.<br />
  • 143.
  • 144. National Park Authorities<br />Independent public bodies that:<br />Conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage; and<br />Promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of National Parks by the public.<br />
  • 145. History of National Parks<br />In 1945, before any National Parks had been created in the UK, John Dower wrote a report to the government, describing what National Parks should do. He said that for &amp;apos;the Nation&amp;apos;s benefit&amp;apos; the government should make sure;<br />the characteristic landscape beauty is strictly preserved;<br />access and facilities for open-air enjoyment are amply provided;<br />wildlife and buildings and places of architectural and historic interest are suitably protected;<br />established farming use is effectively maintained.<br />
  • 146. International Union for the Conservation ofNature<br />In 1969, the IUCN created the international definition of a National Park<br />Definition extended in 1971:<br />Minimum size of 1000 hectares<br />Statutory legal protection<br />Staff and a budget<br />
  • 147. Designation of National Parks<br />1951 - Peak District, Lake District, Snowdonia and Dartmoor<br />1952 - Pembrokeshire Coast and North York Moors<br />1954 - Yorkshire Dales and Exmoor<br />1956 - Northumberland<br />1957 - Brecon Beacons<br />1989 - The Broads given equivalent status to a National Park<br />2002 - Loch Lomond &amp; The Trossachs<br />2003 - Cairngorms<br />2005 - New Forest <br />
  • 148. Brecon Beacons<br />
  • 149. Brecon Beacons<br />
  • 150. Brecon Beacons<br />
  • 151. Loch Lomond<br />
  • 152. Loch Lomond<br />
  • 153. Norfolk Broads<br />
  • 154. History of National Parks<br />In 1945, before any National Parks had been created in the UK, John Dower wrote a report to the government, describing what National Parks should do. He said that for &amp;apos;the Nation&amp;apos;s benefit&amp;apos; the government should make sure;<br />the characteristic landscape beauty is strictly preserved;<br />access and facilities for open-air enjoyment are amply provided;<br />wildlife and buildings and places of architectural and historic interest are suitably protected;<br />established farming use is effectively maintained.<br />
  • 155. Ownership of National Parks<br />The majority are private land, owned by:<br />Farmers<br />Private landowners<br />Forestry Commission<br />National Trust<br />But usage of this land is very closely controlled<br />
  • 156. Types of National Park Land<br />Forests<br />Farms<br />Mountains<br />Wetlands<br />Lakes<br />Many different types of terrain<br />
  • 157. ‘Living In’<br />Active use and management of National Park land is encouraged. Including: <br />Grazing animals<br />Harvesting wood<br />Digging for peat<br />Growing hay<br />Other types of farming<br />
  • 158. Preservation Challenges<br />Research into the preservation management of:<br />Moorland<br />Wetland, lakes and rivers<br />Woodlands and forests<br />Grassland<br />
  • 159. Preservation Challenges: Moorland<br />Man-made environments<br />Controlled by:<br />Animal husbandry<br />Controlled burning<br />
  • 160. Moorland<br />
  • 161. Preservation Challenges: Wetland<br />Working to preserve freshwater habitats<br />Controlling fish stock<br />Encouraging salmon farming<br />Dredging lakes<br />Controlling plant life<br />Fencing off cattle &amp; sheep<br />Supporting bird life<br />
  • 162. Preservation Challenges: Forests<br />Controlling the growth of forests<br />Encouraging sustainable use<br />Coppicing (a form of controlled cutting) <br />
  • 163. Case Study: Lake District<br />Designated in 1951<br />Widespread grazing and use have eroded scrub (tree cover) in higher areas<br />Limited shelter driving soil erosion<br />Programme to plant 3 new ‘upland’ forests<br />
  • 164. Case Study: Lake District<br />Project:<br />Analysis of topography<br />Analysis of soil types across the park<br />Placement of different trees to suit different environments<br />Eg. Birch on steep slopes, ash in wetlands and oak in grassy<br />Replanting programme<br />
  • 165. Lake District<br />
  • 166. Lake District<br />
  • 167. Case Study: Hay Time Project<br />Project:<br />Working with farmers to restore grassland/meadow<br />In response to a change in farming practice (ploughing, re-seeding), which is having a dramatic effect on hay meadows<br />Impact on biodiversity and species propagation <br />
  • 168.
  • 169. Usage of National Parks<br />Defined by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949<br />Controlling: <br />Purchase<br />Development<br />Transportation<br />Planning and use<br />
  • 170. Preservation Challenges: Grassland<br />Working to preserve freshwater habitats<br />Controlling fish stock<br />Encouraging salmon farming<br />Dredging lakes<br />Controlling plant life<br />Fencing off cattle &amp; sheep<br />Supporting bird life<br />
  • 171. Fact File: Forestry Commission<br />Government Department responsible for forests and woodlands<br />Priorities: <br />Climate change<br />Deforestation<br />Industry<br />Research<br />
  • 172. Fact File: Natural England<br />Helps interpret the natural environment for:<br />Farmers<br />Schoolchildren<br />Teachers<br />Researchers<br />Owners <br />
  • 173. Other types<br />Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty<br />Sites of Specific Scientific Interest<br />National Nature Reserves<br />
  • 174. Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty<br />Established at the same time as National parks (1949)<br />Designated areas of the countryside<br />49 in total<br />Cared for by Local Governments, community and volunteer groups<br />
  • 175. Sites of Specific Scientific Interest (SSSI)<br />Locations and habitats for scientifically important wildlife, species, fauna<br />No building is permitted on these sites<br />Building near these sites is heavily regulated<br />
  • 176. National Nature Reserves<br />These are smaller sites that are important areas of wildlife habitat, with no buildings or roads<br />There are over 210 National Nature Reserves in the UK <br />They have high ecological value and are used as study areas for students and scientists.<br />
  • 177. Role of National Nature Reserves<br />Can be declared by Natural England and proposed by the public<br />Covering 92,000 hectares of the UK<br />Largest is the Wash (8,000)<br />Managed by Natural England and other groups including the Society for Protection of Birds<br />
  • 178. Heritage Coast<br />Conserved as part of the UK’s heritage<br />Covers approximately 33% of the coastline (1050 km)<br />
  • 179. Heritage Coast<br />Conserve, protect and enhance the natural beauty of the coasts, their marine flora and fauna, and their heritage features.<br />Facilitate and enhance their enjoyment, understanding and appreciation by the public.<br />Maintain and improve the health of inshore waters affecting Heritage Coasts and their beaches through appropriate environmental management measures.<br />Take account of the needs of agriculture, forestry and fishing, and of the economic and social needs of the small communities on these coasts.<br />
  • 180. Heritage Coasts around the UK<br />1. North Northumberland<br />2. Durham<br />3. North Yorkshire and Cleveland<br />4. Flamborough Headland<br />5. Spurn<br />6. North Norfolk<br />7. Suffolk<br />8. South Foreland<br />9. Dover - Folkestone<br />10. Sussex<br />11. Tennyson<br />12. Hamstead<br />13. Purbeck<br />14. West Dorset<br />15. East Devon<br />16. South Devon<br />17. Rame Head<br />18. Gribbin Head - Polperro<br />19. The Roseland<br />20. The Lizard<br />21. Isles of Scilly<br />22. Penwith<br />23. Godreavy - Portreath<br />24. St Agnes<br />25. Trevose Head<br />26. Pentire Point - Widemouth<br />27. Hartland<br />28. Hartland (Devon)<br />29. Lundy<br />30. North Devon<br />31. Exmoor<br />32. St Bees Head<br />
  • 181. Challenges<br />Managing the balance between preservation and use<br />Managing the benefit to science/industry<br />Educating the public<br />
  • 182. Conclusions<br />The UK has a very active commitment to preserving and providing public access to all forms of heritage<br />Managing heritage depends on standards and good practice, which need to be underpinned by good scientific knowledge<br />Managing heritage is expensive, and we need to keep making the case<br />
  • 183. Conclusions<br />National parks, museums, historic houses, churches, castles, are all part of our national identity and make a vital contribution both to cultural life and to the tourism economy.<br />

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