Introducing SPECTRUM in Brazil
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Introducing SPECTRUM in Brazil

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Workshop presentation to Brazilian museums held at the offices of SESC in Sao Paulo, supported by Pinacoteca.

Workshop presentation to Brazilian museums held at the offices of SESC in Sao Paulo, supported by Pinacoteca.

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Introducing SPECTRUM in Brazil Introducing SPECTRUM in Brazil Presentation Transcript

  • SPECTRUM & Museum Documentation Standards in Brazil Nick Poole CEO, Collections Trust
  • Today’s session SESSION ONE – Getting to know you • Welcome & introductions • Understanding the challenges faced by Brazilian museums • Why standards? SESSION TWO – The UK Case Study • • • • The situation for UK museums The standards landscape in the UK Different types of standard The UK Museum Accreditation Scheme
  • Today’s session SESSION THREE – Collections Management & Documentation • • • • • • • • Strategic Collections Management CIDOC Principles The role of SPECTRUM Collecting Policies Strategic Collections Development Building Collections skills The importance of leadership Demonstrating value & impact
  • Today’s session SESSION FOUR – A look ahead • The future development of Collections Management & Documentation • Putting collections online • Supporting museum development in Brazil • Building international relationships Q & A SESSION
  • SESSION ONE – Getting to know you
  • Please introduce yourself: • • • • Your name Your role Your museum One thing you are hoping to take away from this discussion
  • Introducing myself • Nick Poole • Working in museums since late 1990’s • Director of the Collections Trust • UK representative for Culture in Europe • Former Chair of ICOM UK • Member of UK Museums Association Ethics Committee
  • About the Collections Trust • Working with 23,000 museums in 18 countries worldwide – – – – Connecting people with collections Supporting professional development Building digital capacity Demonstrating the value of Collections Management • We want to help as many museums as possible give as many people as possible the chance to learn about themselves and the world around them.
  • Three key elements of our work • All of our work is driven by 3 guiding principles: – Trust – Community – Expertise • In practice, this means we: – – – – – Publish standards Deliver training and advice Carry out research projects Coordinate network activities Celebrating achievements
  • The Collections Trust’s role Discover Refine Manage Deliver Engage Improve Strategic Planning Interpretation Collections Management Loans & Mobility Audience Engagement Business administration Acquisition Research Documentation Exhibition Planning Strategic Marketing Key Performance Indicators Digitisation Collections Development Environmental Control Digital Content Outreach Process improvement Integrated Pest Management Web/mobile Education/ Learning Support Cost reduction Integrated Risk Management Licensing/IPR Commerce/ retail Disaster Planning & Resilience Fundraising Digital Asset Management Conservation Collections Trust core competencies
  • Discussion – what are the key challenges faced by: • Your museum • The Brazilian museum sector • Museum visitors
  • Why ‘Standards’? • ‘Just do it’ • Shared ethical principles • Codes of Ethics • Codes of Practice • Professional best practices • Professional standards
  • Benefits of Standards • Promoting quality • Reducing risk • Supporting collaboration (within & between sectors) • Reducing risk • Creating the conditions for sustainability • Encouraging innovation
  • SESSION TWO – The UK Case Study
  • The United Kingdom • A federation of four countries: – – – – England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland • Population 62.23m • An aging population • 99% literacy above age 15
  • UK Museum Community • The Museums Association provides a widely-accepted definition of a museum that is different from the ICOM definition: – 'Museums enable people to explore collections for inspiration, learning and enjoyment. They are institutions that collect, safeguard and make accessible artefacts and specimens, which they hold in trust for society.' • This definition includes art galleries with collections of works of art, as well as museums with historical collections of objects.
  • UK Museum Community • 2,500 museums or museum-like organisations • 1883 currently Accredited • No overarching Museum Strategy • Partly funded by Government, partly by private enterprise • Majority of UK museums have free admission, but charge for exhibitions & services
  • UK Museum Community • Separate ‘museum communities’ – – – – – – – – – National museums Independent museums Local Government museums University museums Sites and monuments Historic houses, gardens & castles Historic coastline Regimental museums Royal Palaces
  • Current challenges for UK museums • A crisis of identity – whether museums should be politically ‘neutral’ or actively fight for social justice • A transition from state funding to commercial income-generation • Increasing complexity in terms of new material (collecting contemporary material, digital media & documentation) • Increasing complexity in terms of delivery (websites, mobile applications, social platforms) • A crisis in authority – in the age of Wikipedia, what is the basis of the authority of museums?
  • What is a Collection? Physical Physical Collections Collections
  • What is a Collection? Physical Physical Collections Collections Administrative Administrative Information Information
  • What is a Collection? Physical Physical Collections Collections Administrative Administrative Information Information CollectionsCollectionsbased based Knowledge Knowledge
  • What is a Collection? Physical Physical Collections Collections Administrative Administrative Information Information CollectionsCollectionsbased based Knowledge Knowledge Narratives Narratives
  • What is a Collection? Physical Physical Collections Collections Administrative Administrative Information Information CollectionsCollectionsbased based Knowledge Knowledge Digital Digital Assets Assets Narratives Narratives
  • What is a Collection? Physical Physical Collections Collections Administrative Administrative Information Information CollectionsCollectionsbased based Knowledge Knowledge Physical Physical surrogates surrogates (3D print) (3D print) Digital Digital Assets Assets Narratives Narratives
  • What is a Collection? Physical Physical Collections Collections Physical Physical surrogates surrogates (3D print) (3D print) iall mater e mater ia f th e th nature o f trusts us to ature o s to The n The ty trusts u e ffor cie ty e Administrative whiich so ci e and car e or Digital Administrative wh ch so g e and car Digital ag Information collllect,, man a a t man beyond allll Assets Information co ec o nd Assets nged bey . ged a ch a n has ch .... has gn t on . cogniitiio n re co re CollectionsCollectionsbased based Knowledge Knowledge Narratives Narratives
  • Our changing role... The role of museums has always been a balance between physical protection and facilitating access We’re replacing access with activism, relevance, engagement & participation To become relevant, the museum has to become responsive
  • The ‘traditional’ museum... Most cultural organisations operate in ‘vertical’ silos Education Management Collections Retail IT
  • The ‘responsive’ museum...
  • Standards in UK museums • Legal basis of publicly-funded museum services – the 1964 Public Libraries and Museums Act • UK Museums Accreditation Scheme is a minimum standard which museums are required to meet in order to receive public funding • Accreditation requires the use of the 8 ‘primary procedures’ of the SPECTRUM standard • Legal requirements for employment, health & safety and service delivery • ‘Voluntary’ standards for different types of collection or activity
  • What is Documentation? Documentation is the process by which we record a set of assertions about things in our collections...
  • What is Documentation?
  • What is Documentation? Who owns it? Who owns it? What is it What is it made of? made of? What is it? What is it? Where is it? Where is it? Why do we Why do we have it? have it? How big is it? How big is it? What is it What is it connected to? connected to? Who collected Who collected it? it? How much is How much is it worth? it worth? Where was it Where was it found? found?
  • What is Documentation? What does it What does it Why should II What is it mean? Why should What is it mean? What story made of? made of? care? care? What is it?What story What is it? Who owns it? Who owns it? does it tell? does it tell? What is its What is its context? context? Why do we Why do we have it? have it? Where is it? Where is it? How do II How do relate to it? relate to it? How big is it? How big is it? What makes What makes it unique? it is it Whatunique? What is it connected to? connected to? Who collected Who collected it? it? Is it ethical/ Is it ethical/ political/ political/ moral? moral? Where was it Where was it found? found? What does it What does it How much is How much help me help me is it worth? it worth? understand? understand?
  • What is Documentation?
  • What is Documentation?
  • What is Documentation?
  • What is Documentation?
  • What is Documentation? The aim of documentation is not the creation of fixed points, but to facilitate the museum in reflecting the changing nature of knowledge & understanding about our collections.
  • What is Documentation? In a connected world, knowledge flows freely between contexts and communities, becoming greater & more valuable as it travels.
  • The importance of trust Museums remain among the most trusted civic institutions, more than banks, politicians and the media. In a world of hyper-connected information, trust has a direct value Museums are rich in trust because of professionalism and accountability – which are expressed through Documentation, Conservation & Collections Management Our professional standards are the reason why the public love and trust museums.
  • Different types of Standard • There are many different types of ‘standard’ CERTIFIED TECHNICAL VALUES VOLUNTARY
  • Different types of Standard • There are many different types of ‘standard’ BS5454 BS5454 CERTIFIED PUBLIC BENEFIT PUBLIC BENEFIT ACCREDITATION ACCREDITATION TECHNICAL VALUES SPECTRUM SPECTRUM MISSION MISSION VOLUNTARY
  • UK Museum Accreditation Scheme • A minimum-standards scheme run by the Arts Council England • Designed to offer museums benefits in: – – – – – – Performance Profile People Partnerships Planning Patronage
  • Key areas for Accreditation • Organisational Health – – – – – Mission Forward Plan Staffing & expertise Emergency Plan Environmental Sustainability • Collections – – – – – – Legal ownership Collections development Documentation policy & plan Collections care policy & plan Documentation procedures Security arrangements
  • Key areas for Accreditation • Users & their experience – Quality – User-focus – Effective learning
  • Achievements of Accreditation • Creating a level field for large and small museums • Supporting the case for investing in developing the museum • Providing a structure for prioritisation • Providing a ‘point of entry’ for other industries who want to work with museums • Giving politicians clarity about the scale and needs of the museum sector
  • Q&A
  • BREAK
  • SESSION THREE – Collections Management & Documentation
  • Collections Management & Documentation • • • • • • • Strategic Collections Management The role of SPECTRUM Collecting Policies Strategic Collections Development Building Collections skills The importance of leadership Demonstrating value & impact
  • Strategic Collections Management • Strategic collections management is about designing a museum that works well & works together • Making decisions based on the needs of the audience and the organisation • Ensuring effective management based on the right balance of skills, resources, systems and processes...
  • Users Users Politics Politics Funding Funding Culture Culture
  • Users Users Politics Politics Funding Funding Organisation’s Mission Statement Organisation’s Mission Statement Culture Culture
  • Users Users Politics Politics Funding Funding Organisation’s Mission Statement Organisation’s Mission Statement Collections Management Policy Collections Management Policy Culture Culture
  • Users Users Politics Politics Funding Funding Culture Culture Organisation’s Mission Statement Organisation’s Mission Statement Collections Management Policy Collections Management Policy Care Care Use Use Learn Learn Develop Develop
  • Users Users Politics Politics Funding Funding Culture Culture Organisation’s Mission Statement Organisation’s Mission Statement Collections Management Policy Collections Management Policy Care Care Use Use Learn Learn Develop Develop People People Processes Processes Systems Systems Info Info
  • Users Users Politics Politics Funding Funding Culture Culture Organisation’s Mission Statement Organisation’s Mission Statement Collections Management Policy Collections Management Policy Care Care Use Use Learn Learn Develop Develop People People Processes Processes Systems Systems Info Info Evaluation & improvement Evaluation & improvement
  • Users Users Politics Politics Funding Funding Culture Culture Organisation’s Mission Statement Organisation’s Mission Statement Collections Management Policy Collections Management Policy Care Care Use Use Learn Learn Develop Develop People People Processes Processes Systems Systems Info Info Evaluation & improvement Evaluation & improvement Rich, meaningful experiences for users Rich, meaningful experiences for users
  • Users Users Politics Politics Funding Funding Culture Culture Organisation’s Mission Statement Organisation’s Mission Statement Care Care People People f ycle o c uous nt, Policy Collections Management Policy Collections Management contin veme A impro , review, Userning Learn ea lUse anLearn g d in plann ment p Systems Processes velo Processes Systems de Evaluation & improvement Evaluation & improvement Rich, meaningful experiences for users Rich, meaningful experiences for users Develop Develop Info Info
  • CIDOC Principles • CIDOC believes that collections without adequate documentation cannot be considered to be true “museum” collections. This is because: – they cannot be adequately safeguarded and cared for – the museum cannot demonstrate its accountability for them – their value for research and interpretation is greatly reduced
  • The role of SPECTRUM • SPECTRUM acts as the bridge between the strategic aims of the organisation and the way the museum delivers its work • Connecting staff, procedures, systems and information to support the aims of the museum • It is not a fixed standard – it is like a recipe book. Museums take from it what they need to improve their Collections Management.
  • Users Users Politics Politics Funding Funding Culture Culture Organisation’s Mission Statement Organisation’s Mission Statement Collections Management Policy Collections Management Policy Care Care Use Use Learn Learn Develop Develop People Processes Systems Info Evaluation & improvement Evaluation & improvement Rich, meaningful experiences for users Rich, meaningful experiences for users
  • The core elements of SPECTRUM • SPECTRUM helps museums review their work with their collections, celebrate good practice and identify opportunities to improve! • SPECTRUM Standard including translations/ localisations, SPECTRUM Digital Asset Management, the SPECTRUM Schema and the Archive of previous versions of SPECTRUM • SPECTRUM Labs, including new ideas and potential applications of the SPECTRUM Standard • SPECTRUM Resources which support the application of the standard • SPECTRUM Community which includes anyone who uses the standard nationally or internationally
  • STANDARD PDF/XML/PRINT + SCHEMA GUIDANCE NEW IDEAS COMPLIANCE WORLDWIDE COMMUNITY (23000)
  • SPECTRUM Facts & Figures • 23,000 museums using SPECTRUM Compliant™ systems • 8000 professionals actively involved in the development of the standard • 17 SPECTRUM Partner systems • Translations in Portugal, the Netherlands, Belgium, Flanders, Germany • Active communities in the Nordic countries • Under development in Qatar and China
  • http://standards.collectionslink.org.uk
  • http://www.vocman.com/cultureGrid
  • The benefit of standard procedures • Ensures consistency when collections staff change • Provide a language for non-collections staff to engage with collections-related work • Provide an effective way for different museums to talk to each other • Promotes security and accountability • Promotes the efficient use of time and resources
  • Collecting Policies • Connecting the collecting activity of your museum with your mission • Defining what to say ‘yes’ to (and when to say ‘no’) • Providing the basis for shared collecting activity • Taking a strategic overview of how your collection should develop in the future
  • Strategic Collections Development • A collection should not be static, it needs active development to ensure that it continues to support the museum’s mission and the needs of your audiences • There is a need for Acquisition policies to ensure that the collection is actively being developed • Need to support an active, inclusive approach to disposing of material from collections • Finding ways to avoid institutional bias when we decide what to keep and what to get rid of • We need to understand different models of disposal, including sharing collections with the community
  • Collections Skills • Being a successful museum professional requires more than skills in collections management • There is a strong structure of shared values including a commitment to accountability and transparency • Museum professionals need skills in management and finance as well as knowing about their collections • Need to ensure structured professional development throughout your career in museums • Planning for continuity – how do you avoid losing knowledge when people leave?
  • Developing integrated skills ENTRY-LEVEL CORE VALUES ACADEMIC MID-CAREER LEADERSHIP LEGACY Integrity, accountability, openness, honesty, diversity, efficiency Environment, IPM, security, labelling etc. Strategic CM, Collections development Organisational knowledge transfer, research PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE Housekeeping, handling, packing Collections theory, research, documentation MANAGEMENT Timemanagement Project Management PPM, Risk, HR, Finance, Marketing Strategic planning, advocacy Continuity planning Broad interest General subject focus Practice-based expertise Specialist academic knowledge Subject knowledge transfer SUBJECT EXPERTISE SOFT SKILLS Mentoring, facilitation, negotiation, communication, networking
  • The importance of leadership • All of the standards and best practices in the world will not solve the problem if leaders are not engaged • Collections development requires long-term commitment – there are very few ‘quick wins’ • Costs are very clear, but the return-on-investment is much less clear • Taking action to prevent future problems, not waiting until things have gone wrong before you act • Developing a museum-specific ‘Management & Business Administration’ qualification – mixing management, enterprise, commerce and museum skills
  • Demonstrating value & impact • There are many different systems for evaluating the impact of collections-based work • Some systems are quantitative, based on measurement and performance indicators, and some are qualitative, based on judgement and peer-review • About achieving a balance between inputs (time, effort, resources) and outputs (direct, short-term impact and indirect long-term impact)
  • Users Users Politics Politics Funding Funding Culture Culture Organisation’s Mission Statement Organisation’s Mission Statement Collections Management Policy Collections Management Policy Care Care Use Use Learn Learn Develop Develop People People Processes Processes Systems Systems Info Info Value for whom? Evaluation & improvement Evaluation & improvement Rich, meaningful experiences for users Rich, meaningful experiences for users
  • Measuring the value of culture • An attempt by the UK Government to decide which model of ‘value’ to use • Presenting the weakness of the ‘economic value’ argument • Presenting the weakness of the ‘intrinsic cultural value’ argument
  • Measuring the value of culture Total Economic Value Total Economic Value Use Value Use Value Actual use Actual use For yourself For yourself Non-use Value Non-use Value Existence Value Existence Value Option Value Option Value For others (altruism) For others (altruism) For future generations For future generations People love museums, even if they don’t go to them....
  • Collections Management Key Performance Indicators • Providing a set of tools for museums to define their own performance indicators, based on: – Quantitative indicators (such as number of objects catalogued to a particular level) – Practical indicators that interface with existing museum activities – Directional indicators specifying whether an organization is getting better – Actionable indicators (things your organization can control to affect or drive change) – Financial indicators (such as cost)
  • Collections Management Key Performance Indicators • Key features of collections performance indicators: – Consistency and comparability : Definitions should be consistent over time and between institutions to enable comparison of like with like – Clarity: Indicators are simple, well-defined and easily understood – Controllability : Only aspects of performance over which there is control should be measured – Limited : The organisation should always concentrate on a limited number of PIs that give the most valuable collections management information – Feasibility : Can the PIs be measured easily?
  • Collections Management Key Performance Indicators
  • Generic Learning Outcomes • Developed by the UK Government to provide evidence of the impact of learning activity in museums, focussing on: – – – – – Skills Attitudes and values Knowledge and understanding Activity, behaviour & progression Enjoyment, inspiration & creativity • Successfully used as a planning and advocacy tool. Validity as statistical evidence is less clear.
  • Generic Social Outcomes • Developed to help museums describe and evaluate the impact of their work with communities, focussing on: – Stronger and safer communities – Health & wellbeing – Strengthening public life • Providing tools to collect and analyse data about this impact across different museum activities. • www.inspiringlearningforall.gov.uk
  • MA ‘Public Attitudes’ research • Research carried out by the UK Museums Association to learn what the public want from museums: • Essential purposes – Care and preservation of heritage – Holding collections and mounting displays – Creating knowledge for and about society • Priority purposes – Promoting economic growth through tourism and regeneration – Facilitating individual development through education, stimulation and building skills – Promoting happiness and wellbeing
  • MA ‘Public Attitudes’ research • Low-priority purposes – Fostering a sense of community – Helping the vulnerable – Protecting the natural environment • Purposes challenged by the public – Providing a forum for debate – Promoting social justice and human rights • The public have a different idea of what the impact of museums should be • The ‘essential’ and ‘priority’ activities are exactly those which we find hardest to provide evidence for
  • Designation & Significance • A scheme to recognise the outstanding significance of specific collections • Explicitly stating that not all collections are equal, and some are worthy of better protection • Identifying methods for defining ‘significance’ beyond the view of the museum and the curator • Looking at significance for local communities, particularly ‘communities of interest’ and even in global terms • Prioritising heritage protection on the basis of significance and value
  • Q&A
  • BREAK
  • SESSION FOUR – Looking ahead to the future
  • The future of Collections Management • Collections Management can power confident, exciting museums for a wide range of audiences • We have to break down the barriers between different museum activities and get rid of the idea of ‘front of house’ and ‘back office’ • The challenge will be to collect a wider range of material, and deliver experiences through digital and real-world channels, while remaining true to the values of preservation and accountability
  • The future of Documentation?
  • Putting Collections Online • We need to learn that ‘online’ is not an experience any more than ‘in-gallery’ – it is one of a number of tools with which we can deliver experiences for people • Most normal members of the public do not value online collections very highly • For the people for whom online collections are useful, they are very, very useful • We need to understand more about what people want from experiencing collections online
  • The continuum of use… CONTENT FUN OUTREACH LEARNING A BIT A LOT AGGREGATION RESEARCH COLLECTIONS MANAGEMENT 96 METADATA DATA MINING
  • 97
  • SPECTRUM & the CIDOC CRM CIDOC CRM Abstraction layer Collections management layer LIDO, ESE, ? Data interchange layer By mapping up to CIDOC CRM from SPECTRUM, we can support COPE by supporting a richer & more future-proof data interchange layer
  • A model of museum development
  • Supporting Museum Development in Brazil • Developing your museum community needs to happen both from the grassroots (bottom-up) and the policy level (top-down) • Standards alone do not deliver museum development – you need a policy framework, commitment, time, resources and support structures • It is best thought of as a large-scale change programme – modernising and professionalising your entire community won’t happen overnight and it won’t happen without sustained support.
  • There is a golden thread that connects the card-index cataloguing of the 1970’s with the future of opening up collections online Documentation is about much more than cataloguing objects, it is what allows those objects to tell and re-tell their stories In a connected world, it is the professionalism and accountability of our documentation & collections care which give us our trusted status
  • Practical Guides • A Practical Guide to Collections Management • A Practical Guide to Documentation • Both available from Collections Trust (RRP £24.99) • www.collectionslink.org.uk/shop
  • Thankyou! www.collectionslink.org.uk/spectrum @NickPoole1 These slides online at http://www.slideshare.net/nickpoole