Road safety audit presentation with special application to pedestrian issues

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  • What is a Road Safety Audit? A road safety audit (RSA) is a formal safety performance examination of an existing or future road or intersection by an independent, multidisciplinary team. RSAs are a step further than traditional safety reviews that are currently done.
  • It is also important to note that the RSA team may need to consider the safety performance of the project from the perspective of all road users. The graphic shows a passenger car, pedestrian, pedal cyclist, motorcyclist, and large truck. Participants may be able to name other possible road users, such as public safety vehicles (police or fire), maintenance vehicles, older drivers, etc. The RSA team examines connections to existing infrastructure beyond the project limits, and looks at the segment/intersection from the point of view of users entering and exiting it. For example, is signing adequate for drivers approaching from adjacent road segments (are approaching drivers correctly positioned for turn-only lanes, and is signing consistent with similar facilities upstream and downstream)? How do various project elements interact, especially combinations of minimum standards? For example, what are the implications of providing a minimum-radius curve on an approach to an intersection where the minimum stopping sight distance is provided? Can vehicles (especially trucks) safely brake? An RSA does not simply identify potential problems – it may also identify potential solutions. Some questionable elements may be unavoidable in a design, such as where there are constraints (geometric, fiscal, etc.) that limit the project. An RSA can identify possible mitigation measures to address these risks. For example, limited land availability may result in the need to incorporate a horizontal curve having a radius below the minimum design value for anticipated speeds. The RSA can identify potential measures to identify this hazard (appropriate signing) and induce lower approach speeds (narrower lanes or transverse rumble strips), which can be implemented at reasonable expense during construction.
  • RSAs can be done at any stage of a project’s life. For simplicity’s sake, we have grouped them into three categories: The Early State (Planning or early-design) RSA looks at a roadway before it is built, at the planning/feasibility stage or the design (preliminary or detailed design) stage. The earlier a pre-construction RSA is conducted, the more potential it has to identify potential safety issues before they cause collisions. Construction RSAs are work-zone audits to examine temporary traffic management plans associated with construction or other roadworks, and can also be conducted when construction is completed but before the roadway is opened to traffic. The post-construction or operational (existing road) RSA looks at a road that has been built and is operating.
  • Examples
  • 77
  • FHWA RSA Train-the-Trainer Course Part 2 (RSA Procedures)
  • Road safety audit presentation with special application to pedestrian issues

    1. 1. Road Safety Audits* * Assessments, Reviews, etc.
    2. 2. Background <ul><li>Road Safety Audits/Assessments (RSAs) are a valuable tool used to evaluate road safety issues and to identify opportunities for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Road Safety Audits have been widely used around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Road Safety Audits are applicable throughout the highway design and performance cycle. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Road Safety Audits (RSAs) <ul><li>Formal safety performance examination </li></ul><ul><li>Existing or Future Road Segment or Intersection </li></ul><ul><li>Independent, multidisciplinary team </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why RSAs? <ul><li>Use of RSAs continues to grow </li></ul><ul><li>Success has led to FHWA adopting process as one of its nine “proven safety countermeasures” </li></ul><ul><li>RSAs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will help save lives and reduce injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine conditions in detail that may pose safety hazards to all road users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider safety from a human factors point of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not require large investment in time or money </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Traditional Road Safety Review versus Road Safety Audit <ul><li>reactive </li></ul><ul><li>in-house team </li></ul><ul><li>field review? </li></ul><ul><li>standards compliance </li></ul><ul><li>proactive </li></ul><ul><li>independent team </li></ul><ul><li>field reviews </li></ul><ul><li>comprehensive, with human factors </li></ul>Traditional Road Safety Review Road Safety Audit
    6. 6. An RSA also… <ul><li>Considers safety of all road users </li></ul><ul><li>Considers interactions at the borders or limits of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Examines the interaction of project elements </li></ul><ul><li>Proactively considers mitigation measures </li></ul>
    7. 7. Systems Approach: Crashes Caused by Various Factors Vehicle 12% Roadway 34% Driver 80% Human is weakest link in this system, so we must design around human needs.
    8. 8. Complexity
    9. 9. RISK CATEGORY Prioritize Safety Concerns Qualitative Estimate of Risk Low Moderate High Extreme Frequent Occasional Infrequent Rare C D E F B C D E A B C D A A B C Crash Frequency Category SEVERITY
    10. 10. When do we conduct RSAs? <ul><li>Early Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning / scoping / feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary (draft) design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-opening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing roads </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. RSAs & Project Stages Planning / Scoping Preliminary Design Detailed Design Pre-Opening More Major Issues Addressed by RSA Less Opportunity for Changes
    12. 12. RSA Benefits <ul><li>Reduce the number and severity of crashes </li></ul><ul><li>Promote awareness of safe practices </li></ul><ul><li>Process to identify </li></ul><ul><li>and address problems </li></ul><ul><li>Considers human </li></ul><ul><li>factors and multimodal </li></ul><ul><li>issues </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul>
    13. 13. RSA PROCEDURES The 8-step Process
    14. 14. 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Conduct start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews 5 Conduct analysis and prepare report 6 Present findings to Project Owner 7 Prepare formal response 8 Incorporate findings RSA Team Road Owner RSA Procedure Responsibilities
    15. 15. 1 Identify project RSA Procedure RSA Team Road Owner Responsibilities 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Conduct a start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present findings to Project Owner 7 Prepare formal response 8 Incorporate findings
    16. 16. Step 1 Identify the Project Planning/Scoping Stage Design Stage Existing Roadway
    17. 17. 2 Select RSA team RSA Team Road Owner Responsibilities RSA Procedure 1 Identify project or 2 Select RSA team 3 Conduct start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present RSA findings to Project Owner 7 Prepare formal response 8 Incorporate findings
    18. 18. Step 2 Select RSA Team <ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-disciplinary </li></ul>
    19. 19. Traffic operations Step 2 Geometric design Road users/human factors Select RSA Team: Core Skills Planning
    20. 20. Step 2 Select RSA Team: Supplementary Skills <ul><li>Human Factors Specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>
    21. 21. 3 Conduct a start-up meeting RSA Team Road Owner Responsibilities RSA Procedure 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Conduct a start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present RSA findings to Project Owner 7 Prepare formal response 8 Incorporate findings
    22. 22. Step 3 Start-up Meeting <ul><li>Identify individual roles </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate information </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate RSA process </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss constraints and limitations </li></ul>
    23. 23. Step 3 Start-up Meeting: Provide Project Information <ul><li>Crash history </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic volume </li></ul><ul><li>Design drawings </li></ul><ul><li>As-built drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Corridor studies </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Design criteria </li></ul>
    24. 24. Crash Data
    25. 25. 4 Perform field reviews RSA Team Road Owner Responsibilities RSA Procedure 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Conduct a start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present RSA findings to Project Owner 7 Prepare formal response 8 Incorporate findings
    26. 26. Field Review: Observations <ul><li>Road user types </li></ul><ul><li>Driver behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounding land uses </li></ul><ul><li>Link to adjacent network </li></ul>Step 4
    27. 27. Step 4 Field Reviews: Common Items <ul><li>Sight distance obstructions </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrian and cyclist conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Visual clutter </li></ul>
    28. 28. Step 4 Field Reviews: Variable Conditions to Observe <ul><li>Peak and off-peak traffic periods </li></ul><ul><li>Dry and wet weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Day and night conditions </li></ul>
    29. 29. Night
    30. 30. Night
    31. 31. Pedestrian Prompt List
    32. 32. Facility - Signing
    33. 33. Pedestrian Crossing
    34. 34. Pedestrian Crossing
    35. 35. Performance
    36. 36. Observation
    37. 37. Observation
    38. 38. Sidewalk Condition
    39. 39. Conditions
    40. 40. Conditions
    41. 41. Pedestrian Wayfinding
    42. 42. Area Wide Analysis
    43. 43. Pedestrian activity
    44. 44. Context and Desire Lines
    45. 45. 5 Conduct RSA analysis RSA Team Road Owner Responsibilities RSA Procedure 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Conduct a start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present RSA findings to Project Owner 7 Prepare formal response 8 Incorporate findings
    46. 46. Step 5 Conduct RSA Analysis <ul><li>Identify and prioritize safety concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Develop suggestions for reducing the degree of risk </li></ul><ul><li>Compose presentation of early findings. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Risks to be considered Drop Offs
    48. 48. RISK CATEGORY Prioritize Safety Concerns Qualitative Estimate of Risk Low Moderate High Extreme Frequent Occasional Infrequent Rare C D E F B C D E A B C D A A B C Crash Frequency Category SEVERITY
    49. 49. Prioritizing
    50. 50. Step 5 Mitigate Safety Concerns: Short and Long Term Solutions <ul><li>Short Term Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signing & Pavement Markings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium Term Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add missing sidewalk elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve transit stops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long Term Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan designation changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create integrated network </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. 6 Present preliminary RSA findings to Project Owner RSA Team Road Owner Responsibilities RSA Procedure 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Conduct a start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present RSA findings to Project Owner 7 Prepare formal response 8 Incorporate findings
    52. 52. Step 6 RSA Findings Presentation <ul><li>Discuss safety concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify findings and suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Assist project owner in making best choices </li></ul>
    53. 53. <ul><li>Safety concern </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritization (optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions (optional) </li></ul>Step 6 RSA Findings: Formal Report
    54. 54. Options
    55. 55. Options
    56. 56. Example from report
    57. 57. 7 Prepare formal response RSA Team Road Owner Responsibilities RSA Procedure 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Conduct a start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present RSA findings to Project Owner 7 Prepare formal response 8 Incorporate findings
    58. 58. Suggestion 1: Consider sidewalks along the project route to accommodate future pedestrian activity. Planning Division will recommend sidewalks be included within the scope of this project when submitted to Design Division. Suggestion 2: If R/W is available, add an acceleration on US 60 in the westbound direction for RT turning from Bowring Rd. This is not feasible for the following reasons: Any changes to the top of cut/toe of slope would affect the utility relocation which is currently under way. Also, the drive at Sta. 551+20 may conflict with accelerating vehicles. Action taken Step 7 Response Letter Reason for not taking action
    59. 59. 8 Incorporate findings into the project RSA Team Road Owner Responsibilities RSA Procedure 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Conduct a start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present RSA findings to Project Owner / 7 Prepare formal response 8 Incorporate findings into the project
    60. 60. <ul><li>Implementation may depend on policy, manpower, and/or funding. Implementation may also be considered a process. </li></ul>Step 8 Implementation of Improvements
    61. 61. 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Conduct start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews 5 Conduct analysis and prepare report 6 Present findings to Project Owner 7 Prepare formal response 8 Incorporate findings Responsibilities RSA Team Design Team / Project Owner

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