Internationalisation in post-secondary education


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Materials to support 3-hour training session in Internationalisation for educationalists working in Vocational Education. This file includes a short audio introduction. To hear this, you will need to download the file to your PC.

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Internationalisation in post-secondary education

  1. 1. Internationalisation in Post-Secondary EducationNick Brieger More information about can be found at
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES and CONTENTOBJECTIVES• To raise awareness of key issues in internationalisation• To define next steps in internationalisation for you, your colleagues, your students and your organisationCONTENT1. What is internationalisation?2. What is link between internationalisation and culture? Dimensions of culture - national, organisational, etc.3. What is the scope of IC (Intercultural / International Competence)? - knowledge, skills, mindset/attitudes4. Exploring intercultural competence: knowledge and skills5. Next steps in internationalisation and how to do it?
  3. 3. 1. What is Internationalisation?
  4. 4. What is Internationalisation?Is it …….… a country’s educational policy? … an organisation’s strategic goal?… an activity / a series of activities? … a process / a series of steps?… a subject of academic study? … a body of practical knowledge?… a set of practical skills? … a mindset? … something else?
  5. 5. Internationalisation at homeA definitionInternationalisation at home covers activities that help students todevelop international understanding and intercultural skills.It is much more curriculum-oriented: preparing your students to beactive in a much more globalised world.Activities under this ‘at home’ dimension are:• curriculum and programmes to develop intercultural competence• teaching and learning processes• extra-curricular activities• liaison with local cultural / ethnic groups• research and scholarly activities. From: Internationalisation in Higher Education in Europe and its assessment, trends and issues. Hans de Wit, NVAO (2011)
  6. 6. Internationalisation abroadThe second dimension is internationalisation abroad, including:• all forms of education across borders:• mobility of students and faculty,• mobility of projects, programs and providers.However, a significant factor for success is the preparation ofstudents and faculty for their international assignments byincreasing their intercultural competenceThese two contexts of internationalisation (at home and abroad) should notbe seen as mutually exclusive but are intertwined in policies and programmes,eg in the development of intercultural competence From: Internationalisation in Higher Education in Europe and its assessment, trends and issues. Hans de Wit, NVAO (2011)
  7. 7. 2. What is Culture?
  8. 8. What is Culture?BehavioursRitualsArtifactsAttitudes A shared systemValues or ‘The way weBeliefs behave and think round here’
  9. 9. Where is Culture?THE CULTURE ONION
  10. 10. 3. What is Intercultural Competence (IC)?
  11. 11. What is Intercultural Competence?Definition of ICIntercultural competence enables you to interact both effectively and in a way thatis acceptable to others when you are working in a group whose members havedifferent cultural backgrounds. dimensions of IC MINDSET/ KNOWLEDGE SKILLS ATTITUDES
  12. 12. 4. Exploring InterculturalCompetence: Knowledge andSkills
  13. 13. Intercultural Knowledge• LOW POWER DISTANCE HIGH POWER DISTANCE [Hierarchy]• MONOCHRONIC POLYCHRONIC [Time 1]• LONG TERM SHORT TERM [Time 2]• LOW RISK AVOIDANCE HIGH RISK AVOIDANCE [Plan]• LOW CONTEXT HIGH CONTEXT [Data]• INDIVIDUALIST COLLECTIVIST [Working Style]• ACHIEVEMENT ASCRIPTION [Status]• UNIVERSALIST PARTICULARIST [Systems]• NEUTRAL EMOTIONAL [Style] References: Gert Hofstede: Culture and Organisations: Software of the Mind E.T. Hall: Understanding Cultural Differences Fons Trompenaars: Riding the Waves of Culture
  14. 14. Cultural PatternLOW POWER POWER HIGH POWERDISTANCE DISTANCE DISTANCELow Power Distance High Power Distancesubordinates and supervisors closer centralised political powersmaller organisational hierarchies tall organisational hierarchiesfewer differences in status, salary, etc differences in status, salary, etc
  15. 15. Power Distance Index 104 Malaysia  55 Pakistan 80 Egypt  54 Japan 80 China  50 Italy 80 Kuwait  49 South Africa 77 Nigeria  49 Argentina 68 Hong Kong  40 USA 64 Thailand  35 Germany 64 Tanzania  35 UK 64 Peru  34 Switzerland 60 Korea  31 Sweden 60 Greece  18 Denmark 58 Iran/Taiwan  13 Israel From: Hofstede, G., (2001), Culture’s Consequences, 2nd ed.
  16. 16. Cultural PatternMONOCHRONIC TIME 1 POLYCHRONICMonochronic Polychronicdo one thing at a time do many things at onceconcentrate on the job are highly distractible and easilytake time commitments (deadlines, interrupted schedules) seriously consider time commitments anemphasise promptness objective to be achieved, if possible base promptness on the relationship
  17. 17. Cultural Pattern LONG-TERM TIME 2 SHORT-TERMLong-Term Short-Termpatience in achieving results desire for immediate results and and goals achievement of goalsrelationship as source of information rules as source of information and credibility and credibilitycontent focussed on practice content focussed on truth and practical values and certainty of beliefs
  18. 18. Cultural PatternHIGH PLANNING; RISK LOW AVOIDANCEHigh Risk Avoidance Low Risk Avoidancemore formal rules fewer formal ruleslonger career commitments more easy going/relaxeddislike ambiguous situations cope better with open-endednessexpect organisational structure view differences as ‘curiosities’view differences as ‘threats’
  19. 19. Cultural PatternDIRECT COMMUNICATION INDIRECTDirect Indirectdirect communication indirect communicationexplicit messages implicit messagessay ‘no’ avoid ‘no’deal with conflict maintain harmony
  20. 20. Cultural PatternINDIVIDUALIST WORKING STYLE COLLECTIVISTIndividualist Collectivistinterest of individual – importance of ‘I’ interest of group – family, clan,loose ties between individuals organisationfreedom to adopt ind. approaches ‘we’ is source of identity to job people in strong groups whichacceptance of assertiveness, protect and demand loyalty confrontation, truth and conflict close working relationships,challenge from job leads to personal regard for harmony accomplishment behaviour regulated through shame or loss of face
  21. 21. Are you a peach or a coconut?Susanne M. Zaninelli,What happens when „Coconut“ and „Peach“ communicateor: The world’s greatest misunderstanding
  22. 22. Cultural PatternThe Peach Public TERRITORYPrivate The Coconut
  23. 23. Intercultural Skills Based on current research and the practical experience of people operating internationally, WorldWork has identified 10 key competencies which enable people to become rapidly effective in unfamiliar cultural settings. These are:  Openness ▪ Flexibility  Personal autonomy ▪ Emotional strength  (Perceptiveness) ▪ Listening  Transparency ▪ (Cultural understanding)  Influencing ▪ Synergy TIP: The International Profiler of these do you see as skills that can be developed,eg through training, coaching?
  24. 24. 4. Internationalisation for yourorganisation and how to do it?
  25. 25. Next stepsWhat knowledge do you need to develop?What knowledge needs to be shared / developed by yourcolleagues and teams, by your students, and within your organisation? 1. 2.What skills do you need to develop?What skills need to be developed by your colleagues and teams,by your students, and within your organisation? 1. 2.What attitudes need to be embedded within your organisation? 1. 2.How are you going to do it?