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  • 1. Politics of India
  • 2. India
  • 3. Republic of India
    • A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government
    • capital: New Delhi
  • 4. 2nd most populous nation
    • Population: over one billion
    • Growing at 1.5% a year
  • 5. Population in 2005
  • 6. A nation of diversity: languages
    • Constitution lists 14 official “principal languages”
    • English
    • Hindi (30%)
  • 7. A nation of diversity: religions
    • Religions:
      • Hindu (~81%)
      • Muslim (~12%)
      • others (e.g. Buddhist 0.7%)
    • all major religions in the world are present
    • one of the major causes of conflict
    • religion can become a political vehicle for social movement
  • 8. Brief history
    • One of the world’s oldest civilizations
      • 5,000 years
    • foreign incursions
      • Aryans, Arabs, Turks, Portugal, France, and Britain
      • from 1,500 B.C. to 19th Century A.D.
  • 9. 190 years of British colonial rule
    • Informal colonial rule through the British East India Company (1750s-1850s)
    • formal colonial rule after the Mutiny rebellion of 1857
  • 10. Struggle for independence
    • Indian National Congress was formed in 1885
    • non-violent resistance to colonial rule
    • Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)
      • transformed INC
      • unity within diversity
      • non-cooperation movement
    • Nehru (1889-1964)
  • 11. Independence & partition
    • Division of the subcontinent (1947)
      • India
      • Pakistan
  • 12. Republic of India
    • Prime Minister Nehru (1947-1964)
    • His daughter (Indira Gandhi) as Prime Minister (1966-1977, 1980-1984)
  • 13. Nehru’s legacies
    • His grandson
      • Rajiv Gandhi
      • Prime Minister (1984-1989)
    • His granddaughter-in-law
      • Sonja Gandhi
      • Congress party president (1999 - )
  • 14. World’s largest democracy
    • Resilient democratic institutions, processes, and legitimacy
      • except 1975-1977
      • Indira Gandhi declared national emergency
    • politics in India is characterized by
      • governments of precarious coalitions
      • weakened political institutions
      • political activism along ethnic lines
  • 15. Turnout % in General Elections
  • 16. A federal system
    • 28 states and 6 centrally administered Union Territories
      • 2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China
  • 17. Federal system
    • Relatively centralized
    • federal government controls the most essential government functions
      • defense
      • foreign policy
      • taxation
      • public expenditures
      • economic (industrial) planning
  • 18. The legislature
    • Parliamentary system of government
      • the executive authority is responsible to the Parliament
  • 19. The legislature
    • bicameral Parliament
      • Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
      • Lok Sabha (House of the People)
  • 20. Elections to Lok Sabha
    • Vote share of 3 major political parties
  • 21. Prime Minister
    • Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister
    • prime minister nominates a cabinet
      • members of Parliament in the ruling coalition
      • Council of Ministers
    • effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister
      • where most of the important policies originate
  • 22. Prime Ministers of India
    • 38 years in the Nehru-Gandhi family
    • more and more rapid turnover
  • 23. Economic development
    • Under Prime Minister Nehru’s rule
      • private property and government guidance
      • powerful planning commission
      • government rules and regulations
        • opportunities and incentives for corruption
      • self-sufficiency
        • domestic sector was protected from foreign competition
        • protected industries became inefficient
  • 24. Economic development
    • The “green revolution” in agriculture
      • new agricultural strategy in late 1960s
      • seeds, fertilizer, and irrigation
      • India became self-sufficient in food
  • 25. Economic development
    • state-led economic development
      • government-planned private economy
      • substantial industrial base
  • 26. Economic liberalization
    • Dissatisfaction with the relatively slow economic growth
      • dismantle controls over private sector
      • further integrate into global economy
    • Financial crisis in early 1990s
      • emergency funds from IMF & World Bank
      • conditional on economic liberalization
        • reduce government budget deficit
        • selling government shares in public enterprises
  • 27. Foreign direct investment
  • 28. Economic liberalization
    • Economic performance
      • average growth rate of 6% since 1990
      • reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points
      • purchasing power parity GDP: $3 trillion
  • 29. Economic liberalization
    • India has large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language
      • India is a major exporter of software services and software workers