But management(transactional leadership)is essential!
Transformational leaders’... Staff …. • have higher levels of satisfaction, motivation, and performance • have lower levels of stress & burnout Teams…. • are more innovative, harmonious and effective Organisations… • respond more quickly and productively to change • are more effective • have healthier, humane culturesSource: Bass, B.M. (1998) Transformational Leadership: Military, Industrial &Educational Impact. London: Lawrence Erlbaum
Why develop anotherleadership model?• Most leadership research is from the US• Criticism of the ‘charismatic/heroic’ models: how ‘safe’ are they?• Focus typically on CEOs: ‘distant’ leaders• Gender & ethnic bias of leadership research• ‘New paradigm’ based on ‘leaders’’ perspectives, rather than the arbiters of leadership
The Transformational LeadershipQuestionnaire scales (1) (1) Leading others • Showing Genuine Concern • Enabling • Being Accessible
The Transformational LeadershipQuestionnaire scales (2) (2) Personal Qualities • Being Honest & Consistent • Acting with Integrity • Being Decisive • Inspiring Others • Resolving Complex Problems
The Transformational LeadershipQuestionnaire scales (3) (3) Leading the Organisation • Networking & Achieving • Focusing Effort • Building Shared Vision • Supporting a Developmental Culture • Facilitating Change sensitively
Other recent validation studiesinclude• In Education sector (Alban-Metcalfe & Alimo- Metcalfe, 2003)• In the UK Police Service: Independent report undertaken by the UK Government’s Home Office (Dobby et al., 2004)• US study using the TLQ (PhD currently under submission by Miller, M. Nov 2004)
TLQ also includes ‘LeadershipImpact’ measuresThe effect of the manager on direct reports’:• Stress• General motivation• Motivation to achieve beyond expectations• Job satisfaction• Job commitment• Organisational commitment• Self-confidence
Positive Impact of Development Using the TLQ: Evidence from the Public Service Leaders Scheme Raters’ Perceptions of behavioural change Interpersonal changes • Positive : 84.2% • Negative : 7.9% • Both positive & negative : 5.3% Organisational Changes • Positive 76.5% • Negative : 2.9% • BothThe British Government’s Cabinet Office positive & negative : 14.7%Alban-Metcalfe, Juliette. (2003). ‘Evaluation of the Public Service Leaders Scheme: TLQ Data’. Report for
It’s not that competencies aren’timportant, but that leadership isabout… …performing the competencies of one’s job, in a Transformational way!
Transformational Leadership in Schools (TLiS)• To inform teachers who have recently obtained the National Professional Qualification for Headship (NPQH) and other staff, about the nature of transformational leadership and its implications for schools;• To measure transformational leadership among the sample of NPQH graduates and to make comparisons between them and corresponding groups in other public and private sector organisations;• To provide the participants with detailed assessments of their own transformational leadership behaviour, qualities and attitudes, based on 360-degree feedback;
Transformational Leadership in Schools (TLiS)• To identify strengths, to diagnose developmental needs, and to propose developmental activities to increase transformational leadership behaviour, qualities and attitudes;• To support the development of research capabilities and skills among NCSL Research Associates attached to the project;• To propose and/or to collaborate in associated research activities in the area of transformational leadership.
Outcomes of the TLiS Project• Evaluation of the TLiS project can be seen to be extremely positive• Quality of the data given in TLQ Reports, which was recognised as being precise• Written in behavioural terms, in a form that enables the participant to propose specific courses of action• Process of diagnosis and the formulation of personal development plans was fully recognised – role of Project Associates
Outcomes of the TLiS Project• Almost unanimous recommendation from the NPQH graduates that the TLQ be offered for use by other NPQH graduates and by head teachers who are not NPQH graduates• Two-thirds were also in favour in recommending its use among deputy heads and middle managers who are not NPQH graduates.
Implications of the TLiS Project• The implications of these findings are four-fold: – Firstly, it is that the leadership qualities and behaviours identified by direct reports are those that a leader at any level should strive to develop, and toward which leadership programmes should be aimed. – Secondly, is that if schools are to develop in ways that suit them to the needs of the 21st century, then programmes of leadership development at all levels, must have the development of transformational behaviours, attitudes and qualities at their core.
Implications of the TLiS Project – Thirdly, if schools do become more transformationally-orientated, they can ensure that the quality of life in schools is such that teachers not only want to remain within the profession, but also seek promotion to middle and senior management positions. – Fourthly, for a transformational culture truly to be embedded in the school, the most senior teachers must adopt such a model in their own day-to-day behaviour – a model based on feedback from others, leading to appropriately targeted personal development plans.
Contact Details and References• Nick Burnett• www.i-for-k.com.au• firstname.lastname@example.org• 0405 411 871• www.lrdl.co.uk