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The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
The original hypertext system and Wikipedia
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The original hypertext system and Wikipedia

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First discussion draft of a presentation about WWW, Wikipedia and Ted Nelson's Xanadu

First discussion draft of a presentation about WWW, Wikipedia and Ted Nelson's Xanadu

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  • The backlinks issue interests me a great deal. Here are two texts that I bookmarked some time ago: 'Supporting The Web: A Distributed Hyperlink Database System' [ http://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/1853/3495/1/96-09.pdf ] and 'Networks, Hierarchies and The Web That Wasn’t' [ https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=topicmaps.com%2Ftm2008%2Fwright.ppt&pli=1 ].
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  • 1. Jakob Voss The original hypertext system and Wikipedia We were promised Xanadu draft slides for discussion presented at Fachhochschule Hannover June, 14th 2010
  • 2. Agenda ● Wikipedia ● WWW ● Xanadu ● Comparision ● Discussion Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 3. “Imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That's what we're doing.” Jimbo Wales in: Robin Miller: Wikimedia Founder Jimmy Wales Responds. Slashdot (2004-07-28) Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 4. Wikipedia ● Wiki-based open content encyclopaedia ● Quick editing ● Versioning ● Hypertext (pages, links, discussion pages...) ● Open Content license (CC-BY-SA) ● Founded 2001 (by accident!) ● More than 200 language editions, 10 of them with > 500.000 articles Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 5. Wikimedia ● Infrastructure ● donations and volunteers ● Wikimedia foundation and local chapters (among them Wikimedia Germany) ● MediaWiki software ● Largest general reference work(s) ● Other Wikimedia projects ● Commons, Wikiquote, Wikisource … ● Projects only partly connected Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 6. Some more Wikipedia features ● Redirects and disambiguation ● Media inclusion via Wikimedia Commons ● Templates (Infoboxes…) ● Categories (Thesaurus) ● Interwiki links (mono-directional) ● Extracted data (DBPedia, Personsearch…) ● ... Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 7. Wikipedia revision history http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gdańsk&action=history http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gdańsk&oldid=221829087 (“Permalink“) Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 8. Internet Archive snapshots http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gdańsk http://web.archive.org/web/20080626090544/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gdańsk Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 9. WWW Bild: captsolo@flickr Tim Berners-Lee Information Management: A Proposal (1989) Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 10. World Wide Web ● invented in 1989 by Berners-Lee to connect distributed databases ● limited to a mono-directed graph, no history ● original concepts reintroduced: collaboration (“Web 2.0”), data integration (“Semantic Web”) Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 11. Hyperlinks ted.hyperland.com Ted Nelson A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing and the Indeterminate (1965) Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 12. “HTML is precisely what we were trying to PREVENT – ever-breaking links, links going outward only, quotes you can't follow to their origins, no version management, no rights management.” Ted Nelson's Computer Paradigm, Expressed as One-Liners (1999) Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 13. “Xanadu, a global hypertext publishing system, is the longest-running vaporware story in the history of the computer industry. It has been in development for more than 30 years.” Gary Wolf: The Curse of Xanadu. Wired Issue 3.06 (1995) Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 14. Concepts of Xanadu ● Deep links to document fragments ● Transclusion ● Versioning ● Docuverse (parallel texts) ● Strechtext (levels of detail) ● Rights management Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 15. Some properties of Xanadu (4) Every user can search, retrieve, create and store documents. (5) Every document can consist of any number of parts each of which may be of any data type. (6) Every document can contain links of any type including virtual copies ("transclusions") to any other document in the system accessible to its owner. (7) Links are visible and can be followed from all endpoints. (8) Permission to link to a document is explicitly granted by the act of publication. Xanadu FAQ (2002-04-12) http://xanadu.com.au/general/faq.html#2 Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 16. Some properties of Xanadu Wikipedia (4) Open editing ✓ partly (on-topic only) (5) Compound ✗ very limited documents (6) Transclusion ✗ very limited (7) Bidirectional links ✓ yes (inside one wiki) (8) Reuse and linking ✓ yes allowed Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 17. Differences Wikipedia Xanadu ● Open content only ● Any content ● Nobody is paid ● Micropayment ● Reuse and mixing ● Reuse and mixing encouraged but easy and tracked difficult to track Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 18. Common properties ● Both are “closed systems” ● In Wikipedia backlinks, version history etc. do only work inside a Wiki (not even between languages) References to external resources are plain text only ● In Xanadu there is no “outside of the system” ● Both support mixing and changing of content ● Wikipedia solves the rights (but does not track all) ● Xanadu is based on mixing and linking of content Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 19. How can we do better? We were promised Xanadu! Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 20. Limitations of the WWW ● Structured data ✗ ● Collaboration ✗ ● Backlinks ✗ ● Changes ✗ ● Split & Merge ✗ Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 21. Limitations of the WWW ● Structured data ✓ Semantic Web ● Collaboration ✓? “Web 2.0” ● Backlinks ✗ ● Changes ✗ ● Split & Merge ✗ “Mashups”, “Copy & Paste” Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 22. Limitation: Backlinks ● How do you easily get the resources that link to a given resource? ● Possible solutions ● HTTP Referrer ✗ ● Notify link targets (Pinkback etc.) ● Harvest links (crawler) ● Open Questions ● Not integrated into basic Web infrastructure ● No open link databases to query! Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 23. Limitation: Changes ● How do you track changes in documents on the Web? ● General solution ● Versioning and Diff ● Practical solution ● Adding history to the Web ● Open questions ● Which standard? ● How to diff specific file types (see: split & merge) Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 24. Adding history to the Web ● URL identifies the current version of a Web resource ● Some create new URLs for each new version ● Old versions may also be available elsewhere Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 25. Adding history to the Web ● Memento Web Project (work in progress!) ● Additional HTTP-Header ● Typical requests ● “get the resource as it was at time X” ● “get the list of changes between X and Y” ● Related techniques ● Feeds of changes (ATOM, RSS) and OAI-PMH Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 26. Limitation: Split & Merge ● How to track merge and split on the Web? ● Problems ● Compound documents and document parts ● Clone & Merge instead of Copy & Paste ● Existing standards (Xpointer etc.) failed ● Existing solutions ● Distributed Version control systems (git, hg, bzr…) ● OAI-ORE (Object Reuse and Exchange) Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 27. Deep links in Xanadu “An identifier for any portion/span of text (of whatever version) can be constructed. This is in fact the main innovation of Xanadu.” Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 28. time version 1 text A text B change merge version 2 text C change change change version 3 text D text E change change version 4 text F change merge version 5 text G Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 29. Types of changes text A text C parallel change change change text branch text B text D text E parallel text Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 30. “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.” extract „All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.“ translate extract (sense changed) „Alle Menschen sind frei und „All human beings are equal.” gleich an Würde und Rechten geboren.“ Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010
  • 31. Types of changes (to discuss) ● Some practical examples ● Simple extract (quote) ● Modfied extract (thumbnail, abstract … ) ● Translation, review ● Some general types ● branch (sth. “new”) – Split (to branches that may be joined again) ● modify (expand, remove, same document) ● merge/combine (transclusion, aggregation) – Insert into an aggregation Jakob Voss: The original hypertext system and Wikipedia draft slides for discussion. June 14th, 2010

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