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  • Plan of Dura Europos with House Church, House Synagogue, and Mithraeum 3 rd century CE
  • Torah Niche, House Synagogue Dura Europos 244-45
  • Torah Niche, House Synagogue Dura Europos 244-45
  • The Parting of the Red Sea Torah Niche, House Synagogue Dura Europos 244-45 CE
  • Wheel of Life , Anon, 15 th -17 th c. Tibet, from Huntington Collection, Ohio State University Other Symbols: 8 Auspicious Symbols: Lotus Flower (Purity and Enlightenment); Endless Knot (Harmony); Golden Fish Pair (Conjugal Happiness/Freedom); Victory Banner (Victorious Battle); Wheel of Dharma (Knowledge); Treasure Vase (Inexhaustible Treasure/Wealth); Parasol (Royal Protection); Conch Shell (Thoughts of Buddha) 8 Auspicious Substances: Mirror (Clarity of Buddha ’s Realization/Emptiness of Phenomena); Medicine (Right Mindfulness/Cure for Ignorance); Yoghurt (Right Livelihood); Durva Grass (Right Effort/Longevity); Bilva Fruit (Right Action); White Conch (Right Speech/Proclamation of Dharma); Cinnabar (Applied to forehead for right contemplation); Mustard Seed (Right view/ to see things as they really are).
  • Saint-Denis France 1140-1144
  • Saint-Denis France 1140-1144
  • Saint-Denis France 1140-1144
  • The Kabaa Mecca, Saudi Arabia c. 630 CE
  • Tomb of the Prophet Muhammad Medina, Saudi Arabia c. 622 CE
  • Dome of the Rock Jerusalem 691-692 CE
  • Page from the Qu’ran Syria 9 th Century

Religion and art upload Religion and art upload Presentation Transcript

  • Announcements!
    • I will be dropping your lowest assignment grade.
    • I will accept any responses you have until the day of the final.
    • If you want any of your previous assignments back, please make an appointment with me.
  • Art and Religion
    • Reading:
    • Elsen, “Images of Gods”
    • Terms/Concepts:
    • iconic, didactic, institutional, aesthetic, bhakti, Vedas, Upanishads, Nataraja, Darshana, Samsara, Mandala, Garbhagriha, Four Noble Truths, Jatakas, Circumambulation, Thankga, Covenant, Torah Niche, Aniconism, Relic, Icon, Five Pillars of Islam, Kufic,
    • Key Monuments:
    • Shiva as Nataraja (Lord of the Dance), Thanjavur, India, 12 th century CE
    • “ The Creation of the World,” Sarajevo Haggadah, Barcelona Spain, 14 th Century.
    • Seated Buddha, Ghandara India, Schist, 2 nd -3 rd Century CE
    • Vladimir Virgin, Constantinople, 12 th Century
    • Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 691-692 CE
  • Dimensions of Religious Art
    • Iconographic
    • Didactic
    • Institutional
    • Aesthetic
  • Dimensions of Religious Art
    • Iconographic
    • Didactic
    • Institutional
    • Aesthetic
    • Religious Art…
    • … may symbolize the holy and sacred.
    • … may embody the sacred but not necessarily be sacred.
    • … may provide the viewer with a connection to the divine.
  • Dimensions of Religious Art
    • Iconographic
    • Didactic
    • Institutional
    • Aesthetic
    • Religious Art…
    • … teaches the illiterate viewer about the divine.
    • … imparts an understanding of the sacred that is not provided by verbal language.
    • … communicates the history and culture of a belief system.
  • Dimensions of Religious Art
    • Iconographic
    • Didactic
    • Institutional
    • Aesthetic
    • Religious Art…
    • … is often governed by the hierarchies and structure of religious institutions.
    • … either furthers or undermines the goals and support the hierarchies of religious leaders.
    • … is often commissioned by religious institutions.
  • Dimensions of Religious Art
    • Iconographic
    • Didactic
    • Institutional
    • Aesthetic
    • Religious Art…
    • … often has a style or “look” that is consistent.
    • … has a “look” that provokes a specific emotional response.
    • … depicts the divine in a way that follows the rules of its religion.
  • An Overview of the “Big Five”
  • Hinduism
    • Historical Overview
    • 4000 BCE: Traditional practices and beliefs begin to form.
    • 3000-2000 BCE: The Aryans bring the Vedas to India.
    • 2000-1000 BCE: Upanishads and Brahmanas were written.
    • 788-820 CE: Shankara reforms the Upanishads and Vedas.
    • Major Ideas
    • We are caught in an endless cycle of death and rebirth.
    • Multiplicity of gods and themes.
    • Fertility and abundance.
    • Meditation and controlled breathing.
    • Bhakti:
    • Darshana: The viewing of sacred images.
  • Shiva as Nataraja (Lord of the Dance), Thanjavur, India, 12 th century CE “ Light of Glory” Dwarf = Ignorance Fire Drum
  • Shiva and Parvati, from Hinglajarh in Madhya Pradesh, India, 10 th Century. Shiva Parvati Nandi
  • Kandariya Mahdeva Temple, Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India, 1000 CE
  • Kandariya Mahdeva Temple (Plan), Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India, 1000 CE Longitudnal Stairs Mandapas Garbhagriha
  • Mithunas, Kandariya Mahdeva Temple, Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India, 1000 CE Mithunas are lovemaking couples that emphasize unity of the sexes and abundance.
  • Garbhagriha, Kandariya Mahdeva Temple, Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India, 1000 CE
  • Judaism
    • Historical Overview
    • 18 th Century BCE: God makes covenant with Abraham.
    • 1275-1250 BCE: Moses leads the Jews out of Egypt.
    • 1020 BCE: Saul becomes the first king of Israel.
    • 1000 BCE: David unites the 12 Tribes of Israel.
    • 586 BCE: Diaspora begins.
    • Major Ideas
    • Rules set up by the 10 Commandments.
    • There is only one God.
    • Questioning and reinterpretation is a major aspect of Jewish philosophy.
    • There is not a single Judaism but rather many interpretations.
  • Dura Europos House Church House Synagogue Mithraeum Built c. 300 BCE. Inhabited until 256 CE.
  • House Synagogue (Exterior), Dura Europos, Syria, 244-245.
  • House Synagogue (Plan), Dura Europos, Syria, 244-245. Assembly Room
  • Torah Niche, House Synagogue, Dura Europos,244-45. Torah Niche
  • Torah Reading, Congregation Beth Israel. Torah Niche, Dura Europos, c. 244-245 CE
  • Torah Niche, House Synagogue, Dura Europos,244-45. Torah Niche Adoption of Moses Samuel anointing David Aaron at his Temple Elijah reviving a Child Temple of Dagon Mordechai being led to Achashverosh The Miraculous Well Closed Temple Prophets
  • The Parting of the Red Sea, Torah Niche, House Synagogue, Dura Europos, 244-45 CE Moses Moses Egyptian Soldiers Egyptian Soldiers *Continuous Narrative Hands of God
  • “ The Creation of the World,” Sarajevo Haggadah, Barcelona Spain, 14 th Century.
  • Buddhism
    • Historical Overview
    • 563 BCE: Buddha was born.
    • 592 BCE: Buddha encounters suffering.
    • 598 BCE: Buddha reaches enlightenment.
    • 598-643 BCE: Buddha spreads his teachings.
    • Four Noble Truths:
    • The world is suffering.
    • Suffering has a cause--attachment.
    • There is an end to suffering through non-attachment.
    • Non-attachment can be attained by following the eightfold path.
  • The Great Stupa at Sanchi, 1 st -2 nd Century CE.
  • Seated Buddha, Ghandara India, Schist, 2 nd -3 rd Century CE Mandorla Ushnisha Urna Closed, leaf-like eyes Mudra Serene Expression Lotus Posture Elongated Earlobes Sangati
  • Iconography of the Buddha
  • Wheel of Life , Tibet, 15 th -17 th Centuries. 1st Ring 2 Evolutions: -Virtuous Action -Not virtuous Action Holding the Wheel Yama “ Lord of Death ”
    • 2nd Ring
    • 6 Realms:
    • Hell
    • Hungry Ghosts
    • Animals
    • Human
    • Demi gods
    • Gods
    1 2 3 4 5 6 Buddha as sun: Feminine Nature Wisdom Buddha as moon: Masculine Nature Compassion Center 3 Poisons: +Pig +Serpent +Bird
    • Outer Ring
    • 12 Nidanas or links
    • Ignorance
    • Creation
    • Consciousness
    • Name and form
    • Six senses
    • Contact
    • Feeling
    • Craving
    • Grasping
    • Existence
    • Birth
    • Aging/Death
    3 2 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
  • Christianity
    • Historical Overview
    • 1 BCE: Annunciation
    • 0 CE: Nativity
    • 12 CE: Jesus’s presentation at the temple.
    • 30 CE: Baptism of Jesus.
    • 33 CE: The Arrest and Subsequent Crucifixion of Christ.
    • 313 CE: Christianity made legal by Constantine.
    • Major Ideas
    • Has the same foundations as Judaism.
    • God came to earth in the form of Jesus Christ.
    • The crucifixion of Christ is seen as a sacrifice for the sins of all mankind.
  • St. Michael the Archangel, Ivory Panel, Constantinople, 6 th Century CE Could be another angel or an emperor receiving this orb. Diptych = Di (Two) Ptukhe (Fold)
  • Pantokrator Christ Pantokrator, St. Catherine’s Monastery, Mt. Sinai, 6 th Century CE “ The All Powerful”
  • Eleousa Vladimir Virgin, Constantinople, 12 th Century “ Virgin of tenderness.”
  • St. Denis Church of St. Denis, Paris, France, 1140-1144 Century
  • Church of St. Denis, Paris, France, 1140-1144 Century
  • Church of St. Denis, Paris, France, 1140-1144 Century
  • Church of St. Denis, Paris, France, 1140-1144 Century
  • Islam
    • Historical Overview
    • 610 CE: Muhammad is approached by the Angel Gabriel.
    • 622 CE: Muhammad travels to Medina.
    • 630 CE: Muhammad returns to Mecca.
    • 632 CE: Muhammad dies.
    • The Five Pillars
    • There is only one God and Muhammad is the prophet.
    • Prayer must be performed five times a day facing Mecca.
    • The voluntary payment of a yearly tithe of 1/40 (2.5%) of one’s assets.
    • Fasting from dawn till dusk during Ramadan.
    • Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in one’s lifetime.
  • The Kabaa, Mecca, Saudi Arabia, c. 630 CE
  • Tomb of the Prophet Muhammad, Medina, Saudi Arabia, c. 622 CE
  • Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 691-692 CE
  • Page from the Qu’ran, Syria, 9 th Century.