Prehistoric art fall 2011 (ucd)

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  • Where did “modern humans” begin?What were some of the major developments of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic Ages?
  • Decorative Impulse
  • What are some major assumptions that shape our view of prehistoric art and humans?
  • What is the significance of labeling these figures “Venuses”?What biases does this betray in 19th century archaeologists?Meskell’s alternatives: territorial markers, ancestor cults, teaching devices, birthing rituals, healing, marriage contract tokens, toys, etc.
  • What is the significance of labeling these figures “Venuses”?What biases does this betray in 19th century archaeologists?Meskell’s alternatives: territorial markers, ancestor cults, teaching devices, birthing rituals, healing, marriage contract tokens, toys, etc.
  • What is the significance of labeling these figures “Venuses”?What biases does this betray in 19th century archaeologists?Meskell’s alternatives: territorial markers, ancestor cults, teaching devices, birthing rituals, healing, marriage contract tokens, toys, etc.
  • Contemporary Aboriginal artist at Gunbalanya (Oenpelli) painting an image of a lizard with X-ray features. Such paintings reflect an unbroken continuity with the ancient X-ray tradition. How can we compare prehistoric to modern work?Source: X-ray style in Arnhem Land Rock Art | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • What assumptions are made about
  • Prehistoric art fall 2011 (ucd)

    1. 1. The Earliest “Artists”<br />Reading:<br />Stokstad: 1-25<br />Range<br />~77,000 BCE-1000 BCE<br />Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic Periods<br />Terms/Concepts:<br />decorative impulse, framing devices, “Venuses,” sympathetic magic, composite pose, henge, post and lintel.<br />Monument List:<br /><ul><li>1-13, Ceiling with Bison, Altamira Spain, Paleolithic, 12,500 BCE
    2. 2. 1-7, Woman from Willendorf, Paleolithic, 24,000 BCE
    3. 3. 1-11, Hall of the Bulls, Lascaux Cave, Paleolithic, 15,000 BCE
    4. 4. 1-24, Jomon Vessel, Paleolithic, 12,000 BCE
    5. 5. 1-21, Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, Neolithic, 2900- 1500 BCE</li></li></ul><li>Looking Forward to…<br />
    6. 6. Dreading…<br />
    7. 7.
    8. 8. Earliest Cultural Products<br />Inscribed Ocher, South Africa, 77,000 years agoI<br />Perforated Shells, <br />South Africa, 75,000 years ago<br />Hand Axe, Tanzania, 60,000 years ago<br />
    9. 9.
    10. 10. “Characteristics” of Paleolithic<br />Nomadic Lifestyle<br />Sustaining life through gathering plants and hunting<br />Development of abstract thinking and basic problem solving skills.<br />
    11. 11. “Prehistoric art is _________, maybe…”<br />
    12. 12. What we’re working with…<br />Mammoth Hut, excavation at Mezhirich, Ukraine<br />Mammoth Hut, reconstruction at Mezhirich, <br />Ukraine<br />
    13. 13. Making “Venuses”<br />DolniVestonice, Czech Republic<br /><ul><li>Willendorf, Austria</li></ul>Lespugue, France<br />
    14. 14. Making “Venuses”<br />=<br /><ul><li>Willendorf, Austria</li></li></ul><li>Photographic simulation of what a six-months-pregnant 26-year-old Caucasian female of average weight sees when looking down while standing.<br />Woman from Willendorf (Austria). c.24,000 BCE. Limestone, height approx. 4”. Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. (Stokstad 1-7)<br />(view of cast of figurine)<br />
    15. 15. Making “Venuses”<br />≠<br /><ul><li>Willendorf, Austria</li></li></ul><li>Map of southwest Europe.<br />Altamira<br />Altamira<br /><ul><li>Discovered in 1879</li></li></ul><li>María, daughter of MarcelinoSanz de Sautuola, who participated in discovery of paintings at Altamira in November 1879.<br />
    16. 16. <ul><li>Altamira, Spain, 12,500 BCE</li></li></ul><li>Major Theories about Cave Paintings<br />“Art for Art’s Sake” (Picasso)<br />Sympathetic Magic (Salomon Reinach/Abbe Henri Breuil)<br />Symbolic Systems (Andre Leroi-Gourhan)<br />Cross-Chronological Comparison (J.G. Frazer & David Lewis-Williams)<br />Neuropsychological Model<br />“Cave Opening Art” The New Yorker March 15, 1999<br />
    17. 17. Lascaux<br />
    18. 18. Map of Major Paintings<br />Lascaux, France<br />c.15,000 BCE<br />
    19. 19. <ul><li>Hall of the Bulls, Lascaux, France, 15,000 BCE</li></li></ul><li>“Bird-headed man with bison” Lascaux, France, c. 15,000 BCE,<br />
    20. 20. Film still. Fantastic Mr. Fox. 2009. Directed by Wes Anderson. Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.<br />
    21. 21. Chauvet<br />
    22. 22. Chauvet, France, 32,000-30,000 BCE<br />
    23. 23. George Stubbs. Whistlejacket. c.1762. Oil on canvas, 9’7” x 8’1”. National Gallery, London.<br />Wall painting with horses, rhinoceroses, and aurochs. Chauvet Cave. c.32,000-30,000 BCE. Paint on limestone. Approx. half life-size. (Stokstad 1-10)<br />
    24. 24. Pech Merle<br />
    25. 25. Pech Merle, France, 25,000-24,000 BCE (Horses), 15,000 BCE (Hands)<br />
    26. 26. Chapel of Mammoths, Pech Merle, France , 15,000 BCE<br />
    27. 27. Ceiling of the Archer, Pech Merle, France, 15,000 BCE<br />
    28. 28. Enclosed Forms = Female<br />Straight Lines = Male<br />
    29. 29. Western Arnhem Land<br />
    30. 30. “Rainbow Serpent,”<br />Western Arnhem Land, <br />Australia, 6000 BCE<br />Western Arnhem Land, <br />Australia 2000-2002 CE <br />
    31. 31.
    32. 32. <ul><li>Jomon Culture, Japan, 12,000 BCE</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics of Neolithic<br />Widespread development of permanent settlements that lasted longer than a single generation.<br />More care taken with burial.<br />Development of more permanent architecture.<br />Development of trade networks.<br />Domestication of plants and animals.<br />
    33. 33. Partial map of Prehistoric Europe and Near East. <br />
    34. 34. Houses, Çatalhöyük, Turkey, c. 7400-6200<br />
    35. 35. Reconstruction drawing of Çatalhöyük, with tending of goats.<br />Schematic reconstruction drawing of a section of Level VI. Çatalhöyük (Turkey). c.6000-5000 BCE. (related to Stokstad pages 14-15)<br />
    36. 36. Reconstruction drawing of a house in Çatalhöyük. c.7400-6200 BCE. (illustrated on Stokstad page 15)<br />
    37. 37. View of Mt. Hasan (Hasan Dağ), Turkey.<br />Landscape with volcanic eruption (?), from copy of wall painting at Çatalhöyük. c.6150 BCE. <br />
    38. 38. Partial map of Prehistoric Europe and Near East. <br />
    39. 39. Great stone tower built into the settlement wall<br />Jericho<br />c.8000-7000 BCE<br />
    40. 40. Plastered Skull, Jericho,<br /> 7000-6000 BCE<br />
    41. 41.
    42. 42. Çatalhöyük<br />Jericho<br />
    43. 43.
    44. 44. <ul><li>Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, 2900-1500 BCE</li></li></ul><li>Lintel<br />3 Feet<br />15 Feet<br />Post<br />Lintel<br />24 Feet<br />Post<br />Post<br />Post<br />30 Megaliths, 60 Stones Total<br />Each Stone = ~40-50 Tons<br />
    45. 45. start<br />end<br />
    46. 46. <ul><li>Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, 2900-1500 BCE</li></li></ul><li>figure 1 Labels: 1. Midsummer sunrise 2. Winter moonrise low point 3. Midwinter Sunrise 4. Southern moonrise (minimum) 5. Southern moonrise (maximum) 6. Midwinter sunset 7. Northern moonset (minimum) 8. Northern moonset (maximum) 9. Midsummer sunset 10. Winter moonrise high point <br />
    47. 47. Critical Thinking Questions<br />What are the strengths and weaknesses of the major theories about Paleolithic cave painting?<br />What are the major technological and artistic developments of the Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras?<br />What was the significance of calling female figures, such as the Woman from Willendorf, “Venus”?<br />How does the existence of Jomon pottery upset conventional theories about the role of pottery in human development?<br />What are some obstacles for archaeologists in interpreting prehistoric materials? <br />
    48. 48. Inkshedding<br />What material has left the biggest impression on you this week?<br />What material do you still feel uncomfortable about?<br />

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