Pilgrimage and crusades

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  • Europe 1000

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  • 1. Romanesque Art: Pilgrimage and the Crusades
    • Reading
    • Stokstad , 453-489.
    • Range
    • 1000-1150
    • Romanesque
    • Terms/Concepts
    • pilgrimage, relic, reliquary, bodily relic, contact relic, idols, idolatry, martyr, saint, pilgrim, absolution, pilgrimage plan, furtum sacrum (furta sacra), peregrini, crusades.
    • Monument List:
    • Reliquary statue of Sainte Foy (St. Faith), Conques, France, 9 th -10 th centuries.
    • Transept, Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122.
    • Giselbertus (?), Last Judgment Tympanum, Autun Cathedral, 1120-1130, or 1130-1145.
    • Tympanum, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132.
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. Representation of a typical pilgrim. Floppy hat with scalloped shell Shabby tunic Walking stick/staff Practical boots
  • 6. “ Santiago” is Spanish for St. James
  • 7.  
  • 8. entrance Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122.
  • 9. View of Entrance, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122.
  • 10. Plan of Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. France Town
  • 11. Trancept. Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. Chapels Lantern Transept
  • 12. Interior view. Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. Nave
  • 13. Reconstruction drawing of Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. Plan of Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. radiating chapels radiating chapels radiating chapels radiating chapels
  • 14. Reconstruction drawing of Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. Windows with rounded arches permit light to enter.
  • 15. Plan of Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. entrance westwork Each radiating chapel contains some kind of relic or holy image. Santiago (St. James)
  • 16. Casket of Santiago, Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 19 th century. Reliquary
  • 17. Casket of Santiago, Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 19 th century. The stone under the altar, Santiago de Compostela, 3 rd or 4 th century. Thought to be where the boat carrying the saint body docked, but actually dedicated to a Roman god.
  • 18.  
  • 19. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century.
  • 20. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century.
  • 21. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century. Main Entrance Transept Apse and Chapels
  • 22. Apse Chapel Chapel Chapel Chapel
  • 23. Entrance
  • 24. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century.
  • 25. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century. Tympanum
  • 26. Christ in Majesty Good Wicked Hell Heaven Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century.
  • 27. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century.
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. Last Judgment (Detai), Tympanum, Ste. Foy, Conques, France, i Hell Mouth Ammut the Devourer, The Book of the Dead of Hunefer Ladder of Divine Ascent, St. Catherine’s, Mt. Sinai
  • 32.  
  • 33. Scales
  • 34. Heaven Hell
  • 35. Giselbertus (?), Last Judgment Tympanum, Autun Cathedral, 1120-1130, or 1130-1145.
  • 36. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century.
  • 37. Reliquary statue of Sainte Foy (St. Faith), Conques, France, 9 th -10 th centuries. Furtum Sacrum = “Sacred Theft”
  • 38. St. Madeleine = Mary Magdalene
  • 39. At first, the crusades were referred to with the same language as pilgrimage.
  • 40. Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132.
  • 41. Abbey Church, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132.
  • 42. Plan, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132.
  • 43. North Portal, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132.
  • 44. Tympanum, North Portal (Center), Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-32. People of the World People of the World Zodiac and the Labors of the Seasons Christ and apostles
  • 45. Christ and the Apostles, Tympanum, North Portal (Center), Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-32 Rays of Holy Power
  • 46. Signs of the Zodiac and Seasonal Labors, North Portal (Center), St. Madeleine, Vezelay, 1120-1132 Gemini Cancer Threshing Hay
  • 47. People of the World, Lintel, North Portal (Center), Tympanum, Ste. Madeleine, Vezaley, 1120-1132. Pygmy/Dwarf Big-eared People
  • 48. People of the World, North Portal, Tympanum, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132. Monstrous Races of the World, A Crusader’s Handbook, 12 th Century.
  • 49. Plan, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132. Reliquary of Ste. Madeleine
  • 50. Nave, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132.
  • 51. Reliquary of Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1281.
  • 52. Reliquary of Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1281.
  • 53. Critical Thinking Questions
    • How is the relationship between monasteries and their royal benefactors complicated?
    • What is the relationship between monasteries and pilgrimage?
    • How did relics function in the devotional practices in Western European Christianity?
    • What is the so-called “Pilgrimage Plan”? What function does it serve in some Romanesque churches?
    • What does furtum sacrum mean? Why is it important? How is it justified?