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  • Christ Pantokrator St. Catherine’s Mt. Sinai 6 th Century Virgin and Child St. Catherine’s of Mount Sinai 6 th Century St. Peter St. Catherine’s at Mt. Sinai 6 th Century The Nativity St. Catherine’s Mt. Sinai 7 th Century
  • Christ Pantokrator St. Catherine’s Monastery Sinai 6 th Century Christ as Man of Sorrows 12 th c Greece Acheiropoietos 12 th Century
  • Simon Magus and Patriarch Nikephoros Khludov Psalter 850-75 The Crucifixion and Iconoclasts whitewashing an icon of Christ Khludov Psalter 850-75
  • Simon Magus and Patriarch Nikephoros Khludov Psalter 850-75 The Crucifixion and Iconoclasts whitewashing an icon of Christ Khludov Psalter 850-75
  • Theodora Instructing her Daughters in the Veneration of Icons Madrid Skylitzes 12 th Century
  • Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy Constantinople 1400

Transcript

  • 1. Icons and Iconoclasm
    • Readings:
    • Stokstad , ch. 8.
    • Range:
    • 500-1425 CE
    • Byzantine
    • Key Terms/Concepts:
    • Icon, Veneration, proskynesis, acheiropoietai, palladium, Iconoclasm, Pantokrator, Acheiropoietos, Theotokos, Hodegetria, Orans, Blachernitissa, Eleousa, Glykophilsousa, Festal, Iconoclast, Iconophile, Iconodule, Iconostasis.
    • Key Monuments:
    • Vladimir Virgin, Constantinople, 12 th Century
    • Virgin and Child with Saints and Angels, St. Catherine at Mt. Sinai, second half of the 6 th century.
    • The Crucifixion and Iconoclasts whitewashing an icon of Christ, Khludov Psalter , 850-75.
    • Andrey Rublyov, The Old Testament Trinity (Three Angels Visiting Abraham), 1410-1425.
  • 2. What is an Icon?
    • General: Two-dimensional representations
    • Specific: Pictures of holy persons, events, venerated by the Eastern church.
    Virgin Enthroned with Saints and Angels, St. Catherine’s of Mount Sinai, Egypt, 6 th Century CE.
  • 3. Byzantine Empire in the 6 th Century
  • 4. St. Catherine’s of Mount Sinai, Egypt, 5 th Century CE.
  • 5. St. Catherine’s of Mount Sinai, Egypt, 5 th Century CE.
  • 6. St. Catherine’s of Mount Sinai, Egypt, 5 th Century CE.
  • 7. St. Catherine’s of Mount Sinai, Egypt, 5 th Century CE.
  • 8. St. Catherine’s of Mount Sinai, Egypt, 5 th Century CE.
  • 9. St. Catherine’s of Mount Sinai, Egypt, 5 th Century CE.
  • 10. Typical Iconostasis. Worship Row Deesis Row Festal Row Prophets Row Row of Patriarchs
  • 11. Types of Icons Christ Virgin and Child Angels Saints Festal Narrative
  • 12. Christ Christ Pantocrator, St. Catherine’s Monastery, Mt. Sinai, 6 th Century CE Christ as Man of Sorrows, Greece, 12 th Century Acheiropoietos, Russian, 12 th Century
  • 13. Pantokrator Christ Pantokrator, St. Catherine’s Monastery, Mt. Sinai, 6 th Century CE “ The All Powerful”
  • 14. Man of Sorrows Christ as Man of Sorrows, Greece, 12 th Century “ She who reigns in majesty”
  • 15. Acheiropoietos, Russian, 12 th Century
  • 16. Theotokos = The Bearer of God Moscow, 15 th Century Constantinople, 14 th Century Orans Eleousa Kyriotissa Hodegetria Vladimir Virgin, Constantinople, 12 th Century The Virgin of the Incarnation, Rome, 11 th Century
  • 17. Kyriotissa, Moscow, 15 th Century Kyriotissa “ She who reigns in majesty”
  • 18. Hodegetria, Constantinople, 14 th Century Hodegetria “ She who shows the way.”
  • 19. Orans The Virgin of the Incarnation, Rome, 11 th Century “ Virgin of the sign.” “ Praying Virgin” Or Blachernitissa
  • 20. Eleousa Vladimir Virgin, Constantinople, 12 th Century “ Virgin of tenderness.” Or Glykophilsousa “ Virgin of Sweet Kisses”
  • 21. Saints St. Peter, St. Catherine’s at Mt. Sinai, 6 th Century
  • 22. St. Peter, St. Catherine’s at Mt. Sinai, 6 th Century
  • 23. Angels Portraits Miracles Archangel Gabriel, Moscow, 1387-1395 Archangel Michael, Greece, 14 th Century Miracle at Chonae, St. Catherine’s Monastery at Mt. Sinai, 12 th Century.
  • 24. Miracles Miracle at Chonae, St. Catherine’s Monastery at Mt. Sinai, 12 th Century.
  • 25. Festal The Annunciation, Russian Icon, 14 th Century The Nativity, St. Catherine’s Mt. Sinai, 7 th Century
  • 26. Orthodox Festal Days
    • Feast days ordered by calendar date
    • Baptism of Jesus by John the Forerunner (January 6)
    • The Presentation of Jesus in the Temple (February 2)
    • The Annunciation (March 25)
    • The Raising of Lazarus (Saturday before Palm Sunday)
    • Entry into Jerusalem (Palm Sunday)
    • The Crucifixion (Good Friday)
    • The Resurrection (Easter or Holy Pascha)
    • The Ascension (40 days after Easter)
    • Meso-Pentecost (Jesus, 12 years old, lectures the Jewish Priests in the Temple)
    • The Descent of the Holy Spirit (Pentecost, 50 days after Easter)
    • The Transfiguration (August 6)
    • The Dormition of the Holy Virgin * (August 15)
    • The Nativity of the Virgin Mary (September 8)
    • The Exaltation of the Cross (by Arch. Zinon, Courtesy Orthodox World) *
    • The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple (November 21)
    • The Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ (December 25)
    The Nativity, St. Catherine’s Mt. Sinai, 7 th Century
  • 27. Narratives The Ladder of Divine Ascent, from St. Catherine’s at Mount Sinai, 7 th Century. Andrey Rublyov, The Old Testament Trinity (Three Angels Visiting Abraham), 1410-1425.
  • 28. The Ladder of Divine Ascent, from St. Catherine’s at Mount Sinai, 7 th Century.
  • 29. Andrey Rublyov, The Old Testament Trinity (Three Angels Visiting Abraham), 1410-1425.
  • 30. * Veneration is the act of honoring Christ and saints through their image. Processions
  • 31. * Veneration is the act of honoring Christ and saints through their image. Kissing
  • 32. * Veneration is the act of honoring Christ and saints through their image. Proskynesis
  • 33. Iconoclasm (Eikon = Image) + (Klao = Break)
  • 34. Iconoclasts (Breakers of Images):
    • Icons are akin to the “graven images” mentioned in the second commandment: “ 4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: 5   thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them. ” ( Exodus 20: 4-5)
    • Icons are man made, as opposed to relic, and do not deserve to be venerated: “The divine nature is completely uncircumscribable and cannot be depicted or represented by artists in any medium whatsoever.” (Iconoclastic Council, 754)
  • 35. Iconodules (Lovers of Images):
    • Icons are powerful didactic tools: “An image is, after all, a reminder; it is to the illiterate what a book is to the literate, and what the word is to hearing, the image is to sight.” (John of Damascus)
    • Icons are a valuable proxy by which the faithful could demonstrate their love and honor for the divine: “God created man to his own image” (Genesis 1:27)
    • Icons are a valid way to communicate Christ’s humanity and suffering: “How, indeed, can the Son of God be acknowledged to have been a man like us—he who was deigned to be called our brother—if he cannot be depicted?”
  • 36. The Crucifixion and Iconoclasts whitewashing an icon of Christ, Khludov Psalter , 850-75.
  • 37. Simon Magus and Patriarch Nikephoros, Khludov Psalter ,850-75.
  • 38. Theodora Instructing her Daughters in the Veneration of Icons, Madrid Skylitzes, 12 th Century.
  • 39. Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy, Constantinople, 1400.
  • 40. Critical Thinking Questions
    • What is an icon? What role did they play in Byzantine worship?
    • How does the icon interact with the sacred?
    • What are the arguments for and against the use of icons in the church?
    • What is Iconoclasm? What were the circumstances that led to the Iconoclasm?