PE4- Basketball


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PE4- Basketball

  1. 1. Obillo, Nichole Beatrize V. December 7, 2012A-203 Prof. Leigh Botones Physical Education-IVHistory of Basketball Basketball is one of the most famous, played and viewed sports in the world. For those whoare less aware of what basketball is, it is a game played on a court by two teams (of five activeplayers each) who try to throw an inflated ball through a 10 feet high hoop. Even though mostpeople know what basketball is, they do not have an understanding as to the history of basketball,which is detailed in this article. Basketball was invented (or created) by the Canadian-American clergyman, physician andeducator Dr. James Naismith (born in 1961) on a request by Dr. Luther Gulick, his superior. It issaid that Dr. Naismith was inspired and influenced by a game played during his school days, whichinvolved knocking a stone off an object by attempting to throw another stone at it. This is the basefor the origination of basketball and its evolution ever since. The sport of basketball was created (or founded) as a solution for the problem of finding asport that could be played indoors during the winter season, where outdoor games were impossibledue to the heavy winter weathers in Massachusetts. Not only was it a stipulation at that time, butthe sport also needed to be one that required a certain level of skill and ability. The game was first developed by way of making use of two wooden peach baskets and asoccer ball. The two peach baskets affixed to the walls were the goals. The game was alsoinfluenced by other sports such as hockey and football.Basketball was initially played by (two) teams, which consisted of nine players each, but then latercame down to 5 per side, which came to be the standard by 1987. The fast nature of the sportmade it more and more interesting and soon came to be popular among both men and women. Itspread throughout the US and Canada very rapidly and was further accepted and popularized by theUS servicemen in World War II. The sport was adopted by many US colleges during the years of 1893 – 1895 and the firstcollege basketball game was played at the Madison Square Garden in New York City. This attracteda lot of attention by the public and it came to be a major college sport by the mid 1950s. The National League established in 1898 was the first pro basketball league formed toprotect the players from exploitation and it also helped promote a less rough, friendly game. One ofthe greatest and first pro teams was the Original Celtics from New York. The renowned team,Harlem Globetrotters was founded during the same period (in 1927) and is known as one of thegreatest and most entertaining basketball teams. The sport has grown ever since, and is now played by many teams around the world and isalso viewed by millions of people annually. The National Basketball Association (NBA) has been oneof the most famous sports organizations in the world since its inception in the 1980s, partlybecause of the marketability of a number of star players such as Michael Jordan, Shaquille O‘neal,Kobe Bryant and Lebron James.
  2. 2. James Naismith was a Canadian American physicaleducation instructor at the International YMCA TrainingSchool in Springfield, Massachusetts. In December 1891 ,the director of the school, Dr. Luther Halsey Gulick, askedNaismith to find a physical activity to occupy a "class ofincorrigibles." Naismith may have other motivations as well.Naismith wanted to create a game of skill for the studentsinstead of one that relied solely on strength. He needed agame that could be played indoors in a relatively small space.And he wanted to keep his football players in shape off-season. As a kid Naismith played a game called duck on arock. He took account of the game he played as a kid andmade it into what we now call basketball. With the help of hiswife he devised a game suitable for a gymnasium. Naismith obtained two peach baskets and a soccer ball, and developed 13 rules for the newgame. He divided his class of 18 into 2 teams of 9 players each (the team today would be theequivalent of 3 guards, 3 centers, and 3 forwards) and set about to teach them the basics of hisnew game of Basketball.The object of the game was to throw the soccer ball into the fruit baskets nailed to the lowerrailing of the gym balcony. Every time a point was scored, the game was halted so the janitor couldbring out a ladder and retrieve the ball. Later, the bottoms of the fruit baskets were removed. The first public basketball game was in Springfield, MA, on December 21, 1891.These are James Naismith original thirteen rules of basketball: 1. The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands. 2. The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands, but never with the fist. 3. A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man running at good speed. 4. The ball must be held in or between the hands. The arms or body must not be used for holding it. 5. No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking or tripping in any way of an opponent. The first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul; the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game. No substitution shall be allowed. 6. A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violations of Rules 3 and 4 and such as described in Rule 5. 7. If either side make three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents (consecutive means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul). 8. Goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the ground into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edge and the opponents move the basket, it shall count as a goal. 9. When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it. In case of dispute the umpire shall throw it straight into the field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds. If he holds it longer, it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on them.
  3. 3. 10. The umpire shall be judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have the power to disqualify men according to Rule 5. 11. The referee shall be the judge of the ball and decide when it is in play in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee. 12. The time shall be two 15-minute halves with five minutes rest between. 13. The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winners.Pre-Game Duties Before the ball is even tipped, basketball officials have a number of different duties tomake sure everything is in order for the start of the game. Referees check the differentequipment used in the game, including the ball to make sure its properly inflated, the playingsurface and baskets to make sure there are no hazards to players during the game. Officials alsocheck the official game books to make sure the rosters are inputted correctly to help guard againstscoring mistakes during the game.Calling Fouls and Violations The main role of basketball refs is to make sure there is fair play for all players during thegame. That means calling violations such as travels, double dribbles and three-second violations, aswell as determining when a foul has occurred and the appropriate penalties. Officials study therules and take tests to make sure they know the ins and outs of every section of the rules. Manyviolations are cut and dried, but fouls are often resulting of an officials judgment of whether thecontact gave an advantage or disadvantage.Signals To help communicate with players, coaches, the scorers table and spectators, basketballrefs use hand signals to indicate different fouls and violations. For example, to signal a foul, the refraises his hand above the head with a fist, then makes a signal indicating the type of foul. A block --a player illegally using the body to block the path of an opponent -- is signaled by bringing bothhands down on either side of the waist. An offensive foul is indicated by placing the hand on theback of the head and pointing in the direction of the offended team.Correcting Errors Officials are also responsible for correcting any errors that occur during the game that arecorrectable by rule. For example, if it is determined that a team did not receive foul shots when itwas entitled to them -- such as for bonus free throws -- the officials may stop play and award theteam the free throws if the mistake is discovered before play resumes after the first dead ballafter the error. In college basketball and the NBA, officials may use television monitors to helpdetermine if a basket went in before time expired or whether a successful field goal should countfor two or three points.
  4. 4. The first basketball game On December 21, 1891, James Naismith defined a new game using five base ideas andthirteen rules. That day, he asked his class to play a match in the Armory Street court: 9 versus 9,using a soccer ball and two peach baskets. Frank Mahan, one of his students, wasn‘t so happy. Hejust said: "Huh. Another new game".However, Naismith was the inventor of the new game. Someoneproposed to call it ―Naismith Game‖, but he suggested "We have a ball and a basket: why don‘t wecall it basket ball"? The eighteen players were: John J. Thompson, Eugene S. Libby, Edwin P.Ruggles, William R. Chase, T. Duncan Patton, Frank Mahan, Finlay G. MacDonald, William H. Davis andLyman Archibald, who defeated George Weller, Wilbert Carey, Ernest Hildner, Raymond Kaighn,Genzabaro Ishikawa, Benjamin S. French, Franklin Barnes, George Day and Henry Gelan 1–0. Thegoal was scored by Chase. There were other differences between Naismith‘s first idea and the game played today.The peach baskets were closed, and balls had to be retrieved manually by cutting a small hole in thebottom of the peach basket and poking the ball out using a stick. Only in 1906 were metal hoops,nets and boards introduced. Moreover, earlier the soccer ball was replaced by a Spalding ball,similar to the one used today.Basketball EquipmentBasketball Court Dimensions The size of the court depends on the playing level. The size of the court for NBA andCollege games is 94 feet long and 50 feet wide. It is smaller for High School and Junior High.Backboard and Rim The regulation height above the ground for the rim (hoop) is 10 feet, and the rim is 18inches in diameter. Backboards are 6 feet wide (72 inches) by 42 inches tall, with the inner squarebeing 24 inches wide by 18 inches tall.The Foul Line For all size courts the foul line is 15 feet in front of the backboard.The Key The key is 12 feet wide, and is the same for all basketball courts. The backboard extends 4feet out over the baseline into the key. A half circle of diameter 6 foot extends from the foul lineaway from the basket to complete the key.The 3 Point Line (Arc) For NBA Basketball Courts the 3 point arc is 22 feet to the center of the rim on the sideswith a straight line extending out 16 feet 9 inches from the baseline. Past those points the lineextends out 23 feet 9 inches from the center of the rim.Line Markings All line markings on the floor are 2 inches wide and can vary in color.
  5. 5. Basket The goal, made up of a horizontal and circular metal rim with a net hanging from it. It ismounted 3.05 m above floor level.Shoes High-topped shoes.Shot clock The clock that counts down the maximum 24 seconds the offence is allowed to possess theball before shooting.Floor Playing surface made of wooden parquet. Dimensions: 28m x 15 m.The Uniform This is one important part in the game. Every team will have their own uniform, which includes ashirt (jersey) and a pair of shorts, which will be numbered on both the front and back sides (andsometimes with names printed on it) for quick and easy identification.Other Equipment Other important equipment includes Scoreboards, Score-sheets, Whistle-operated stop-clock systems, Alternate Possession Arrows / Indicators and Lighting. All of the above mentioned equipment comes into great use during play and hence the properfunction of them is vital for the successful flow of the game. Any malfunction could affect the playadversely.Basics of Basketball Basketball is a very interesting game that is played in all parts of the world. Hence it is oneof the most famous sports played and viewed at present. However, most people do not know thebasketball basics and rules and this article is aimed at explaining the most simple, must know,basketball basics.These facts are explained below in point form for easy understanding and reference: Basketball is a quick, non-contact sport played both indoors (mostly) and outdoors on a court. Each team consists of five active players, that is, five players of each team play on the court at any one time. There will be up to five substitute players (per team) who will be sitting on the side line. Every player in the team is assigned positions when playing, and those positions are determined based on the height of each player. Usually, ―guards‖ or ―positions 1 and 2‖ are played by the shortest players, whilst the medium sized players play ―forwards‖ or ―position 3 and 4‖. The tallest players hold the ―center‖ or ―position 5‖. The game starts with the ball being thrown up by the referee, and two players (one from each side) who are standing in the center circle will jump for the ball and would tap it to one of their team members.
  6. 6. The game progresses as the players pass the ball to one another, or dribble the ball towards the goal in the opposing end. The objective of the game is to obtain goals or points by throwing the ball through the ring or hoop. Every successful throw is awarded two points each, except for those throws which are made from outside the three point line, which earns them three points, or for penalty throws where a successful throw is awarded one point. An infraction of the rules of basketball by a player is called a Violation, and this result in the giving of the ball to the opposition. A violation can occur on the following instances: 1. If a player takes more than 2 steps without bouncing or dribbling the ball, known as ―Traveling‖. 2. When a player bounces the ball with both hands at once, or when a player starts dribbling after a dribble stop, known as ―Double Dribbling‖. 3. When a player dribbles the ball by contacting it away from the top of the ball, i.e. contacting the side or the bottom area of the ball (holding or touching the ball from the bottom whilst dribbling), known as ―Carrying‖. It is not allowed to push, trip, block, and hit or hold the player in possession of the ball and doing so will be considered a foul by the referee. A foul is an illegal action committed by a player of one team on another in the opposing team. If a player commits more than five fouls in a game, he/she will not be allowed to play the game there on and will be sent off the court.The above are some of the most basic basketball rules and facts that one ought to know to betterunderstand the process of the game.The Most Popular Basketball Drills and Plays Basketball is one of the most famous and most viewed sports in the world and its fastmovement is what makes it so much more interesting to the spectator. One main reason that makesit very interesting is because the game itself keeps progressing over time and that is due to themany plays and drills that help dramatically improve the game. This article lists out what the mainand most popular basketball plays and drills are. With respect to basketball plays, they could depend on the type of situation the team is in.For E.g.:- If the team is in need of a magical goal, then they could adopt an offensive play, but ifyou need to restrict the opponents from scoring the big (golden) goal, then a good and perfectdefensive play has to be used.Therefore, there are two types of basketball plays:Offensive plays1-3-1 Offensive PlaysZone Formation Offensive Plays1-4 Formation PlaysMan to Man OffenseTriangle Offense Formation3 on 3 Offensive PlaysFlex OffenseBox Offense
  7. 7. Defensive plays2-3 Zone DefenseZone DefensePress DefenseMatch-up Defense Similar to basketball plays, basketball drills are another secret for success in a basketballcourt. They say practice makes you perfect, and it is true in this case too since basketball drillshelp a player sharpen and improve his/her skills in every area of the game. Listed below are some ofthe best and popular basketball drills that are supposed to help win matches comfortably.Shooting DrillsIndividual basketball shooting drillsOne HandFlat On Yo‘ Back3 in a RowBasketball shooting drills with partner10 shotsShoot ‗Til You MissTeam shooting drillsShoot Under Pressure2-Ball ShootingOther shooting drillsTip DrillChoice Is YoursAlternate V-cut DrillSuicide ThreesBall Handling Drills5-minute circleDribble AttackLow Dribble Figure 8Cross-over and Spin DribbleYo-Yo DribblePing PongVision Test1 on 24 Speed DrillPassing DrillsPass and Go CircleTeam Post Drill2 on 8 Press Drill
  8. 8. Passing and Scoring Under Pressure5-man WeavePassing Game Shooting DrillRebounding Drills1 on 1 rebounding with outlet Pass2 on 1 Rebounding3 on 2 BlockoutBox Out DrillDantley DrillHe-Man DrillDefensive Drills2 on 1 Denial2 on 1 Fast BreakThe GauntletPassing LanesWT DrillWhistle DrillTransition DrillsUNLVFast-breakThe Rabbit2 Vs. 2 KillerConditioning DrillsThe DeckVenture DrillSpeedyBig BoxCombination Drills3 on 2 Fast BreakBe Hard to Guard3 on 3 on 3Chase DrillWarm-up DrillsBack KickPointed ToesPivotsDefensive SlidingSide-step
  9. 9. Big Man DrillsIron ManMikan DrillBarkley DrillBack-to-the-baskets moveFootwork DrillsDribble and SlideBoston DrillX These drills and plays are very popular and have helped teams win matches with ease. Theformations of the plays and drills can be studies in detail on various internet resources for betterunderstanding of their practical aspects.Basketball Hall of Fame Basketball is a very interesting sport and hence it is one of the most widely viewed sports inthe world. Just like in any other sport, basketball has its own Hall of Fame and this articleconcentrates on explaining the basketball Hall of Fame.Prior to going into explaining what the Basketball Hall of Fame is all about, it is vital to understandwhat a hall of fame simply means. A hall of fame is a building, which contains photos and images offamous people and fascinating things that are associated with a certain topic of interest. To beinducted to the Hall of Fame is simply a huge achievement, since these records will be kept thereforever and you will be remembered for a very long time. The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame located in downtown Springfield,Massachusetts, is set up to honor the all time greats of that industry (basketball sport) includingathletes, referees, coaches and others who have contributed to the sport, having shown great skilland commitment. Teams like New York Renaissance, Harlem Globetrotters, and Original Celtics areamong the few teams inducted in the Hall of Fame. The purpose of this establishment is to promotethe sport as well as to serve as the basketball‘s library of history. The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame was established in 1959 and its actualbuilding was built up after continuous fundraisings. This building was opened for public exhibition in1968 at Springfield College in Massachusetts. Later, another building was opened off campus indowntown Springfield, in the year 1985. The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame consistedof a lot of useful and valuable information and images, which drew in huge crowds every year fromall parts of the country. A third home for the Basketball Hall of Fame was founded on September 2002, which wassituated to the south of the previous Hall of Fame, and was 80,000 square foot in floor area, whichcost $45 million. The building is very attractive and it features a big, silver, semi-sphericalstructure (which represents a humongous basketball) along with a tall spire topped with an orangesphere. The Basketball Hall of Fame is surrounded by a number of restaurants and retail outlets,which could be visited whilst on tour of one of the greatest Halls of Fame. The new Hall of Fame isdivided into 3 floors, which are: Honors Ring – consisting images and other work of arts of those respective inductees or inducted teams
  10. 10. Second Floor – includes the Players Gallery, Coaches Gallery and Broadcast Section Center Court – features a full-sized basketball court open to the public to take shots You would observe constant changes every year in the Basketball Hall of Fame as new membersand related things are inducted to the Hall of Fame. Some of the players inducted to the BasketballHall of Fame areKareem Abdul-Jabbar, Wilt Chamberlain, Larry Bird andMoses Malone.Basketball in-the Community It is not a secret that basketball is one of the most famous, viewed and played sports in theworld. One of the main reasons for this is the fast paced nature of the game, which stimulatesinterest in those who watch and play the sport. Basketball, just like it brings satisfaction andenjoyment inside the courts, also brings satisfaction and enjoyment outside the courts. This articleis aimed at explaining basketball in the community, the effects of it, and how it contributes towardsa better society. Basketball as a sport emphasizes on greater teamwork, endurance, commitment and hardwork. Not only does it emphasize these factors, the game is built up on and promotes these samefactors. This is what is needed wherever you go in order to be successful, be it in basketball, anyother sport or even general activities of life. The message passed to society that good teamwork,commitment and hard work (in the form of a sport) itself is a huge service and social responsibility. Besides this factor, basketball teams and leagues have their own way of interacting withtheir local community and have certain activities that help them build relationships with theirsurroundings in addition to serving them in some form. One such way of doing it is by providing high-quality basketball training at a low cost to theyoung (who may not or usually does not have the opportunity to receive such training) in thoserespective areas. By doing so, it enables to identify players with good potential, who would in factgrow up to be great basketball athletes in the future. Such training will be combined with (and/ or followed by) service programs and seminarsthat would help them make healthy, positive and educated life decisions, whilst being in aninteractive and peaceful environment. Some fine examples of such activities and programs aremovements to clean up an area, taking part in carnivals or parades, and serving meals for those inneed or similar such activities. There have been instances where some basketball leagues havesponsored and helped build homes for the homeless. This is another way of showing concern to thecommunity, or in other words, being socially responsible. Even major leagues and teams like Boston Celtics and Los Angeles Lakers have their ownprogrammes of helping out the community by way of donations and forming or basing foundations touplift the living standards of their communities. For E.g.:- Boston Celtics have teamed up with the Children‘s Hospital Boston, Horizons forHomeless Children and the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children(MSPCC) to provide healthcare, protection and shelter and other crucial services for children inneed. With such activities taking place, the sport and the teams playing basketball not onlyprovides entertainment, but also ensures the well being of their community (which simply showstheir concern to the society). Hence, there is no doubt that basketball has great prominence overother interactive sports.
  11. 11. Tips for Shooting Hoops Basketball, without doubt is one of the most famous sports in the world attracting over 300million spectators each year. Not only does the sport attract high spectatorship/ viewership, but itis a sport that is played at all levels, from kids to adults, both male and female. One would ask―What is the best thing that you would enjoy when playing basketball?‖ and all would for sureanswer ―Shooting‖. Shooting the ball is every basketball player‘s favorite part, and kids and teenagersespecially love to show-off their talent by scoring well. Accurate shooting requires a lot of practiceand irrespective of whether a player is shooting a lay-up, jump shot or free throw, there arecertain techniques that one should use in order to be successful. This article provides 10 valuabletips that would help you succeed when shooting hoops with your friends. You should utilize proper shooting techniques in order to be successful in shooting the ball. Irregular action would not earn you the basket. So there should be great balance, with good sight/ vision and elbow position, and an excellent follow-through. You should have good concentration and be more relaxed when you are about to shoot the ball. Focus on the rim (closest to you) when shooting, but if you are shooting bank shots or lay-ups, make sure you focus on the backboard, where you will need to bank the ball in order to earn a successful basket. Timing the shot is a necessity because shooting at the wrong time would restrict your opportunity to earn a goal, since incorrect timing can affect your throw in the form of body imbalance and blocking. You should be in the correct position with proper balance (front to back and side to side) when shooting the ball. You should also follow-through on every shot you take, since doing so would help you realize what went wrong to not earn a successful basket. Shoot the ball when you are at the top of the jump, but make sure your jump is natural (not forced). Some players however, shoot the ball on the way up with a quick release. Every shot you take should have an arc in order to earn a successful basket. However, some do have a more flat shot, but the arc-shot tends to be more successful than the former. The arc changes with each player‘s height. You should be more relaxed with bent knees and should also concentrate on the basket when shooting free-throws. Avoid unnecessarily moving. Try to create a good backspin in order to earn a successful basket. Hold the ball with your fingertips (and not your palm) in order to play a smooth shot. Good wrist action is also vital. Know your shots and practice them well. Learn to shoot the ball from any part of the court as it would make you an all-rounder and stand above your friends or teammates.Development of Basketball As we all know, Basketball is one of the most favored and viewed sports in the world whichdraws in millions of crowds for the games played each year. However, the game has changedgradually since its inception and this article explains the changes that have taken place in the game.In other words, it elucidates basketball of then and now.Rules and Regulations in the sport Basketball, just like in any other sport, had a few fundamental rules, which were modifiedand changed as the game became more and more popular and widespread.
  12. 12. For E.g.:- Dribbling was considered a defense measure initially, however it changed as thepotential of a dribble was perceived to be good. Earlier, it was prohibited to use both hands morethan once when dribbling, but this was changed later. Similarly, it was a rule that when the ball wentout-of-bounds, the player who had the last contact with the ball gets the opportunity to throw it in,but due to the hazards it created, it was changed that the opposition will be given the ball, andsince that too delayed the game, it was said that the nearest opponent be given the ball for athrow-in.Changes in the courts, equipment and facilities Everything from the basketball court to the hoops to the backboards to the uniforms haschanged as the game evolved. Earlier there was only one type of court but now it has changed andthe sizes and shapes of the basketball court changes according to various Associations andFederations.For E.g.:- NBA – 28.65m by 15.24mFIBA – 28m by 15m Even the equipment and facilities have changed, with the introduction and modification ofthe Shot Clock, Fibre Glass Backbaords, and even the basketball itself has changed over time.Basketballs are not laced or sewn any longer and the backboards have been made in such a way toavoid the audience from leaning over balconies close to where baskets were attached andinterfering with scoring of shots. Even the court markings have changed over time.The Spread of the sport This sport was not very famous during its initial stages and was played only by a few teamsin few countries, but now it is a major sport and is played at all levels by over 300 million people. Itis being played at school and college levels in all parts of the world, even in countries such as SouthAsia, Africa, Australia and Europe.Change in the nature of the game It is believed by some that players now come into the field not to play or for enjoyment, butsimply for the hefty amounts that they are being paid. This is true, because basketball athletes inthe present day show more concern in getting themselves into advertisements, rather than focusingon improving their performance potential. It is also believed that today‘s players‘ show lesssportsmanship compared to the good old days.Changes in the skills of the players Back then, basketball players had only 3-4 years of training, practice and experience whenthey came into pro-matches, but nowadays, basketball players receive over 10 years training, whichmakes them more proficient and improved than the old basketball players.Changes in the pay for the players The salaries of the players have also increased by huge amounts. In the early days, thegame was played for fun, but now it has become a profession and a business and most skilledbasketball athletes are very well paid.For E.g.:- They were paid nearly $200,000 ten to twenty years back, but this has more thandoubled and players now receive over $425,000 in pay.
  13. 13. Rules for the offense The basketball team on offense is the team with the basketball. When a player has thebasketball there are certain rules they must follow: The player must bounce, or dribble, the ball with one hand while moving both feet. If, at any time, both hands touch the ball or the player stops dribbling, the player must only move one foot. The foot that is stationary is called the pivot foot. The basketball player can only take one turn at dribbling. In other words, once a player has stopped dribbling they cannot start another dribble. A player who starts dribbling again is called for a double-dribbling violation and looses the basketball to the other team. A player can only start another dribble after another player from either team touches or gains control of the basketball. This is usually after a shot or pass. The ball must stay in bounds. If the offensive team looses the ball out of bounds the other team gets control of the basketball. The players hand must be on top of the ball while dribbling. If they touch the bottom of the basketball while dribbling and continue to dribble this is called carrying the ball and the player will lose the ball to the other team. Once the offensive team crosses half court, they may not go back into the backcourt. This is called a backcourt violation. If the defensive team knocks the ball into the backcourt, then the offensive team can recover the ball legally.Defensive Rules The team on defense is the team without the basketball. The main rule for the defensive player is not to foul. A foul is described as gaining an unfair advantage through physical contact. There is some interpretation that has to be made by the referee, but, in general, the defensive player may not touch the offensive player in a way that causes the offensive player to lose the ball or miss a shot.Rules for everyone Although the foul rule is described above as a defensive rule, it applies exactly the same to all players on the court including offensive players. Basketball players cannot kick the ball or hit it with their fist. No player can touch the basketball while it is traveling downward towards the basket or if it is on the rim. This is called goaltending. (touching the ball on the rim is legal in some games). Every player on the court is subject to the same rules regardless of the position they play. The positions in basketball are just for team basketball strategy and there are no positions in the rules.Principles of the Game There are two primary objectives in basketball: Score points by throwing or dropping the ball through the opposition‘s basket Stop the opponent from scoring Rules and regulations are in place to help maintain the flow of the game and to ensure playersafety and fair play. It is important to know and understand the major principles and/or rules ofthe sport, as they dictate how the game is played. These rules are outlined below:
  14. 14. Time Limits A basketball game is essentially a race against time. Most leagues/levels divide games intofour equal periods called quarters (the length of each period differs according to the level).However, it is not uncommon to divide a game into halves—two equal segments.In addition to the game clock, many levels/leagues also play with a shot clock—a device that limitsthe amount of time a team can have the ball during each possession.Scoring A team scores by throwing or dropping the ball through the opponent‘s hoop from above. Anattempt to score is called a shot. Each time a player successfully puts the ball through the hooptheir team is awarded one, two, or three points. The number of points given for each successfulshot depends on the type of shot. Below is a breakdown of the different shot values: Foul Shot/Free Throw: The referee will grant a foul shot to a player who is fouled while in the act of shooting. A successful free throw is worth one point. 2 Point: Any shot taken within the area between the end line and the three point arc is worth two points if it goes in. 3 Pointer: Any successful shot taken behind the three-point line is worth three points.And the Winner is...The team that scores the most points within the allotted time is the winner of the game.Overtime If the score is tied at the end of regulation time, an extra period is played to determinethe winner. This period is called ―overtime.‖ The length of the extra period depends on theleague/level. Overtime begins with a ―jump ball‖ and ends when the allotted time has expired. The teamwith the most points at the end of the extra period is the winner. If the score remains tied at theend of overtime, then another period will be played; this process will continue until a winner can bedetermined.Moving the Ball There are two ways to move the basketball: The pass and the dribble. Passing—theintentional transfer of the ball from one player to another— is the preferred option, because it isthe fastest way to move the ball and involves team work. The dribble—the continuous bouncing ofthe ball on the floor—on the other hand, is an individual act. While it can be necessary in certainsituations, dribbling too often can easily get a player into trouble.Rough Play Dr. James Naismith, the inventor of basketball, despised the rough-play tactics rampant insports like football and rugby. Thus, when inventing basketball he did his best to create a sportthat discouraged excessive roughness. The modern rules reflect his desire. By rule, basketball is a non-contact sport. This does not mean that any physical contactbetween opponents is illegal. What it does mean however, is that players are not allowed to engagein rough/excessive physical contact and/or use contact to gain a competitive advantage on theopponent.
  15. 15. Referees and Their Duties The referee(s) are in charge of enforcing the rules. When a rule has been violated, thereferee will use a whistle to stop play and subsequently communicate said infraction using pre-designated hand signals. For a detailed guide to deciphering the referee‘s hand signals click here.The number of officials presiding over a given game depends on the level of play. Youth and highschool games generally have two referees, while the college and professional ranks employ threeofficials. Referees are usually dressed in white-and-black stripped shirts and black pants. Officials inthe NBA are required to wear a gray shirt and black pants.Game Play Though it can be played on an individual basis—when two people play against each other it iscalled ―one-on-one‖—basketball was designed to be a team sport. Teams can be made up ofanywhere from two to five players, but traditionally, the sport is played between two teams of five.Each team can have more than five players, but only five players per team are allowed on the courtat one time. The five players who are on the court when the game begins are called the ―starters.‖The other players are reserves or substitutes. Substitutions are allowed to enter the game during―dead ball‖ situations (when play is stopped). Once the starters are on the court and ready to get the game underway, play is initiated bya ―tip-off‖ (also called a ―jump ball‖). Two opposing players gather at midcourt and subsequentlyattempt to gain control of the ball after it is tossed into the air in by an official between the twoopposing players. As soon as a team gains possession of the ball, that team is on offense; that means it will beactively trying to score points. A team will remain in possession of the ball until it commits aviolation/foul, scores, or turns the ball over to the defense. When a team does not have possession of the ball, it is on defense. In other words, it istrying to prevent the offensive team from scoring. Defenders are allowed to contest a shot in anattempt to prevent scoring, but are not allowed to use excessive physical contact. Doing so is aviolation of the rules and considered a foul.Breaking the Rules Rule infractions generally fall into one of two categories: Fouls or violations. The penalty fora violation is less severe than the penalty for a foul. Also, a player may commit any number ofviolations, but only five fouls (six in the NBA) during a game. For a better understanding of the difference between a foul and a violation (and a fewexamples of each), see the descriptions below.FoulsA foul is a breach of the rules concerning illegal contact between opponents and/or unsportsmanlikeconduct. There are two distinct types of fouls in basketball: The technical foul and the personalfoul. 1. A technical foul is issued when a player, coach, or team commits an infraction of the game‘s administrative rules (any rules that have to do with equipment specifications, sportsmanship, or game procedure). These fouls generally do not involve live-ball infractions, but can be issued in response to physical contact between two opponents during a dead-ball situation. Examples of actions/behavior that may result in a technical foul include:
  16. 16. Unsportsmanlike conduct by either a coach or player. Inappropriate language is not tolerated and will be penalized with a technical foul. Submitting an incorrect roster. Wearing uniforms that do not comply with regulations outlined in the rules.Because the rules regarding the administration of technical fouls are fairly cut and dry, much ofthe focus here will be on the personal foul. 2. A personal foul is a player foul that involves illegal contact with an opponent while the ball is live. The offender is charged with one foul per violation, and if it is the player‘s fifth foul he/she is disqualified from the game (in the NBA players are allowed six fouls before disqualification). One of the official‘s main duties is to ensure that the game is always played fairly and they have to think about the effect of player contact when determining its legality. If the contact creates a disadvantage for either player, then it is called a foul. If it does not, no violation has occurred.Violations In basketball, a violation is when a player breaks one of the non-foul related rules.Violations can be called on both the offense and the defense, but are most commonly called on theoffensive team. An offensive violation results in the loss of possession.Here is a breakdown of a few of the most common violations: Traveling: It is illegal to take more than one step while holding the ball doing. Players are allowed to establish a pivot foot, but once a pivot foot is determined it cannot be lifted off the ground before the player shoots, passes, or dribbles the ball. Illegal dribble: A player shall not dribble a second time after his/her first dribble has ended. Carrying/palming: Allowing the ball to come to a rest in one or both hands while dribbling. Out of bounds: The court boundaries are marked by a sold line that is at least two inches thick. It is a violation if a player contacts a boundary line while in possession of the ball. Backcourt violation: Once a team establishes possession in the frontcourt, no person from that team may be the first person to touch a ball that is knocked into the backcourt.THE OFFICIATING STAFF. The makeup of the officiating corps is strictly a matter of choice. The minimum number isfive: a referee, an umpire, a scorer, a timer and a shot-clock operator. In some cases, eightofficials are used in a lineup comprising a referee, two umpires, a shot-clock operator, twoscorers and two timers. Years ago, when there was a center jump after each field goal or freethrow; two officials did it all-the referee on the court and one combined scorer-timer on thesidelines.REFEREE IS OFFICIAL IN CHARGE. Although the duties of the officials may not concern spectators or players, you should knowthat the referee controls the game. The referee is the official who tosses the ball up for thecenter jump at the start of the game and each overtime period. The referees assigned choresrange from inspecting and approving all equipment before the games starting time to approving thefinal score. In between, the referee is responsible for the notification of each team three minutesbefore each half is to begin and deciding matters of disagreement among the officials. The referee
  17. 17. has the power to make decisions on any points not specifically covered in the rules and even toforfeit the game if necessary.OFFICIALS CONDUCT GAME. During actual play, there is no practical difference between the referee and umpire(s). Theyare equally responsible for the conduct of the game; and, because of the speed of play, their dutiesare dictated essentially by their respective positions on the court from moment to moment. For thisreason, the rules specify that no official has the authority to question decisions made by anotherofficial. The officials control, which begins 30 minutes before starting time for men and 15 minutesfor women and concludes with the referees approval of the final score, includes the power to ejectfrom the court any player, coach or team follower who is guilty of flagrant unsporting conduct.When the referee leaves the confines of the playing area at the end of the game, the score is finaland may not be changed. As we pointed out earlier, jump balls occur only at the start of the game and all overtimes;but officials still must concentrate upon throwing the ball up straight. At other times, play will beresumed with a throw-in. The team not obtaining the ball after the first center jump will begin thealternating process.OFFICIALS SIGNALS. When a foul occurs, the official is required by the rules to (a) signal the timer to stop theclock, (b) designate the offender to the scorer and © use his or her fingers to indicate the numberof free throws. When a team is entitled to a throw-in, an official must (a) signal what caused the ball tobecome dead, (b) indicate the throw-in spot (except after a goal) and © designate the team entitledto the throw-in.DUTIES OF SCORERS AND TIMERS. Scorers must (a) record, in numerical order, names and numbers of all players, (b) recordfield goals made and free throws made and missed, © keep a running summary of points scored, (d)record fouls called on each player and notify officials when a player-disqualification or bonus-free-throw situation arises, (e) record timeouts and report when a team s allotted number has beenused, and (f) record when a squad member has been ejected for fighting. It is the game-clock and shot-clock operators responsibility to keep everyone abreast ofkey factors while carrying out the timing regulations. Basketball is regarded as among the most difficult sports to officiate. Usually basketballofficials have only a brief moment to determine if an infraction has occurred, due to the speed ofplay of the game and the officials proximity to the action. Especially difficult is the "charge/block"call as to which player is responsible for contact. Despite the misconception that basketball is a non-contact sport, officials often let a largeamount of marginal or incidental contact pass uncalled. An official must always be wary of not justwhat is happening around the ball, but the roughness of play going on around the whole court, addingto the job of the official. Further complicating the job of an official is the proximity to the crowds. Unlike football orbaseball, the crowd is nearly always located within a few feet of the official, as are coaches and
  18. 18. other players on the bench. To combat this, officials are able to remove fans from the arena withan ejection.The Best Basketball Teams of the World Basketball will be one answer amongst those few answers for the question ―Name a sportthat is interesting, famous, most viewed and much preferred today‖. Basketball has become such apreferred sport mainly due to its fast (quick movement) nature which makes it so much moreenthralling than other sports and also due to the players and the teams they represent. This articleis aimed at highlighting what the best basketball teams are and how they play in order to becomethe best out of the rest.The best basketball teams are listed and described below:Boston Celtics Boston Celtics, founded in 1946, is one of the best basketball teams with 17 NBAchampionship wins, 20 Conference titles and 26 Divisional titles in their achievement list. Thisproves how much of a good team they are. They are a team that plays on the offense, while theirquick movements, great understanding and teamwork contributes to their great achievements andfame. Some of the great players in BC were Bill Russell, Larry Bird and Bob Cousy.Los Angeles Lakers Founded in 1948, LA Lakers have been one of the best teams ever played. The team has won1 NBL championship, 14 BAA/NBA championships, 29 Conference titles and 29 Divisional titles. Theteam‘s quick pace, high flying ability and cooperation is behind all their wins in major championships.Some of the great players in LA Lakers were/are Wilt Chamberlain, Magic Johnson, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, George Mikan and Kobe Bryant (present captain of the team).Chicago Bulls Chicago Bulls have been a huge storming team throughout the last couple of decades and isone of the best and most favored basketball teams in the US. Founded in 1966, the team has won 6championships, 6 Conference titles and 7 Divisional titles. They are a team who identifies thestrengths and weaknesses of the challengers and exploit the weaker areas of the opposition.Endurance, teamwork, consistency and luck have been their success factors. Michael Jordan andBen Wallace were two great players in the team.San Antonio Spurs San Antonio Spurs is another great team that plays in the NBA. Founded in 1967, the teamhas won 4 championships, 4 Conference titles and 15 Divisional titles. Speed, unity and commitmentin every second of the play have made them such a great team. George Gervin, David Robinson andTim Duncan were/are three great superstars that represented the team.Houston Rockets Houston Rockets, founded in 1967, is another great team that has 2 championships, 4Conference titles and 4 Divisional titles in their title rack. Commitment, endurance and theirtactical nature (in the form of offensive play) has been the secret behind their success. MosesMalone and Yao Ming are 2 great players that represented the team.
  19. 19. Detroit Pistons Detroit Pistons, founded in 1941, is a great team that has won 2 NBL championships, 3 NBAchampionships, 7 Conference titles and 15 Divisional titles in the past. They display a physical,defense-oriented style of play and this is what accounted for the many wins in the past. Dave Bingand Bob Lanier were two great players that contributed to the team‘s success.Other great teams include: New Jersey Nets Phoenix Suns Toronto Raptors Philadelphia 76ers Florida Gators