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Nat Sci I- Report about Ancient Views About Science
 

Nat Sci I- Report about Ancient Views About Science

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  • celestial objects (suchas stars, planets, comets, nebulae, starclusters and galaxies)Phenomenas: (such as the cosmic background radiation).Oldest science developed by manCosmology: Study of the universe as a whole and its evolution. "Cosmology" involves the study of the origin and structure of the universe, including such topics as the shape of the earth, the location of the sun, moon, planets and stars, age of the universe, evolution of stars, etc.Biblical cosmologyThe word astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον), "star" and -nomy from nomos (νόμος), "law" or "culture") literally means "law of the stars" (or "culture of the stars" depending on the translation).Babylonian culture- plurality of earths

Nat Sci I- Report about Ancient Views About Science Nat Sci I- Report about Ancient Views About Science Presentation Transcript

  • Ancient Views About Science
    Nichole Ballesteros
    Ma. Jennifer Estrella
    Christa Del Rosario
  • - boy
    (astroboy – boy) + naomi = ?
    ASTRONOMY
  • -
    John 15:5
    (unicorn – corn) + verse = ?
    universe
  • CAL
    cosmo + log + eye + cal
    cosmological
  • ic
    (geodude – dude) + cent +ic = ?
    geocentric
  • heel + o + (sounds like: celtics) = ?
    Heliocentric
  • -cir
    copper + knee + (circus – cir) = ?
    copernicus
  • -fa
    cell + S + (facial –fa)
    celestial
  • tall + E + me = ?
    Ptolemy
  • pillows + sofi = ?
    philosophy
  • -p
    patient – p = ?
    ancient
  • astronomy
    Astronomy is a natural science that deals
    with the study of and phenomena that
    originate outside the Earth's atmosphere 
    It is concerned with the evolution, physics,
    chemistry, meteorology, and motion of
    celestial objects, as well as the formation and
    development of the universe
  • Ancient genesis myths and cosmological beliefs
  • The Hindu, Greek and Babylonian views of the universe share many of these common ideas.
    Today, Jewish, Christian and Muslim traditions believe in a universe that was created by God.
  • Ancient Views: Matter and Motion
    Greeks and Aristotle (384-322 BC):
    “The world and the human race had always existed and would continue to exist indefinitely.”
    Emphasis on Natural Philosophy
    Geocentric theory
  • Geocentric Theory
    The universe has 2 domains:
    Celestial (The world of eternal and perfect beings)
    Terrestrial (The world of temporal and corruptible things)
    Note: Behavior of objects depends on two things: (a)Nature of its composition, (b)domain
  • Motions
    Celestial bodies- uniform circular motion.
    Terrestrial bodies- toward its natural resting place
    Elements
    earth, wind, air, fire (on earth)
    ether (celestial world)
  • The earth has:
    (a) spherical shape
    (b) state of rest
    (c) a position at the center of the universe.
  • Ptolemy’s Geocentric Model
  • Ptolemy’s
    Geocentric Model
    Celestial World
    Terrestial World
    Objects in space-
    heavenly bodies
    Inhabited by life
    forms
  • Ptolemaic model
    Consist of transparent spheres
    Outer most sphere ~ celestial spheres of stars
    Immovable earth ~ center of the universe
    Each sphere ~ celestial body moving in uniform circular motion
    Explained generally observed motions of the heavenly bodies and objects of the sublunary world
  • Some difficulties were met regarding changes in the shape, brightness and speed of bodies especially the retrogade motion
    Retrograde motion is backward movement of planets (east to west)
    Ptolemy perfected geometrical devices like eccentric, epicycle-deferent system and equant to explain retrograde motion
  • Epicycle-deferent system
    Planet P moves uniform circular motion on a small circle called the epicycle. The center of the epicycle (A) is a point on a large circle called deferent.
    From B to C- eastward
    From C to B- westward
    Then repeats itself
  • A word on Ancient Greek Theory
    Ptolemaic model was based on fundamental philosophical concepts- Plato’s principle of uniform circular motion was assumed as a philosophical truth
    Greeks-physical theory of the universe can be best understood in the context of prior assumption or preconceptions.
    Greek philosophy influenced the beginning of science
  • Other scientific features of ancient Greek theory
    Quantitative or measurable observations
    Uniformity and order in motion
    Mathematical and geometrical principles
  • Copernican Revolution
  • Heliocentric model
    Nikolai Copernicus- earth was displaced from the center of the universe.
    The earth was moving about the sun together with the planets
    As regard to the retrograde motion- consequences of the relative motion of the earth with respect to the other planets
  • Its basic concern was still the same as that of Plato: a more simple geocentric system of the universe.
    There was much opposition against the Copernican model from the standpoint of religious or faith ~ to believe in the heliocentric model was equivalent to heresy
    It took more that 100 years before the heliocentric theory gained acceptance
  • Note to self
    Copernicus’ theory did not improve on the accuracy of predictions over the geocentric model
    There were NO new fundamental facts or observations that the Copernican model could explain which the geocentric model could not
  • COMPARISON AND CONTRAST
    • The earth is the center of the universe
    • The sun is the center of the universe
    • Used planets and the sun
    • Accepted by religion and faith
    • Took a long time to be accepted
    • Based on Greek philoso-phies
    • Failed to explain subsequent observations
    • Explained some observed motions of heavenly bodies simpler