Northeast Brazil


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  • Azeotrope: Greek word meaning “no change on boiling”. mixture of two or more liquids (chemicals) in such a ratio that its composition cannot be changed by simple distillation.
  • Bagasse (residue not used for ethanol) provides enough heat energy to power the mill and electricity to be sold on the consumer electricity grid. Bagasse may be used to produce paper and reduce deforestation
  • Northeast Brazil

    1. 1. Northeast Brazil: Sugarcane based Ethanol<br />etanol<br />
    2. 2. History<br />Sugarcane:<br />16th century: Portuguese introduce plantations and sugarcane to NE Brazilian coast<br />By the end of the 16th century, Brazil is one the world’s richest colonies due to high European demand for sugar<br />Indigenous slave labor not valued; sugar demand and african slave import<br />“Ideal’ model of success assumed and sugar plantations w/ African labor grows into Amazon region. Not successful due to unsuitable land.<br />Bahia<br />Amazon<br />
    3. 3. Ethanol Properties<br />Fermentation: Prime process; microbial conversion of sugar in plant material. It leads directly to ethanol, CO2 and other by-products.<br />Recovery of ethanol from fermentation broth:<br /> 1. Distillation of the dilute alcohol to its azeotrope (95-57% ethanol by weight);<br /> 2. Distillation utilizing a 3rd component (organic solvent or strong dehydrating agent) to break up the azeotrope and remove the remaining H20;<br /> 3. Distillation to separate H20 from the 3rd component to give absolute alcohol and allow the 3rd component to be recycled.<br />
    4. 4. Sugarcane Ethanol Yields<br />Source: Humphreys and Glasgow Ltd., 1980<br />
    5. 5. Sugarcane Characteristics<br />Source: RibeiroFilho, 1979<br /><ul><li>Stalks of sugarcane over 20 years old still stand
    6. 6. Agricultural productivity must be >40 t/ha to be industrially and financially viable </li></li></ul><li>History<br />Ethanol:<br />Locomotive travels from Rio to São Paulo on methanol mixture of 5% ethyl ether<br /> 1930<br />Conference in Bahia on the Sugar Industry leads to document on Industrial Applications based on ethanol<br />1902<br />Use of alcohol in official vehicles made compulsory for 1st time in Pernambuco<br />1919<br />1897<br />Nikolas A. Otto used pure alcohol in an engine for the 1st time <br /> 1907<br />US Dept of Agr. publishes report called “Use of Alcohol and Gasoline in Farm Engines” <br />1925<br />Ford makes pure alcohol circuit<br />1931<br />Commision of Defence for Alcohol Production created<br />
    7. 7. History<br />Ministry of Agriculture authorized to assign contracts to support sugar mills for pure alcohol production<br />1932<br />Avg. annual ethanol content in ethanol/gasoline blends reaches 40% in NE Brazil<br />1942-1956<br />European consumption of alcohol based fuel tops ½ mill. tons /yr<br />1939<br />1933<br />Institute of Sugar and Alcohol (IAA) established<br /> 1942<br />Minimum price (P) for alcohol is established for a 4 yr min. <br /> 1960-1965<br />sugar P in intl. market and low petroleum P reduces role of ethanol in Brazil. Law No. 4.452 modifies tax legislation on fuels and introduces an additional one alcohol<br />
    8. 8. History<br />Beginning of manufacture of neat-ethanol cars by auto industry and selling of neat alcohol fuel at service stations.<br />14% of Brazil’s gasoline D is displaced<br /> 1979<br />Fleet tests begin for neat-ethanol (Otto) car engines. Blend reaches 45% ethanol and deploys 5% of Brazil’s gasoline D<br />1977<br /> sugar P in intl. market. Upper limit of alcohol/gasoline blends from 5%-10%<br />1966-1967<br /> 1982<br />10% of total passenger cars or 1.2 million Otto engines projected<br />1978<br />50 blending centers supply ethanol/gasoline blends of up to 60% ethanol. 11% Brazilian D for gasoline displaced<br />1973<br />Oil Crisis begins<br />PNA (Natl. Alcohol Program) <br />created to promote ethanol production. Plan was to alcohol use and displace Brazil’s gasoline demand (D)<br />
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    10. 10. Expansion Period<br />
    11. 11. History<br />Ethanol market is deregulated and subsidies are removed<br />2000<br />90% of Brazil’s automotive industry were E100<br />Late 1980’s<br />Mandate of atleast E25 in all vehicles established.<br />June 2007<br />2003<br />Flex Fuels introduced. cars may run on E100, on E25, or any combination if the 2<br />October 2008<br />Brazil has 33,000 gas stations offering ethanol next to gasoline<br />1990<br />Brazil automotive industry reduces to only 10% due to ethanol shortage<br />
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    16. 16. Food vs. Fuel and Environment<br />Anti-energy crops<br />Compete w/ food crops for land<br />Compete for rural investment which might be used to raise food crops<br />Use food as a feedstock for industry rather than food for people and their animals<br />Compete for water supplies-fermentation requires large quantities of water (16 litres/litre of alcohol)<br />Energy crop enthusiasts<br />Energy crops are in addition to food crops<br />Energy crop programmes will reduce oil import bills and save foreign exchange- which might be used to buy necessary food on the world grain market<br />1980 arguments <br />
    17. 17. Food vs. Fuel and Environment<br />Current Arguments<br />Anti-energy crop<br />Energy crop enthusiasts<br />Cattle and food crops being displaced<br />Deforestation<br />Soil Degradation<br />October 2008: speculation that 400,000 jobs will be lost due to growing mechanization<br />Increased mechanization will decrease GHG emission reduction<br />Food + Fuel<br />Sugarcane mills are self-sufficient. <br />1975-2000: Deployment of gasoline w ethanol reduced carbon emissions by 100 million tons.<br />Brazil is energy independent<br />Government promises that not a single stalk of sugar cane will be found in the rainforest<br />
    18. 18. Source: Unicamp 2007<br />
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    20. 20. Multigrain<br />Owned by Japan’s Mitsui & Co Ltd; U.S. CHS Inc.; and Brazil’s PMG Trading SA<br />Pres. Paulo Garcez: “We plan to sell the ethanol on the local market initially and, in a 2nd phase, export it” <br />2003: bought 1st farm in Bahia for cotton and soy<br />Owns Xingu, large farm (50mi width)<br />Invested over $400mil just in land<br />
    21. 21. Xingu<br />Owned by Multigrain, large farm (50mi width)<br />Invested over $400mil just in land<br />Includes:<br />Grain crushing plant<br />200 houses for workers<br />School<br />Hospital<br />Church<br />
    22. 22. Xingu<br />Self sufficient in water<br />Plans for self sufficiency in electricity:<br />Construct $350mil ethanol mill cogeneration thermal energy plant<br />
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    24. 24. Sustainability Criteria<br />Certification process: could impose new barriers for Intl trade<br />Zoning: Adequate areas determined by:<br /> a) soil and weather adequacy <br />b) topography <br />c) water availability and requirements <br />d)sugarcane can’t be planted in sensible ecosystems <br />e) areas where other crops have been produced<br />
    25. 25. Agro-environmental ProtocolSão Paulo<br />
    26. 26. Future<br /><ul><li>Europe: Discussion of certification process
    27. 27. Majority of growth to take place in Centre-South
    28. 28. An additional 7 mill hectares will be cultivated this year
    29. 29. Satellite monitoring system and supervision of the rainforest will be strengthened
    30. 30. Domestic consumption: Export:</li></ul>35 billitres by 2015 15 billitres by 2020<br />50 billitres by 2020<br />
    31. 31. Future<br />From 2008-2012 US $33 billion should be invested. US $23 billion in new mills.<br />Industrial units controlled by foreign capital should rise from about 7%-12% by 2012.<br />