الرحيم الرحمن هللا بسم
Abdulkhaliq Ali Khalil
Pg in HRM & Project Planning
The Communication Process
Communication is a system of transmitting
messages using multiple components. It is
generally used to convey thoughts, feelings and/or
It is the process of exchanging information by the
use of words, letters, symbols, or nonverbal
Effective communication lead to:
◦ Good human relations
◦ Better cooperation and coordination between
management and workforce
◦ Improved productivity and efficiency
◦ Improved morale
◦ lower staff turnover and absenteeism
Steps in the Communication Process
It matters not so much what you say as it does how
you say it.
Your communication style is a SET of
various behaviors and methods of relaying
information that impact all facets of life.
Step 1 – the sender encodes the message and selects a
Step 2 – the sender transmits the message through his chosen
Step 3 – the receiver decodes the message and decides if
feedback is needed.
Step 4 – a response or new message maybe transmitted by the
Types of Communication
One-Way Vs. Two-Way
Verbal Vs. Non-Verbal
Upward – Downward – Horizontal
One-Way vs Two-Way Communication
Seeing – reading
Hearing – television, radio, etc.
Provides interaction and feedback
Increases opportunity to understand
Parts of Body Language:
Facial Expression: Eyes, Forehead, Mouth,
Hands and Limbs.
Walk, stand, pose.
Content: Words and sentence construction used.
◦ We create words and construct sentences according to
what we (want to say).
Context: The way you present words.
◦ Body Language
◦ Medium/Communication Environment
◦ Noise (Physical/Mental)
Things you cannot change.
Things you can change with effort.
Things you can easily change.
◦ Can you give examples of each?
Allowing our own rights to be violated by failing to
express our honest feelings.
The goal of being a passive communicator is to
avoid conflict no matter what.
Little risk involved – very safe.
Little eye contact, often defers to others’ opinions,
usually quiet tone, may suddenly explode after
being passive too long.
“I don’t know.”
“Whatever you think.”
“You have more experience than I. You decide.”
“I’ll go with whatever the group decides.”
“I don’t care. It doesn’t matter to me.”
“Yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes. . . NO!”
Protecting one’s own rights at the expense of others’
rights – no exceptions.
The goal of the aggressor is to win at all costs; to be
Does not consider actions a risk because this person
thinks they will always get their way. It is risky in terms
Eye contact is angry and intimidating; lots of energy;
loud and belittling; never defers to others, or at least
does not admit to; manipulative and controlling. Often
uses violence or verbal abuse.
“I don’t know why you can’t see that this is the
right way to do it.”
“It’s going to be my way or not at all.”
“You’re just stupid if you think that will work.”
“ “Who cares what you feel. We’re talking about
making things work here.”
Protecting your own rights without violating the
rights of others.
The goal of the assertive person is to communicate
with respect and to understand each other; to find
a solution to the problem.
Takes a risk with others in the short run, but in the
long run relationships are much stronger.
Eye contact maintained; listens and validates
others; confident and strong, yet also flexible;
objective and unemotional; presents wishes clearly
“So what you’re saying is. . . .”
“I can see that this is important to you,
and it is also important to me. Perhaps
we can talk more respectfully and try to
solve the problem.”
“I think. . . I feel. . . I believe that. . . .”
“I would appreciate it if you. . .”
Let me understand your thoughts on
All styles have their proper place and use.
Assertive communication is the healthiest.
◦ Boundaries of all parties are respected.
◦ Easier to problem-solve; fewer emotional outbursts.
◦ It requires skills and a philosophy change, as well
as lots of practice and hard work.
◦ When both parties do it, no one is hurt in any way
and all parties win on some level.
Nonverbal Communication in
The study of non-verbal communication
examines how messages are communicated
through physical behavior, vocal cues and
The total impact of a message breaks down
• 7 percent verbal (words)
• 38 percent vocal (volume, pitch, rhythm, etc)
• 55 percent body movements
(mostly facial expressions)
Facial expressions and movement
Clothing, dress, appearance
• Effective communication is the
combined harmony of verbal and
• Nonverbal communication consists of
body movement, facial expressions and
Major areas of nonverbal behaviors
• Eye contact
• Facial expressions
• Posture and body orientation
• Para linguistics
• You have 80 muscles in the face that
can create more than 7,000 facial
•The facial muscles produce the varying
facial expressions that convey information
about emotion, mood, and ideas.
•Emotional expressions are one primary
result of activity by the facial muscles.
There are six categories of facial
“Whoever is happy will make others happy too.”
“Sadness dulls the heart more than the
“Anger is one letter short of danger”
A disgusting expression
on the face is considered
negative and should be
avoided in formal gatherings.
The eye-brows and the eyes
are most affected in an expression of
There is nothing to fear, but fear itself.
•Recognizing attitudes conveyed through Body Language
•Right postures to adopt at the Work Place and postures to avoid
•Pick up non-verbal signals from a customers body language
•Facial expressions can enhance or detract verbal communication
•Setting standards of Body Language to drive Customer Delight at
the Public Office
• Gestures communicate as effectively as
words, sometimes even better.
• Gestures support the verbal
• They sometimes detract from what you
There are some negative gestures which
should be avoided:
• Pointing at people- It is perceived as
• Fiddling with your items-It gives the
impression that you are nervous.
• Dragging the feet-It implies lethargy.
• Head Down- It suggests timidity.
• Drooping shoulders- It implies
weariness and lethargy.
• Weak handshake-It implies meek and
• Shifty eyes- It suggests nervousness.
• Arms crossed on the chest- It is a
• Hands in pockets- Shows disrespect,
and that you have something to hide.
• Covering your mouth- It suggests you
• Shaking feet or legs- It shows
indifference and disinterest.
• Body posture can be open or closed.
• Interested people pay attention and
• Leaning backwards demonstrates
aloofness or rejection.
• A head held straight up signals a
• A head down is negative and
• A head tilted to the side indicates
Some negative postures should be
Rigid Body Posture-Anxious/ Uptight
• Hunched Shoulders –Lacks interest/
• Crossed Arms-Protecting the body/
What impression do the following people give
What impression do the following people give you?
Proximity is the distance people maintain
between themselves while talking.
• Intimate Zone- No more than18 inches
apart (mother and baby)
• Personal Distance-18 inches to 4 feet.
(Casual and personal conversations).
• Social Distance-4-12 feet (impersonal,
business, social gatherings)
• Public Distance-More than 12
feet( Public speaking)
• Space/Distance as an indicator of
intimacy-The more we get to know
each other the more we are permitted
into each other's personal space
• Space/Distance as an indicator of
status- Executives, presidents of
colleges, government officials have
large offices with big space...
secretaries have small space
• Para linguistics are what accompany
your words to make up for its true
• Paralanguage refers to the vocal aspect
Components of Para linguistics are:
• Rate of speed- When a speaker speaks too
fast, he is seen as more competent.
• Pitch-Pitch should be changed in
accordance with the context of spoken
• Volume- It refers to loudly we speak.
Loud people are perceived as
aggressive or over-bearing. Soft-spoken
voices are perceived as timid or polite.
• Fillers- Words like “umhh” “ah””aaa”
are used to gather thoughts.
Nature has intended us to LISTEN twice
as much as we speak!
• Decide to be a better listener .
• Remember - hearing is only physical , listening is
There are four basic components
to effective listening
listening with empathy
listening with openness
listening with awareness
Listening with Empathy
Sometimes we do not listen to others because
we are not interested in what the other person is saying
we do not understand what the other person is saying
we do not agree with the other person
To listen with empathy, try to identify what needs the other
person is trying to meet
Ask yourself these questions:
What is he asking for?
What need is this person’s emotion(s) coming
What danger is the person experiencing?
Listening with Empathy
Sometimes we do not listen because
we do not want to hear what is being said
we feel threatened by the content
we fear being wrong
we cannot believe that an unlikable person has
something to say that is worth considering
Listening with Empathy
Listening with Openness
To listen with openness, imagine you are a
detective trying to get all the facts. You are
trying to find the truth.
View the information from the perspective of the other
Consider the other person’s background, culture,
There are two components to listening with awareness:
being aware of conflicts between what is being said
and your own knowledge base
being aware of conflicts between the content of the
message and the body language of the speaker
(tone, voice inflections, stance, etc.)
Recognizing that conflicts can be a tool for making the
verbalized message more accurate.
Listening with Awareness
Active listening means to be verbally involved with the
Active listening helps us to keep our minds focused on
The three elements of active listening are
Hearing what you want to hear called selective listening
Thinking of what you are going to say next
Distractions such as co-workers, noise, side conversations
Thinking about the previous customer call
Worrying about the next customer call or work in general
Getting involved emotionally (instead of logically)
Holding preconceived ideas about the caller’s inquiry
Thinking about personal issues
Making assumptions rather than asking questions
Many definitions, but several common
◦ Parties must perceive conflict
◦ Opposition or incompatibility
◦ Some form of interaction
Our definition: A process that begins when
one party perceives that another party has
negatively affected, or is about to negatively
affect, something that the first party cares
about. The process usually involves one
party or group working for its own interests
and in opposition to the interests of the
other group or individual.
Restless when inactive
Seeks Promotion Punctual
Thrives on deadlines
Maybe jobs at once
Enjoys leisure time
Does not anger easily
Does job well but
◦ Stiff and straight
◦ Points, bangs tables to emphasize points
◦ Folds arms across body
◦ “I want you to…”
◦ “You must…”
◦ “Do what I tell you!”
◦ “You’re stupid!”
Aggressive people are basically
insecure….. Try to avoid them.
◦ Avoids eye contact
◦ Stooped posture
◦ Speaks quietly
◦ “I’m sorry”
◦ “It’s all my fault”
◦ “Oh dear”
have a great sense
◦ Stands straight
◦ Appears composed
◦ Maintains eye contact
◦ “How shall we do this?”
◦ “I think… What do you think?”
◦ “I would like…”
Within an individual
Between two individuals
Within a team of individuals
Between two or more teams within an
Conflict of aims- different goals
Conflict of ideas- different interpretations
Conflict of attitudes - different opinions
Conflict of behavior- different behaviors are
Positions are stated and hardened
Actions, putting into action their chosen plan
Assess positive and negative personality
traits of people involved
Determine personality type
Assess if people are introvert or extroverts...
Review past conflicts
Assess communication skills of those
Read body language of participants
Try to reduce conflict
◦ Realize that communication is colored by personal
experience, beliefs, fear, prejudices
◦ Try to be neutral
◦ Plan the timing and place of the conversation
◦ Realize that outside stress may add to
◦ Eliminate/reduce external interruptions
Manage the language used
◦ Neutral vs. loaded words
◦ Reduce technical language
◦ Allow for cultural differences in language
◦ Words may have different meanings for different
people…ask them to elaborate
Similarity of Goals
At the completion of this module, participants will be
Identify ways to establish and to commit to
Recognize problem behaviors or non-productive
behaviors and actions of difficult people.
Examine coping strategies for working with non-
Attitude- the overall way you relate to the outside
world or present yourself to others.
Paradigm or mental model- the way you think and
consequently act about something.
Personal Check-In: Reflections from the Past
Briefly describe the situation.
What action by another did you view as difficult
What did you do?
What could you have done which might have
produced better results?
Your Attitude: It’s Up to You!
Emphasize the positive.
Look for the silver linings.
Accept reality and move ahead!
Seek the lesson, learning, or legacy.
Recognize the long view.
Focus on possibilities, not problems.
Maintain a willingness to change.
Remember, you always have a choice of ways to
Your Attitude: It’s Up to You!
Offer an enthusiastic greeting.
Be more positive with those you see every day.
Smile when you talk on the telephone (a smile can
Laugh so others will laugh, too.
Share uplifting personal stories.
Set a positive example.
Clarify Your Purpose and Your Goals
Take a few minutes to think about your whole life,
the personal and professional life you enjoy.
1. Write down what is most important to you.
2. What do you want to be or do in your life?
3. What roles are most significant for you?
4. What is one goal you have for each role you listed
in question 3?
Non-Productive What you need to do
Behavior (Management Goal)
Arguing Help to consider other ideas.
Withdrawing Persuade to contribute/be involved.
Aggression Persuade to contribute/be involved.
Complaining Shift to problem solving.
Zapping Focus on the possibilities
Attention-Seeking Shift focus to task at hand.
Arrogance Open mind to group task or to new
Reality Practice: Responses to Non-Productive Behaviors
Your Best Response
to you with anger
and hostility about
work schedule after
a new lunch period
was added to the
Refocus on group task and
purpose. State, “Our job is
to feed students. I want
every student to have the
opportunity to purchase a
meal. The new schedule is
one way we can serve all the
Checking Out: Analysis and Action
Write the initials of a person whose behaviors you
currently view as difficult.
What action or behavior seems “difficult” to you?
What attitude or action of yours is contributing negatively
to the situation?
What could you change about you?
What strategies could you use to make the situation more
agreeable to you and the other person?
Check out your analysis with another participant. Share
with the intent to identify the best options available to