Effective communication


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Effective communication

  1. 1. ‫الرحيم‬ ‫الرحمن‬ ‫هللا‬ ‫بسم‬ Course Director Abdulkhaliq Ali Khalil Pg in HRM & Project Planning
  2. 2.  Effective Communication  The Communication Process  Nonverbal Communication  Representational Systems
  3. 3. Communication is a system of transmitting messages using multiple components. It is generally used to convey thoughts, feelings and/or ideas. It is the process of exchanging information by the use of words, letters, symbols, or nonverbal behavior.
  4. 4. Effective communication lead to: ◦ Good human relations ◦ Better cooperation and coordination between management and workforce ◦ Improved productivity and efficiency ◦ Improved morale ◦ lower staff turnover and absenteeism
  5. 5. Effective Communication Improved stakeholder response Stronger decision making Steadier work flow Clearer promotional materials Enhanced professional image Quicker problem solving Stronger business relationships Increased productivity
  6. 6. Non - VerbalVerbal
  7. 7. Steps in the Communication Process  Sender  Message  Channel  Receiver  Feedback
  8. 8. It matters not so much what you say as it does how you say it.  Your communication style is a SET of various behaviors and methods of relaying information that impact all facets of life.
  9. 9.  Step 1 – the sender encodes the message and selects a transmission channel.  Step 2 – the sender transmits the message through his chosen channel.  Step 3 – the receiver decodes the message and decides if feedback is needed.  Step 4 – a response or new message maybe transmitted by the receiver.
  10. 10.  Types of Communication  One-Way Vs. Two-Way  Verbal Vs. Non-Verbal  Upward – Downward – Horizontal  One-Way vs Two-Way Communication ◦ One-Way  Seeing – reading  Hearing – television, radio, etc. ◦ Two-Way  Provides interaction and feedback  Increases opportunity to understand
  11. 11.  Body Language:  Parts of Body Language:  Facial Expression: Eyes, Forehead, Mouth, Nose, eyebrows..  Hands and Limbs.  Walk, stand, pose.  Physical response.
  12. 12.  Content: Words and sentence construction used. ◦ We create words and construct sentences according to what we (want to say).  Context: The way you present words. ◦ Body Language ◦ Medium/Communication Environment ◦ Sentiments/Feelings ◦ Time/Place ◦ Presupposition/Prejudgment ◦ Noise (Physical/Mental)
  13. 13.  Things you cannot change.  Things you can change with effort.  Things you can easily change. ◦ Can you give examples of each?
  14. 14.  Upward (Information)  Downward (Instructions/Directives)  Horizontal (Coordination)
  15. 15.  Sender filters (distorts/changes) message sent.  Receiver doesn‘t listen properly (not paying attention, uninteresting, unimportant)  Perception barriers (cross cultural differences)  Amount of information  Inappropriate transmission channel  Environmental distractions (too much noise)  Lack of trust & credibility between sender & receiver
  16. 16. 18
  17. 17.  Seven Habits  MRPT  Dealing with Difficult People
  18. 18. Understanding Verbal Communication Styles
  19. 19.  Allowing our own rights to be violated by failing to express our honest feelings.  The goal of being a passive communicator is to avoid conflict no matter what.  Little risk involved – very safe.  Little eye contact, often defers to others’ opinions, usually quiet tone, may suddenly explode after being passive too long.
  20. 20.  “I don’t know.”  “Whatever you think.”  “You have more experience than I. You decide.”  “I’ll go with whatever the group decides.”  “I don’t care. It doesn’t matter to me.”  “Yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes. . . NO!”
  21. 21.  Protecting one’s own rights at the expense of others’ rights – no exceptions.  The goal of the aggressor is to win at all costs; to be right.  Does not consider actions a risk because this person thinks they will always get their way. It is risky in terms of relationships  Eye contact is angry and intimidating; lots of energy; loud and belittling; never defers to others, or at least does not admit to; manipulative and controlling. Often uses violence or verbal abuse.
  22. 22.  “I don’t know why you can’t see that this is the right way to do it.”  “It’s going to be my way or not at all.”  “You’re just stupid if you think that will work.”  “ “Who cares what you feel. We’re talking about making things work here.”
  23. 23.  Protecting your own rights without violating the rights of others.  The goal of the assertive person is to communicate with respect and to understand each other; to find a solution to the problem.  Takes a risk with others in the short run, but in the long run relationships are much stronger.  Eye contact maintained; listens and validates others; confident and strong, yet also flexible; objective and unemotional; presents wishes clearly and respectfully.
  24. 24.  “So what you’re saying is. . . .”  “I can see that this is important to you, and it is also important to me. Perhaps we can talk more respectfully and try to solve the problem.”  “I think. . . I feel. . . I believe that. . . .”  “I would appreciate it if you. . .”  Let me understand your thoughts on this…
  25. 25.  All styles have their proper place and use.  Assertive communication is the healthiest. ◦ Boundaries of all parties are respected. ◦ Easier to problem-solve; fewer emotional outbursts. ◦ It requires skills and a philosophy change, as well as lots of practice and hard work. ◦ When both parties do it, no one is hurt in any way and all parties win on some level.
  26. 26. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Nonverbal Communication in Organizations
  27. 27. The study of non-verbal communication examines how messages are communicated through physical behavior, vocal cues and spatial relationships. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
  28. 28. The total impact of a message breaks down like this: • 7 percent verbal (words) • 38 percent vocal (volume, pitch, rhythm, etc) • 55 percent body movements (mostly facial expressions) Hello!!
  29. 29.  􀁺 Environment  􀁺 Body placement  􀁺 Posture  􀁺 Gestures  􀁺 Facial expressions and movement  􀁺 Clothing, dress, appearance
  30. 30. • Effective communication is the combined harmony of verbal and nonverbal actions. • Nonverbal communication consists of body movement, facial expressions and eye movement.
  31. 31. Major areas of nonverbal behaviors are: • Eye contact • Facial expressions • Gestures
  32. 32. • Posture and body orientation • Proximity • Para linguistics
  33. 33. EYE CONTACT
  34. 34. EYE CONTACT • The eyes can give clues to a person’s thoughts. • When someone is excited, his pupils dilate to four times the normal size. • An angry or negative mood causes the pupils to contract.
  35. 35. EYE CONTACT • Good eye contact helps the audience develop the interest in the speaker. • Eye-contact helps regulate the flow of communication and reflects interest in others.
  36. 36. EYE CONTACT • Direct eye-contact conveys interest, warmth, credibility and concern. • Shifty eyes suggest dishonesty. • Downward gaze may be a sign of submissiveness or inferiority.
  38. 38. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS • You have 80 muscles in the face that can create more than 7,000 facial expressions. •The facial muscles produce the varying facial expressions that convey information about emotion, mood, and ideas. •Emotional expressions are one primary result of activity by the facial muscles.
  39. 39. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS There are six categories of facial expressions: • Happiness • Sadness • Anger • Disgust • Surprise • Fear
  40. 40. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS HAPPINESS “Whoever is happy will make others happy too.” -Mark Twain
  41. 41. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS SADNESS “Sadness dulls the heart more than the grossest sin” -Author Unknown
  42. 42. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS ANGER “Anger is one letter short of danger” Author Unknown
  43. 43. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS DISGUST A disgusting expression on the face is considered negative and should be avoided in formal gatherings.
  44. 44. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS SURPRISE The eye-brows and the eyes are most affected in an expression of surprise.
  45. 45. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS FEAR There is nothing to fear, but fear itself.
  46. 46. GESTURES •Recognizing attitudes conveyed through Body Language •Right postures to adopt at the Work Place and postures to avoid •Pick up non-verbal signals from a customers body language •Facial expressions can enhance or detract verbal communication •Setting standards of Body Language to drive Customer Delight at the Public Office
  47. 47. GESTURES • Gestures communicate as effectively as words, sometimes even better. • Gestures support the verbal communication. • They sometimes detract from what you say.
  48. 48. GESTURES There are some negative gestures which should be avoided: • Pointing at people- It is perceived as accusatory. • Fiddling with your items-It gives the impression that you are nervous. • Dragging the feet-It implies lethargy. • Head Down- It suggests timidity.
  49. 49. GESTURES • Drooping shoulders- It implies weariness and lethargy. • Weak handshake-It implies meek and ineffectual personality. • Shifty eyes- It suggests nervousness. • Arms crossed on the chest- It is a defensive gesture.
  50. 50. GESTURES • Hands in pockets- Shows disrespect, and that you have something to hide. • Covering your mouth- It suggests you are lying. • Shaking feet or legs- It shows indifference and disinterest.
  51. 51. Avoid these hand gestures
  52. 52. Use these hand gestures
  54. 54. POSTURE • Body posture can be open or closed. • Interested people pay attention and lean forward. • Leaning backwards demonstrates aloofness or rejection.
  55. 55. POSTURE • A head held straight up signals a neutral attitude. • A head down is negative and judgmental. • A head tilted to the side indicates interest.
  56. 56. POSTURE Some negative postures should be avoided: Rigid Body Posture-Anxious/ Uptight • Hunched Shoulders –Lacks interest/ Feeling inferior • Crossed Arms-Protecting the body/ Negative Thoughts
  57. 57. What impression do the following people give you?
  58. 58. What impression do the following people give you?
  59. 59. PROXIMITY Proximity is the distance people maintain between themselves while talking.
  60. 60. PROXIMITY DISTANCE ZONES • Intimate Zone- No more than18 inches apart (mother and baby) • Personal Distance-18 inches to 4 feet. (Casual and personal conversations). • Social Distance-4-12 feet (impersonal, business, social gatherings) • Public Distance-More than 12 feet( Public speaking)
  61. 61. PROXIMITY • Space/Distance as an indicator of intimacy-The more we get to know each other the more we are permitted into each other's personal space • Space/Distance as an indicator of status- Executives, presidents of colleges, government officials have large offices with big space... secretaries have small space
  62. 62. PARALINGUISTICS • Para linguistics are what accompany your words to make up for its true meaning. • Paralanguage refers to the vocal aspect of communication.
  63. 63. PARALINGUISTICS Components of Para linguistics are: • Rate of speed- When a speaker speaks too fast, he is seen as more competent. • Pitch-Pitch should be changed in accordance with the context of spoken words.
  64. 64. PARALINGUISTICS • Volume- It refers to loudly we speak. Loud people are perceived as aggressive or over-bearing. Soft-spoken voices are perceived as timid or polite. • Fillers- Words like “umhh” “ah””aaa” are used to gather thoughts.
  65. 65. Remember Its Fun to be Good !
  66. 66. Let ‘Em Hear you are Listening
  67. 67. TWO AND ONE Nature has intended us to LISTEN twice as much as we speak! Listening
  68. 68. • Decide to be a better listener . • Remember - hearing is only physical , listening is intellectual.
  69. 69. There are four basic components to effective listening listening with empathy listening with openness listening with awareness listening actively
  70. 70. Listening with Empathy Sometimes we do not listen to others because we are not interested in what the other person is saying we do not understand what the other person is saying we do not agree with the other person
  71. 71. To listen with empathy, try to identify what needs the other person is trying to meet Ask yourself these questions: What is he asking for? What need is this person’s emotion(s) coming from? What danger is the person experiencing? Listening with Empathy
  72. 72. Sometimes we do not listen because we do not want to hear what is being said we feel threatened by the content we fear being wrong we cannot believe that an unlikable person has something to say that is worth considering Listening with Empathy
  73. 73. Listening with Openness To listen with openness, imagine you are a detective trying to get all the facts. You are trying to find the truth. View the information from the perspective of the other person. Consider the other person’s background, culture, history, etc.
  74. 74. There are two components to listening with awareness: being aware of conflicts between what is being said and your own knowledge base being aware of conflicts between the content of the message and the body language of the speaker (tone, voice inflections, stance, etc.) Recognizing that conflicts can be a tool for making the verbalized message more accurate. Listening with Awareness
  75. 75. Active Listening Active listening means to be verbally involved with the communication. Active listening helps us to keep our minds focused on the communication. The three elements of active listening are paraphrasing clarifying feedback
  76. 76.  Informative Listening  Relationship Listening  Appreciative Listening  Critical Listening  Discriminative Listening
  77. 77.  Hearing what you want to hear called selective listening  Thinking of what you are going to say next  Distractions such as co-workers, noise, side conversations etc.  Thinking about the previous customer call  Worrying about the next customer call or work in general  Stress  Getting involved emotionally (instead of logically)  Holding preconceived ideas about the caller’s inquiry  Thinking about personal issues  Boredom  Making assumptions rather than asking questions
  78. 78. Remember Its Fun to be Good !
  79. 79.  Many definitions, but several common themes ◦ Parties must perceive conflict ◦ Opposition or incompatibility ◦ Some form of interaction  Our definition: A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. The process usually involves one party or group working for its own interests and in opposition to the interests of the other group or individual.
  80. 80. Type “A” Personality Vs. Type “B Personality
  81. 81.  Highly Competitive  Strong Personality  Restless when inactive  Seeks Promotion Punctual  Thrives on deadlines  Maybe jobs at once
  82. 82.  Works methodically  Rarely competitive  Enjoys leisure time  Does not anger easily  Does job well but doesn’t need recognition  Easy-going
  83. 83.  Body language ◦ Stiff and straight ◦ Points, bangs tables to emphasize points ◦ Folds arms across body  Verbal language ◦ “I want you to…” ◦ “You must…” ◦ “Do what I tell you!” ◦ “You’re stupid!” Aggressive people are basically insecure….. Try to avoid them.
  84. 84.  Body Language ◦ Avoids eye contact ◦ Stooped posture ◦ Speaks quietly ◦ Fidgets  Verbal Language ◦ “I’m sorry” ◦ “It’s all my fault” ◦ “Oh dear” Submissive people have a great sense of inferiority
  85. 85.  Body language ◦ Stands straight ◦ Appears composed ◦ Smiles ◦ Maintains eye contact  Verbal language ◦ “Let’s” ◦ “How shall we do this?” ◦ “I think… What do you think?” ◦ “I would like…”
  86. 86.  Within an individual  Between two individuals  Within a team of individuals  Between two or more teams within an organization
  87. 87.  Conflict of aims- different goals  Conflict of ideas- different interpretations  Conflict of attitudes - different opinions  Conflict of behavior- different behaviors are unacceptable
  88. 88.  Conflict arises  Positions are stated and hardened  Actions, putting into action their chosen plan  Resolution???
  89. 89.  Assess positive and negative personality traits of people involved  Determine personality type ◦ Aggressive ◦ Submissive ◦ Assertive  Assess if people are introvert or extroverts...
  90. 90.  Review past conflicts  Assess communication skills of those involved  Read body language of participants
  91. 91.  Try to reduce conflict ◦ Realize that communication is colored by personal experience, beliefs, fear, prejudices ◦ Try to be neutral ◦ Plan the timing and place of the conversation ◦ Realize that outside stress may add to confrontation ◦ Eliminate/reduce external interruptions
  92. 92.  Manage the language used ◦ Neutral vs. loaded words ◦ Reduce technical language ◦ Allow for cultural differences in language ◦ Words may have different meanings for different people…ask them to elaborate
  93. 93.  Aggressor  Passive  Absentee  Error prone  Negative attitude  Chatterbox  Do nothing
  94. 94.  Unreliable  Time waster  Resentful person
  95. 95. Assertiveness of Response Low High Similarity of Goals Low High Compete Avoid Compromise Accommodate Collaborate
  96. 96. Objectives At the completion of this module, participants will be able to:  Identify ways to establish and to commit to individual purpose.  Recognize problem behaviors or non-productive behaviors and actions of difficult people.  Examine coping strategies for working with non- productive behaviors.
  97. 97. Definitions Attitude- the overall way you relate to the outside world or present yourself to others. Paradigm or mental model- the way you think and consequently act about something.
  98. 98. Personal Check-In: Reflections from the Past  Briefly describe the situation.  What action by another did you view as difficult or non-productive?  What did you do?  What could you have done which might have produced better results?
  99. 99. Icebreaker: Types of Non-Productive Behavior 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
  100. 100. Your Attitude: It’s Up to You!  Emphasize the positive.  Look for the silver linings.  Accept reality and move ahead!  Seek the lesson, learning, or legacy.  Recognize the long view.  Focus on possibilities, not problems.  Maintain a willingness to change.  Remember, you always have a choice of ways to respond.
  101. 101. Your Attitude: It’s Up to You!  Offer an enthusiastic greeting.  Be more positive with those you see every day.  Smile when you talk on the telephone (a smile can be heard!).  Laugh so others will laugh, too.  Share uplifting personal stories.  Set a positive example.
  102. 102. Clarify Your Purpose and Your Goals Take a few minutes to think about your whole life, the personal and professional life you enjoy. 1. Write down what is most important to you. 2. What do you want to be or do in your life? 3. What roles are most significant for you? 4. What is one goal you have for each role you listed in question 3?
  103. 103. Non-Productive What you need to do Behavior (Management Goal) ----------------------------------------------------- Arguing Help to consider other ideas. Withdrawing Persuade to contribute/be involved. Aggression Persuade to contribute/be involved. Complaining Shift to problem solving. Zapping Focus on the possibilities Attention-Seeking Shift focus to task at hand. Arrogance Open mind to group task or to new information.
  104. 104. Reality Practice: Responses to Non-Productive Behaviors Action Non-Productive Behavior Your Best Response Example: Employee responds to you with anger and hostility about how you reorganized the work schedule after a new lunch period was added to the schedule. Aggression and Arrogance Refocus on group task and purpose. State, “Our job is to feed students. I want every student to have the opportunity to purchase a meal. The new schedule is one way we can serve all the students.” Example:
  105. 105. Checking Out: Analysis and Action  Write the initials of a person whose behaviors you currently view as difficult.  What action or behavior seems “difficult” to you?  What attitude or action of yours is contributing negatively to the situation?  What could you change about you?  What strategies could you use to make the situation more agreeable to you and the other person?  Check out your analysis with another participant. Share with the intent to identify the best options available to you.
  106. 106. Thank You
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