Osmium•From osme, or odor•Like Iridium, it is considered themost dense elements•It is a metal which has a pungentsmell, and is used in producingalloys of extreme hardnessHarmful Effects:•Some compounds of osmium areextremely dangerous.•They irritate the respiratory passage Uses:(throat, lungs,etc.), the skin, and the eyes. •Fountain pen nibs •Fingerprint detector •Phonograph needle
Rhodium•From Rhodon, or rose•This metal is lustrous and silvery white•It has a higher melting point and lowerdensity than platinum•It has a high reflectance and is hard anddurable•It is a very durable metal, insoluble inordinary acids and very difficult to fuseHarmful Effects: Uses:•Compounds of rhodium stain the skinvery strongly •Headlight reflectors•It is very flammable •Furnace windings•The substance can be absorbed into the •Spark plugsbody by inhalation of its aerosol
Copper•From Cuprum, Cyprus•The metal used during the “bronze age”•The only red colored metal which iswidely used in electrical products due toits high electrical conductivityHarmful Effects:•Causes Copper PoisoningAcute ingestion of excessive copper cancause Diarrhea, Epigastric pain anddiscomfort, Blood in the urine, Liverdamage, Low blood pressure, Nausea, Uses:Vomiting, Kidney failure due to severeintravascular haemolysis •Cables •Wires •Gun metals
Cadmium•From kadmia or earth•It occurs in nature with Zinc•When heated, it burns with air with abright light•Its compounds are toxic, particularly insoluble and respirable forms, being moreeasily absorbed through inhaled dust orfumesHarmful Effects:•Chronic dust or fume exposure canirreversibly damage the lungs, producingshortness of breath and emphysema. Uses:•Cadmium mainly accumulates in thekidneys and liver and can lead to serious •Rechargeable Batterieskidney failure, nephrotoxicity, renal stone •Solderformation, bone disease and persistent •Electroplatingproteinuria at high exposures.
Mercury•From Mercury, the planet, HG fromhydrargyrum, or liquid silver.•Is the only common metal which isliquid at room temperature•Mercury and the other noble metalswere the first elements to bediscovered and utilized by humansbecause they exist in nature either inthe free state or as easily decomposablecompounds.Harmful Effects:•Mercury is ubiquitous in the environment.•Spewing from volcanoes, evaporating off Uses:bodies of water, and rising as gas from theEarths crust, the poisonous, metallic •Thermometerselement floats in the air as vapor or binds to •Paintsparticles. •Pesticides•Eventually it falls to the Earth to settle insediment, oceans, and lakes, or reenters theatmosphere by evaporation.
Lead•Symbol Pb is from plumbum, theorigin of plumber•A prehistoric metal which is durablebut toxic•It has been the backbone ofplumbing industries•Lead is a particularly dangerouschemical, as it can accumulate inindividual organisms, but also inentire food chainsHarmful Effects:•Causes lead poisoning•Potential effects in humans are abdominalcramps, learning disabilities, attention Uses:deficit disorder, constipation, anemia,tiredness, nerve damage, vomiting, •Batteriesconvulsions, anorexia, and brain damage. •Cable Covers•Wildlife and waterfowl are also frequently •Drain Pipespoisoned through the ingestion of lead andlead shot.
Arsenic•From Arsenikos or male•It appears in three allotropic forms:yellow, black and grey; the stable form isa silver-gray, brittle crystalline solid•When heated, it rapidly oxidizes toarsenic trioxide, which has a garlic odor•A semi-metallic element noted or beingpoisonous although some of itscompounds are medicinalHarmful Effects:•Exposure to inorganic arsenic can causevarious health effects, such as irritation of thestomach and intestines, decreased production Uses:of red and white blood cells, skin changes andlung irritation. •Poisons•A very high exposure to inorganic arsenic can •Insecticidescause infertility and miscarriages to women, •Doping Agentsand it can cause skin disturbances, declinedresistance to infections, heart disruptions andbrain damage with both men and women.
Fluorine•From fluo, or flow.•It is a poisonous pale yellow element•Nearly all compounds aredecomposed by fluorine formingfluorides that are among the moststable of all chemical compounds•It is the most reactive element knownHarmful Effects:•Excessive exposure to sulfurhexafluoride may affect the brain•The main impact of sulfur Uses:hexafluoride on the environment is agreenhouse gas, influencing climate •Toothpaste Additivechange •Refrigerant •High-temperature Plastics
Bromine•From bromos, stench•It has similar chemical properties toChlorine•At room temperature, bromine isliquid, giving off poisonous, suffocating,reddish vapor composed of diatomicmolecules•It is used in industry to makeorganobromo compounds•A major one was dibromoethane anagent for leaded gasoline, before theywere largely phased out due toenvironmental considerations Uses:Harmful Effects: •Photographic Film•Bromine is poisonous •Gasoline Antiknock•Causes skin burns. •Flame-proofing Agents
Tin•Sn from stannum•An ancient metal used in canning dueto its resistance to rust and othercorrosion•Tins as single atoms or molecules arenot very toxic to any kind of organism,the toxic form is the organic formHarmful Effects:•Some acute effects of tin are headaches,stomachaches and urination problem•Organic tin components can maintain in Uses:the environment for long periods of time•They are known to cause a great deal of •Cansharm to aquatic ecosystems, as they are very •Panel Lightingtoxic to fungi, algae and phytoplankton •Super Conductive Magnets•Organic tins are known to disturb growth,reproduction, enzymatic systems andfeeding patterns of aquatic organisms