Advertising Fundamentals


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De La Salle University - Master of Marketing Communication Graduate Students presented a comprehensive report regarding the fundamentals of advertising.

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  • Run during the Super Bowl XVII on January 22, 1984 and was never repeated on commercial TV. This was not because it was ineffective; to the contrary, its incredible word-of-mouth-producing impact negated the need for repeat showings.
    -considered by some to be the greatest TV commercial ever made.
    -grabbed attention
    -broke through the clutter of the many commercials during the superbowl
    -discussed by millions of people
    -and ultimately it played an instrumental role in selling truckloads of Mac computers.
    -Created a unique image for the Mac: ADROIT,
  • Hedkandi Salon: Love what you see
    Advertising Agency: WAX, Calgary, AB CanadaCreative Director: Joe HospodarecArt Director: Brad ConnellCopywriter: Stephanie BialikPhotographer: Gerard YunkerStylist: Leah Van LoonDigital Retouching: Sheldon McLeanPublished: July 2010
  • In order to demonstrate that Lay’s Kettle Cooked Chips are made with traditional, artisan cooking methods, the brand hired a team of skilled artisans to hand-carve a billboard made of wood. The billboard was located in San Francisco, CA and took approximately ten days to complete. Watch the video too.
    Advertising Agency: Juniper Park, USAPartners, Executive Creative Directors: Terry Drummond, Alan Madill, Barry QuinnCreative Director / Art Director: Hylton MannCreative Director / Copywriter: Andy LinardatosPrint Producer: Mark ProleProps: Prop ArtTime lapse: Chad RichardIllustrator: Gary Bullock
  • Vegetarian restaurant chain
    CA, USA
  • Advertising Agency: DDB DM9JaymeSyfu, Manila, PhilippinesExecutive Creative Directors: Merlee Jayme, Eugene DemataCreative: Allan MontayreAssoc Creative Director / Art Director: Gogie SinsonCopywriter: Biba CabuquitPhotographer: Mark Nicdao
  • To promote their exhibition stand at the Franfurt Book Fair, Eichborn the publisher with the fly prepared 200 flies with an ultra light banner. The banner was attached with natural wax. After a short time the banner dropped off by itself. And the flies were not harmed.
    Agency: Jung von Matt/Neckar, GermanyCreative Directors: Jacques Pense, Michael OhanianArt Directors: Benjamin Beck, Thomas LupoCopywriters: Norman Scholl, Lennart FrankAccount Managers: Daniel Adolph, Christine SeeligPublished: 2009
  • Advertising Agency: TBWA SwitzerlandCreative Directors: Michael Kathe, Martin FriedlinCopywriter: Michael KatheArt Director: Dominique MagnussonArt Buying: Christina HengstmannAccount Mng.: Guido Zehnder
  • -created buzz
    -generates curiosity
  • Advertising School: Chosun University, Gwangju, South KoreaCreative Director: Ho-kyun JungArt Directors / Photographers: So-ra Jung, Ho-kyun JungCopywriter: Jae-shik SeoReleased: January 2009
  • Stories - plot, character setting
    Ex: Pond’s 7Days
  • Honda Accord
    -This is the world's costliest TV commercial.-Everything is real with no graphics used costing 6.2 million US Dollars and 606 takes and retakes
    -simplicity, unexpectedness, concreteness
  • -although convincing message is a necessary condition for an effective ad, it is not sufficient.
    A successful ad campaign is founded on a convincing value proposition and effective execution (creative, sticky).
    Value proposition – essence of a message and the reward to the customer for investing his/her time attending to an ad.
    Marketing mistakes – result from brand management’s failure to identify a meaningful value proposition.
    Agency mistakes – ad agency’s inability to design an effective execution, even though client presented it w/ a value proposition.
  • 1. Background
    -purpose of the campaign
    -includes analyses of the competitive environment and cultural dynamics related to the brand category
    2. Target Audience
    -Precise description of the exemplary target market
    -“You can’t hit a target unless you know where to aim!” (Harvey Penick)
    3. Thoughts and Feelings
    A prior research on what the target audience currently think and feel about the brand
    Research and account planning are needed as the foundation for the advertising job
    -creative staff often complain about how marketing research reports and other directives excessively constrain their opportunities for full creative expression
    -never forget the advertising is a business, with an obligation to SELL PRODUCTS.
  • 4. Objective and Measures
    -what the clients want to accomplish
    -to make the audience feel deserving of a better lifestyle
    -The consumers feel the product is overpriced, how can you change the perception and convince them that the brand is of good value bec of its superior quality
    5. Behavioral Outcome
    -beyond thoughts and feelings, it focuses on the specific action that the advertising campaign is designed to motivate in the target audience
    Ex: request further info, to go online and participate in a contest, to contact a sale person, or go to a retails outlet w/in the week to take advantage of a limited-time sales opportunity
    6. Positioning
    -brand management team must clearly articulate the brand’s meaning, or what it stands for in the audience’s collective mind
    -slogan , or request ideas from ad agency for alternative slogans
  • 7. Message and medium
    -identifies the most differentiating and motivating message about the brand
    -should focus on product benefits rather than product features
    -supports the proposition with evidence about product features that back up the claimed benefits
    -copywriters can be creative but are required to work within the context
    -it is the client’s job in concert w/ the ad agency to identify what medium or media is/are best for reaching the target audience
    -creatives are told exactly what they are about to produce
    -gives copywriters an understanding of how their creative work must fit into an overall marcom strategy that includes elements other than advertising
    -the new brand will be launched with a series of major events
    -aggressive buzz building campaign
    -online promotions to encourage consumer trial
    9. Nitty Gritty details
  • 1.UPS
    -Identifies an important difference that makes a brand unique and then developing an advertising claim that competitors either cannot make or have chosen not to make
    -EX: Sea Oil 4T Motor Oil – has additives for extended use of up to 2x longer.
  • 2. Brand image
    -involves psychosocial rather than physical differentiation
  • 3. Resonance Creative Style
    -Resonance – analogous to the physical notion of noise resounding off an object
    -EX: Dove: campaign for real beauty
  • 3. Emotional Creative Style
    -much contemporary advertising aims to reach the consumer at a visceral level through the use of emotional strategy
  • I had a motorcycle accident.
    I was unconscious.
    I stopped breathing.
    But I was going to be fine.
    All I needed was someone who knew first aid.
    To get my heart working. To give me a chance to live.
    I waited. I waited. And I waited.
  • I was at the pool. I slipped. I banged my head.
    Blacked out.
    Luckily, Dad was there. I’d be OK.
    Dad would know first aid.
    He’d know to lie me on my side.
    Keep me breathing.
    But Dad didn’t know.
  • I had chest pains
    Probably just heartburn.
    I wasn’t that worried, nobody was.
    But then nobody learnt first aid, nobody recognized the signs.
    That I was having a heart attack.
    And by the time they did, by the time they called an ambulance. It was too late.
  • 13th Street: Stationery of Horror
    (TV channel)
    Advertising Agency: Jung von Matt AG, GermanyCreative Directors: Jacques Pense, Michael OhanianArt Directors: Matthias Kracker, Stefan RösingerCopywriters: Lennart FrankGraphic Artist: Karla KurzAccount Managers: Kerstin Stutzmann, Ruben OckenfelsPost Production: RecomProduction: Frank SchweizerPublished: 2008
  • 3. Generic Creative Style
    -Resonance – analogous to the physical notion of noise resounding off an object
    Campbell - “Soup is good”; “ Never underestimate the power of soup”
    Skyflakes – Mag-break ka muna
  • Campbell - “Soup is good”; “ Never underestimate the power of soup”
  • 6. Preemptive Style
    -a clever strategy when a meaningful superiority claim is made bec is effectively precludes competitors from saying the same thing.
    -stamp the word on the brand to preempt competitor from using the term
    -Visine: “Gets the red out”
    -Nissan’s Maxima: “Four door sports car” – more upscale and high-performance image; competed w/ Ford Taurus and Toyota Cressida; sales inc 43% even w/ price increase
  • Laddering
    -leads to the construction of a hierarchy , or ladder, of relations between a brand’s attributes and consequences (the means) and consumer values (the end).
  • Ex:
    A mother who buys in a DIY handy shop.
    Why? Can’t afford to hire a handy man.
    How does that help? Save money
    What do you get? Satisfaction. Prove to parents that she can maintain her own home and raise the kids well.
  • -boost a corporation’s equity
  • Corporate Image Advertising
    -concerned with creating favorable images among audiences (stakeholders), not just consumers, but also stockholders, employees, suppliers, and potential investors.
    -asks no specific action from target audience other than a favorable attitude towards the corporation
  • 2. Corporate Issue/Advocacy Adv
    -supports the company’s position while expressly or implicitly challenging the opponent’s position and denying the accuracy of their facts
    Ex: major petroleum co. says that it is not cost efficient to use corn based ethanol.
  • Advertising Fundamentals

    1. 1. Advertising Reporters: Monique De Jesus, Abigail Fidel, Raphael Sta. Cruz, Nicco Joselito Tan
    2. 2.  What is Advertising Advertising is defined as any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor.
    3. 3.  Benefits of Advertising •Still most cost-effective way to reach large audiences •Valuable tool for building company or brand equity as it is a powerful way to provide consumers with information as well as to influence their perceptions •Stimulate demand •It helps products to become the top of mind brand – awareness campaigns •3 R’s of Advertising: •Retaining Loyal Customers •Reducing Lost Customers •Recruiting New Customers
    4. 4.  AdvertisingTheories
    5. 5. Practice-based AdvertisingTheory  “Reason Why” and “USP” Advertising  John E. Kennedy - advertising was "salesmanship in print"  Developed the "reason why" approach in copywriting
    6. 6. Practice-based AdvertisingTheory  “Reason Why” and “USP” Advertising  Led to Rosser Reeves' idea of Unique Selling Proposition (USP)  USP is the single thing that gives the consumer a reason to buy, and the proposition is based on this reason to buy.
    7. 7. Practice-based AdvertisingTheory  “Reason Why” and “USP” Advertising  Led to Rosser Reeves' idea of Unique Selling Proposition (USP)  USP is the single thing that gives the consumer a reason to buy, and the proposition is based on this reason to buy.
    8. 8. Information ProcessingTheory in Advertising  Encompasses not only a theory of communication but also a theory of human cognition  There are many variations, but all share key assumptions about human communication, persuasion and advertising
    9. 9. Information ProcessingTheory in Advertising  Shannon-Weaver Communication Model  Humans process data in much the same way as computers or other machines
    10. 10. Information ProcessingTheory in Advertising  Transmission model of mass communication
    11. 11. Information ProcessingTheory in Advertising  A-I-D-A and Hierarchy of Effects theories
    12. 12. Information ProcessingTheory in Advertising  A-I-D-A and Hierarchy of Effects theories
    13. 13. Information ProcessingTheory in Advertising  Criticisms of Information Processing Theory  Oversimplify the ways in which consumers or viewers engage with advertising  Reliance on explicit, verbalized information and the undivided attention of the viewer
    14. 14. Information ProcessingTheory in Advertising  Criticisms of Information Processing Theory  Models machine and not human communication (The Man- Machine Communication Metaphor)  Occurs mainly in one direction towards a passive consumer  No theoretical scope for consumers to interpret the ad in varied ways
    15. 15. Strong and WeakTheories of Advertising Effect  Strong  Assumes that the advertisement's main purpose is to persuade a potential customer/prospect to buy.  Often implies direct, causal relationship between advertising and sales
    16. 16. Strong and WeakTheories of Advertising Effect  Weak  Advertising cause and sales effect are far less directly linked  Build long-term brand equity and create competitive presence  Reassure current customers that the brand remains relevant instead of persuading non-buyers to purchase in the short term
    17. 17.  AdvertisingTechniques
    18. 18. Avant-Garde  Suggesting that the product puts the user ahead of the times.  Being “in” and being the first.
    19. 19. Facts and Figures  Use of statistics and objective factual information to prove superiority of the product.
    20. 20. WeaselWords  Suggests positive meaning without making any guarantee.
    21. 21. Magic Ingredients  A somehow miraculous ingredient makes the product exceptionally effective.
    22. 22. Patriotism  Highlights the product as a local manufacture.  Purchase of product shows love of country.
    23. 23. Diversion  Seems to tackle an issue or a problem, but throws in an emotional distraction.
    24. 24. Transfer  Use of words and ideas with positive connotations to suggest that the positive qualities should be associated with the product and the user.
    25. 25. Plain Folks  Highlights product as practical and of good value for ordinary people.
    26. 26. Snob Appeal  Use of product shows association with an elite group.  Makes the customer feel luxurious and glamorous.
    27. 27. Bribery  Offers desirable extras as freebies.
    28. 28. Wit and Humor  Clever use of words and visuals that attract the audience.
    29. 29. Simple Solutions  Promotes the product as a solution to many problems.
    30. 30. Card Stacking  “Stacking cards” in favor of the product.  Stress positive qualities, ignore negatives.
    31. 31. Glittering Generalities  Uses appealing words and images.  Gives a message that the product will change your life.
    32. 32. Bandwagon  Exploits the desire of people to join the crowd/the winning side.  Popular choice.
    33. 33. Side-by-side comparison  Comparing the product to competition.  Putting new developments in a product alongside itself (old version).
    34. 34. Human-Interest  Places product or service at the center of drama, personal confession.  Revolves around characters – can be fictional.
    35. 35. Hidden Fears  Presenting the product as something that can solve problems or get rid of future fears/dangers.  Use of insignificant problems can be more effective.
    36. 36. Advertising Agency Operations
    38. 38. What is EFFECTIVE ADVERTISING?  It extends from sound marketing strategy.  It takes the consumer’s view.  It finds a unique way to breakthrough the clutter.  It never promises more than it can deliver.  It prevents the idea from overwhelming the strategy.
    39. 39. Apple 1984TVC
    40. 40. Wallas’ 4 Steps of Creative Process 1. Preparation  Gathering background information needed to solve the problem through research study. 2. Incubation  Putting the problems out of your conscious mind and turning the information over to the subconscious to do the work. 4. Illumination  Seeing the light or solution. 5. Reality or verification  Refining and polishing the idea and seeing if it is an appropriate solution.
    41. 41. CConnectedness AAppropriateness NNovelty
    42. 42. 1. Connectedness  Reflects empathy with the target audience’s needs and wants  Reflects and understanding of target audience members’ motivations  Relevant to the brand’s target audience
    43. 43. 2. Appropriateness  contains information that is pertinent to the advertised brand relative to other brands in the product category  message is on target for delivering the brand’s positioning strategy  coherent
    44. 44. 3. Novelty  unique, fresh, unexpected  draws consumers’ attention so that they engage in an more effortful information processing  but not all “weird” ads are creative
    45. 45. Eichborn: Flyvertising
    46. 46. 1. Simplicity  Simple and profound  Represents the brand’s core idea or key positioning statement  Appropriate
    47. 47. 2. Unexpectedness  Generate interest and curiosity  Similar to the Novelty element of CAN
    48. 48. Laax Snowboard School: Salto for Beginners
    49. 49. 3. Concreteness  Concrete images as opposed to abstract presentations  Concretizing – straightforward idea that is easier for people to remember and retrieve tangible rather than abstract information  Perceptible and vivid
    50. 50. 4. Credibility  Believable  Should be accepted as a fact
    51. 51. 5. Emotionality  Generate emotions and tap into feelings  Appeals to emotions that are relevant to the product category in which the advertised brand competes
    52. 52. Virgin Media: Fantastic Journey
    53. 53. 6. Storytelling  Advertisers occasionally tell stories to capture the key elements of their brands  Stories embody most of the stickiness elements: simple and profound, generally concrete, include unexpected and emotional elements, and often come across as highly credible. Pond’sPond’s 7 Days to Love7 Days to Love
    54. 54. Honda “Cog”
    55. 55. What is a CREATIVE BRIEF?  A framework which is a document designed to channel the copy writers’ and other creatives’ efforts toward a solution that will serve the interests of the client.  It is an informal pact between client and agency that represents agreement on what an advertising campaign is intended to accomplish.
    56. 56. 1. Background What is the background to this job? 1. Target Audience Whom do we need to reach with the ad campaign? 3. Thoughts and Feelings What do members of the target audience currently think and feel about the brand?
    57. 57. 4. Objectives and Measures What do we want the target audience to think or feel about the brand, and what measurable effects is the advertising to accomplish? 5. Behavioral Outcome What do we want the target audience to do? 6. Positioning What is the brand positioning?
    58. 58. 7. Message and Medium What general message is to be created, and what medium is most appropriate for reaching the target audience? 8. Strategy What is the strategy? 9. “Nitty-Gritty Details” When and how much?
    59. 59. 1. Unique Selling Proposition (UPS) Creative Style  Identifies an important difference that makes a brand unique  Best suited for brands have a relatively lasting competitive advantage  Optimum creative technique
    60. 60. “the only razor that senses and adjusts to the individual needs of your face” “the only wipe that is alcohol and fragrance free”
    61. 61. 2. Brand Image Creative Style -attempts to develop an image or identity for a brand by:  associating brand with symbols  creating a distinct identity or personality for the brand
    62. 62. 3. Resonance Creative Style -resonates (patterns) the audiences life’s experiences -extends from psychographic research and structures an advertising campaign to pattern the prevailing lifestyle orientation of the intended market segment
    63. 63. 4. Emotional Creative Style -products are often bought on the basis of emotional factors -advertising runs the gamut of positive and negative emotions (romance, nostalgia, compassion, excitement, joy, fear, guilt, disgust, regret)
    64. 64. 5. Generic Creative Style -makes no attempt to differentiate its brand from competitive offerings or to claim superiority -appropriate for a brand that dominates a product category
    65. 65. 5. Preemptive Creative Style -makes a generic-type claim but does so with an assertion of superiority -used for product or service categories where there a few, if any, functional differences among competitive brands
    66. 66. Gets The Red Out ® Gets The Red Out ®
    67. 67. Uncertified lifeguards. Not as scary as uncertified dermatologists. At Premier Dermatology, board certified dermatologists provide your skin care.
    68. 68. •Attributes – features or aspects of advertised brands •Consequences – what consumers hope to receive (benefits) or avoid (detriments) when using brands •Values – represent those enduring beliefs people hold regarding what is important in life [Means] {End} [Attributes Consequences] {Values}
    69. 69. 10 basic values people in a wide variety of culturally diverse countries share:
    70. 70. MECCAS Model
    71. 71. The Method of Laddering -identifies linkages between attributes, consequences, and values -involves in-depth, one-on-one interviews that typically last 30 minutes to more than an hour, which attempts to get at the root or deep reasons why individual consumers buy certain products and brands
    72. 72. The Method of Laddering Probing is accomplished with questions such as the following: • Why is that particular attribute important to you? • How does that help you out? • What do you get from that? • Why do you want that? • What happens to you as a result of that?
    73. 73. This type of advertising focuses not on specific brands but on a corporation’s overall image or on economic or social issues relevant to the corporation’s interests. Forms of Corporate Advertising: 1. Corporate Image Advertising 2. Corporate Issue/Advocacy Advertising
    74. 74. 1. Corporate Image Advertising -attempts to increase a firm’s name recognition, establish goodwill for the company and its products, or identify itself with some meaningful and socially acceptable activities
    75. 75. 2. Corporate Issue Advertising -a company takes a position on a controversial social issue of public importance with the intention of swaying public opinion - supports the company’s position while expressly or implicitly challenging the opponent’s position and denying the accuracy of their facts
    76. 76. “ reativity is more than just being different. Anybody can play weird, that’s easy. What’s hard is to be as simple as Bach. Making the simple complicated is commonplace , making the complicated simple, awesomely simple, that’s creativity.” -Charlie Mingus
    77. 77. Advertising MEDIA Planning
    78. 78. Media Planning The design of strategy that shows how investments in advertising time and space will contribute to the achievement of marketing objectives.
    79. 79.  Media : The general communication method that carry advertising messages  Vehicles: The specific broadcast programs or print choices in which advertisements are placed.
    80. 80.  Buyographics  Geographics  Demographics  Lifestyle/ psychographics
    81. 81.  What proportion of a target audience do we want to reach?  With what frequency do we need to expose the audience to our message in a particular period?  How much total advertising is necessary to accomplish the first two objectives?  How should we allocate the budget over time?  How close to the time of purchase should the target audience be exposed to our advertising message?  What is the most economically justifiable way to accomplish the other objectives?
    82. 82. REACH What proportion of a target audience do we want to reach? Reach represents the number of target customers who see or hear the advertiser’s message one or more times during the time period.
    83. 83. • Use multiple media •Diversify vehicles within each medium •Vary the dayparts in the case of TV and radio advertising
    84. 84. FREQUENCY With what frequency do we need to expose the audience to our message in a particular period? The number of times, on average, within a four week period that members of the target audience are exposed to the advertisers message.
    85. 85. Frequency Distribution WEEK A B C D E F G H I J TOTAL EXPOSURES 1 X X X X X 5 2 X X X X X 5 3 X X X X X 5 4 X X X X X 5 TOTAL EXPOSURE 2 4 0 3 2 1 3 1 2 2 Target Audience Member
    86. 86. Frequency Distribution (f) Percentage f Percentage f+ Audience Members 0 10 100 C 1 20 90 F,H 2 40 70 A,E,I,J 3 20 30 D,G 4 10 10 B Summary Statistics Reach (1+ exposure) =90 Frequency=2.2 GRPS = 200
    87. 87.  Measure of advertising support for a brand, expressed in terms of print impressions, or number of radio or television spots employed in its promotion.  Three weight metrics: gross ratings, target ratings and effective ratings WEIGHT
    88. 88. Ratings in advertising refers to the percentage of an audience that has the opportunity to see (OTS) an advertisement placed in a specific vehicle.
    89. 89. Gross Rating Points (GRP) reflect the weight that a particular advertising schedule has delivered. It indicates the total coverage or duplicated audience exposed to a particular advertising schedule
    90. 90.  A Target Rating Point (TRP) is a measure of the purchased vehicle rating points representing an estimate of the component of the target audience within the gross audience
    91. 91. Effective Reach Media Plan A Reach (1+ exposure) =85 Frequency=2 GRPS = 170 Media Plan B Reach (1+ exposure) =52 Frequency=3.2 GRPS = 166
    92. 92. The three exposure hypothesis addresses the minimum number of exposures needed for advertising to be effective
    93. 93. Exposure 1 What is it? Exposure 2 What of it? Exposure 3 Reminder
    94. 94. Buying Media Continuity, Pulsing and Fighting •Continuity involves the matter of how advertising is allocated during the course of an advertising campaign. •Continuous schedule equal or relatively equal number of ad dollars are invested throughout the campaign •Pulsing is an advertising timing or continuity pattern in which there is noted variation of media spending in the media schedule. •Flighting is an advertising term for a timing pattern in which commercials are scheduled to run during intervals that are separated by periods in which no advertising messages appear for the advertised item.
    95. 95. • Consumers’ first exposure to an advertisement for a brand is the most powerful •Advertising’s primary role is to influence brand choice •Achieving a high level of weekly reach for a brand should be emphasized over acquiring heavy frequency.
    96. 96. Trade-Offs With a fixed advertising budget, the media planner can choose to maximize reach or frequency but not both
    97. 97. Windows 7 Phone
    98. 98.  ThankYou