The Great War. 4º eso Tema 7. IES Santa Catalina

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Tema 7. La Primera Guerra Mundial y el periodo de entreguerras.
4º ESO BILINGUAL. IES Santa Catalina. Burgo de Osma. Soria
Unit 7. The First World War
IES Santa Catalina. Burgo de Osma. Soria

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  • CRIPPLES INVÁLIDOS
  • POW´s PRISIONEROS
  • The Great War. 4º eso Tema 7. IES Santa Catalina

    1. 1. THE GREAT WAR IES SANTA CATALINA BURGO DE OSMA (SORIA) 4º ESO. HISTORY. Social Science. Anaya English, C. Echevarría and others.2012 History teacher, Nicanor Otín Nebreda. Famous quotes about the first world war ‘It takes 15,000 casualties to train a major general.’ Marshal Ferdinand Foch (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French soldier, military theorist, and an Allied Generalissimo during the First World War.
    2. 2. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
    3. 3. • In 1914 a war began in Europe that affected all continents. • The war, at the beginning , was kown as the Great War then as the First World War. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
    4. 4. The great powers in Europe in 1900 • Britain – A great Empire and strong navy • France – overseas Empire & resentment from the previous war • Russia – large but no land overseas – no access to the sea • Austria-Hungary – two nationalities in one country • Germany – wanted more influence abroad Alliances • 1882 – Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy • 1907 – Triple Entente: Russia, Britain & France THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
    5. 5. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
    6. 6. Allied Powers Central Powers THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
    7. 7. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
    8. 8. Militarism: policy of building up a strong military to prepare for war Alliances – agreements between nations to provide aid and protect one another The spark that started World War I, was: The assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand The spark that started World War I, was: The assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand Colonial conflicts: between the competing colonizing nations Nationalism: some minorities claimed independence, like croats, serbs… Territorial conflicts: between France and Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary Economic conflicts: due to competition in commerce and trade THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
    9. 9. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
    10. 10. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie at Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28th, 1914. Assassination
    11. 11. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
    12. 12. Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand who believed that Bosnia should belong to Serbia. The reaction among the people in Austria was mild, almost indifferent. As historian Zbynek Zeman later wrote, "the event almost failed to make any impression whatsoever. On Sunday and Monday [June 28 and 29], the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened." The reaction among the people in Austria was mild, almost indifferent. As historian Zbynek Zeman later wrote, "the event almost failed to make any impression whatsoever. On Sunday and Monday [June 28 and 29], the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened." THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
    13. 13. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR Gavrilo Princip A pistol used to assassinate the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, sparking the First World War
    14. 14. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR • June 28 - Assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke and heir, Franz Ferdinand (and Sophie, his wife) • July 23 - Austria issues ultimatum to Serbia and invades on July 27 • July 28-30 - Russians mobilize as Serbia’s ally • August 1 - Germany, Austria-Hungary’s ally, declares war on Russia (and Serbia) • August 3 - Germany declares war on France (allied with Russia) and invades Belgium en route to Paris, France • August 4 - Great Britain, France’s ally, declares war on Germany Short term timeline leading to World War IShort term timeline leading to World War I Domino Effect
    15. 15. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
    16. 16. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE WAR First World War: Transport of the Wounded by Ugo Matania
    17. 17. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE WAR • TERRITORIAL EXTENSION – 16 NATIONS – THE WAR TOOK PLACE OVER A VERY EXTENDED AREA • NEW WEAPONS AND TACTICS – MACHINE GUNS, POISON GAS, SUBMARINES, AIRPLANES… • TOTAL WARFARE – THE ENTIRE ECONOMY FOCUSED ON THE WAR – CONSCRIPTION OF ALL ABLE MEN – PRIORITY FOR WEAPON PRODUCTION – WOMEN START WORKING TO REPLACE MEN…
    18. 18. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE WAR
    19. 19. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WAR Machine gun Flamethrower Poison gas Submarine Airplane Tank WHY NOW?
    20. 20. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WAR German Hussars Crossing into Serbia, 1915
    21. 21. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE WAR
    22. 22. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR 1914 WAR OF MOVEMENT •Initial German offensives, simultaneously in two fronts, the Eastern and Western fronts. •Significant offensive advances by the German and Russian troops
    23. 23. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR 1915-1916 TRENCH WARFARE WAR OF ATTRITION •The fronts were formed by long lines of trenches protected by machine guns and barbed wire. •Enormous numbers of casualties to gain some metres of land
    24. 24. TRENCH WARFARE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0gyyGHHXfck
    25. 25. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR
    26. 26. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR
    27. 27. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR 1917 CRISIS •USA entered the war joining the Allies. • The Russian Empire began to collapse. Russia abandoned the war after the triumph of the Soviet Revolution President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with the German Empire on February 3, 1917.
    28. 28. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR 1917 CRISIS
    29. 29. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR 1918 Allied victories and the armistice of 1918 After an attack on all fronts by the Allies, the Central Powers started to surrender. Germany was alone and without supplies Wilhelm II had to abdicate and the government of the new republic signed the armistice.
    30. 30. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR 1918 Allied victories and the armistice of 1918
    31. 31. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR The allied representatives at the signing of the armistice. Railway carriage in the forest of Compiègne.
    32. 32. "The Big Four" during the Paris Peace Conference From left to right, David Lloyd George (GB), Vittorio Orlando (IT), George Clemenceau (FR) and Woodrow Wilson (USA) CONSEQUENCES OF WAR
    33. 33. CONSEQUENCES OF WAR • THE PARIS CONFERENCE AND THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES – THE VICTORIOUS COUNTRIES AGREED ON THE TERMS FOR THE DEFEATED COUNTRIES. – FIVE DIFFERENT TREATIES WERE PREPARED. – WOODROW WILSON (U.S. PRESIDENT) AND HIS FOURTEEN POINTS. RECONCILIATION PROPOSED BY WILSON WAS REJECTED. • THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS WAS CREATED TO MAINTAIN WORLD PEACE. • THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES • ESPECIALLY HARD ON GERMANY: RESPONSIBLE FOR THE WAR, ABANDONED ALL ITS COLONIES, RETURNED ALSACE AND LORRAINE TO FRANCE, PAID COSTLY REPARATIONS…
    34. 34. CONSEQUENCES OF WAR
    35. 35. • DEATH AND INJURY: LOTS OF YOUNG MEN DIED IN THE WAR, AND THERE WERE LOTS OF INJURIES: CRIPPLES, DISABLED PEOPLE, ORPHANS... • MATERIAL DESTRUCTION MADE GREAT DAMAGE TO ECONOMY. • END OF EUROPEAN HEGEMONY AND STARTED THE U.S. HEGEMONY • NEW EUROPEAN STATES: POLAND, AUSTRIA, YUGOSLAVIA, FINLAND… • COLONIAL CHANGES: THE CENTRAL POWERS HAD TO ABANDON ALL ITS COLONIES • PACIFISM AND ANTIMILITARISM GREW IN THE PUBLIC OPINION OF EUROPE • POLITICAL: UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE STARTED IN EUROPE AND WOMEN BECAME ABLE TO VOTE IN SOME COUNTRIES • SOCIAL CHANGES: WOMEN BECAME INCLUDED IN THE LABOUR MARKET. MIDDLE CLASSES WERE IMPOVERISHED. This sets the stage for WWII! CONSEQUENCES OF WAR
    36. 36. CONSEQUENCES OF WAR • Total troops mobilized by all countries: 65,038,810 • Total troops dead from all countries: 8,556,315 • Total troops wounded from all countries: 21,219,452 • Total missing or POW´s (Prisoners of war) 7,750,945 CASUALTIES
    37. 37. CONSEQUENCES OF WAR THE NEW MAP OF EUROPE
    38. 38. Before the war
    39. 39. After the war

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