The great war. 4º eso t. 7 2013 14

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Tema 7. La Primera Guerra Mundial y el periodo de entreguerras. …

Tema 7. La Primera Guerra Mundial y el periodo de entreguerras.
4º ESO BILINGUAL. IES Santa Catalina. Burgo de Osma. Soria
Unit 7. The First World War and the interwar period.
IES Santa Catalina. Burgo de Osma. Soria

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  • CRIPPLES INVÁLIDOS
  • POW´s PRISIONEROS

Transcript

  • 1. THE GREAT WAR IES SANTA CATALINA BURGO DE OSMA (SORIA) 4º ESO. HISTORY. Social Science. Anaya English, C. Echevarría and others.2012 Bilingual space. History teacher, Nicanor Otín Nebreda. ‘It takes 15,000 casualties to train a major general.’ (Ferdinand Foch) Marshal Ferdinand Foch (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French soldier, military theorist, and an Allied Generalissimo during the First World War. Famous quotes about the first world war
  • 2. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR • In 1914 a war began in Europe that affected all continents. • The war, at the beginning , was kown as the Great War then as the First World War.
  • 3. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR The great powers in Europe in 1900 • Britain – A great Empire and strong navy • France – overseas Empire & resentment from the previous war • Russia – large but no land overseas – no access to the sea • Austria-Hungary – two nationalities in one country • Germany – wanted more influence abroad Alliances • 1882 – Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy • 1907 – Triple Entente: Russia, Britain & France
  • 4. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR Allied Powers Central Powers
  • 5. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
  • 6. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR Militarism: policy of building up a strong military to prepare for war Alliances – agreements between nations to provide aid and protect one another Nationalism: some minorities claimed independence, like croats, serbs… Colonial conflicts: between the competing colonizing nations Economic conflicts: due to competition in commerce and trade Territorial conflicts: between France and Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary The spark that started World War I, was: The spark that started World War I, was: The assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand The assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
  • 7. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
  • 8. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR Assassination Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie at Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28th, 1914.
  • 9. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
  • 10. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand who believed that Bosnia should belong to Serbia. The reaction among the people in Austria was The reaction among the people in Austria was mild, almost indifferent. As historian Zbynek mild, almost indifferent. As historian Zbynek Zeman later wrote, "the event almost failed to Zeman later wrote, "the event almost failed to make any impression whatsoever. On Sunday make any impression whatsoever. On Sunday and Monday [June 28 and 29], the crowds in and Monday [June 28 and 29], the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened." nothing had happened."
  • 11. THE CAUSES OF THE WAR Short term timeline leading to World War II Short term timeline leading to World War • June 28 - Assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke and heir, Franz Ferdinand (and Sophie, his wife) • July 23 - Austria issues ultimatum to Serbia and invades on July 27 • July 28-30 - Russians mobilize as Serbia’s ally • August 1 - Germany, Austria-Hungary’s ally, declares war on Russia (and Serbia) • August 3 - Germany declares war on France (allied with Russia) and invades Belgium en route to Paris, France • August 4 - Great Britain, France’s ally, declares war on Germany Domino Effect
  • 12. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE WAR • TERRITORIAL EXTENSION – 16 NATIONS – THE WAR TOOK PLACE OVER A VERY EXTENDED AREA • NEW WEAPONS AND TACTICS – MACHINE GUNS, POISON GAS, SUBMARINES, AIRPLANES… • TOTAL WARFARE – THE ENTIRE ECONOMY FOCUSED ON THE WAR – CONSCRIPTION OF ALL ABLE MEN – PRIORITY FOR WEAPONS PRODUCTION – WOMEN STARTING WORKING TO REPALCE MEN…
  • 13. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE WAR Machine gun Flamethrower Poison gas Submarine Airplane Tank WHY NOW?
  • 14. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE WAR
  • 15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR 1914 WAR OF MOVEMENT •Initial German offensives, simultaneously in two fronts, the Eastern and Western fronts. •Significant offensive advances by the German and Russian troops
  • 16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR 1915-1916 TRENCH WARFARE WAR OF ATTRITION The fronts were formed by long lines of trenches protected by machine guns and barbed wire. Enormous numbers of casualties to gain some metres of land • •
  • 17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR 1917 CRISIS •USA entered the war joining the Allies. • The Russian Empire began to collapse. Russia abandoned the war after the triumph of the Soviet Revolution
  • 18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR 1918 Allied victories and the armistice of 1918 After an attack on all fronts by the Allies, the Central Powers started to surrender. Germany was alone and without supplies Wilhelm II had to abdicate and the government of the new republic signed the armistice.
  • 19. CONSEQUENCES OF WAR • THE PARIS CONFERENCE AND THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES – THE VICTORIOUS COUNTRIES AGREED ON THE TERMS FOR THE DEFEATED COUNTRIES. – FIVE DIFFERENT TREATIES WERE PREPARED. – WOODROW WILSON (U.S. PRESIDENT) AND HIS FOURTEEN POINTS. RECONCILIATION PROPOSED BY WILSON WAS REJECTED. • THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS WAS CREATED TO MAINTAIN WORLD PEACE. • THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES • ESPECIALLY HARD ON GERMANY: RESPONSIBLE FOR THE WAR, ABANDONED ALL ITS COLONIES, RETURNED ALSACE AND LORRAINE TO FRANCE, PAID COSTLY REPARATIONS…
  • 20. CONSEQUENCES OF WAR "The Big Four" during the Paris Peace Conference From left to right, David Lloyd George (GB), Vittorio Orlando (IT), George Clemenceau (FR) and Woodrow Wilson (USA)
  • 21. CONSEQUENCES OF WAR • DEATH AND INJURY: LOTS OF YOUNG MEN DIED IN THE WAR, AND THERE WERE LOTS OF INJURIES: CRIPPLES, DISABLED PEOPLE, ORPHANS... • • • • • • MATERIAL DESTRUCTION MADE GREAT DAMAGE TO ECONOMY. • SOCIAL CHANGES: WOMEN BECAME INCLUDED IN THE LABOUR MARKET. MIDDLE CLASSES IMPOVERISHED. END OF EUROPEAN HEGEMONY AND STARTED THE U.S. HEGEMONY NEW EUROPEAN STATES: POLAND, AUSTRIA, YUGOSLAVIA, FINLAND… COLONIAL CHANGES: THE CENTRAL POWERS HAD TO ABANDON ALL ITS COLONIES PACIFISM AND ANTIMILITARISM POLITICAL: UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE STARTED IN EUROPE AND WOMEN BECAME ABLE TO VOTE IN SOME COUNTRIES This sets the stage for WWII!
  • 22. CONSEQUENCES OF WAR CASUALTIES • Total troops mobilized by all countries: 65,038,810 • Total troops dead from all countries: 8,556,315 • Total troops wounded from all countries: 21,219,452 • Total missing or POW´s (Prisoners of war) 7,750,945
  • 23. CONSEQUENCES OF WAR THE NEW MAP OF EUROPE
  • 24. Before the war
  • 25. After the war