What defines a group?
Adler and Rodman: a small collection of
people who interact with each other,
usually face to face, over time in order
to reach goals.
Last over time
All the people in a group…
1. Are aware of each other
2. Share an interdependent purpose
3. Have a sense of belonging
4. Interact with one another
5. Accept the norms
Norms are the expectations of the group
According to the previous definition,
which are groups and which are not?
7 people riding in a train?
3 boys playing with a softball?
Two police officers and a robber?
5 members in a family?
Group verses Individual
Which is better?
It depends on the situation.
1. Problem solving
Rule and Norms
Explicit: official, stated, guidelines
Implicit: implied, but never stated.
Norms: shared values, beliefs, behaviors, and
procedures that govern a groups operation.
Social norms (all groups)
--activity--think of a rule and a norm that exists in the
classroom or with your family or friends.
Rolls: define patterns of behavior expected of
Formal rolls – assigned by an organization or group
partly to establish order.
Informal rolls- rarely acknowledged
Task rolls-help the group accomplish its goals
Social rolls- help the relationships among members
Dysfunctional rolls- prevent a group from working
Violation of norms
- norms and rules are maintained
through group pressure
- little tolerance= remove member or
Perception and Rolls
Our perceptions will shape what roll we
think we play as well as what rolls
Status: something that is perceived and
given by other members
-communication skills effect how others
perceive your status