Presentation on Geothermal Energy

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Presentation on Geothermal Energy

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Presentation on Geothermal Energy

  1. 1. Geothermal Energy --- a renewable energy source for electricity generation ---
  2. 2. Outlines  Introduction  Geothermal Reservoirs  Extraction & Uses of Geothermal Energy  Electricity Generation  Cost  Geothermal Energy in India  Pros and Cons  Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction  What is Geothermal Energy ? The deeper you go, the hotter it is !!! It’s simply the heat energy of the earth, generated by various natural processes, such as: 1. heat from when the planet formed and accreted, which has not yet been lost 2.decay of radioactive elements 3.friction etc……
  4. 4. Geothermal Reservoirs  Reservoirs can be suspected in the areas where we find :- Geyser Boiling mud pot Volcano Hot springs
  5. 5. Geothermal Reservoirs (cont.)  The rising hot water & steam is trapped in permeable & porous rocks to form a geothermal reservoir.  Reservoirs can be discovered by  testing the soil  analyzing underground temperature
  6. 6. Extraction & uses  The heat energy can be brought to earth surface by following ways..  directly from hot springs/ geysers  geothermal heat pump  Uses are broadly classified as:- direct use indirect use
  7. 7. Direct use of Geothermal Energy  Hot springs, used as spas.  Heating water at fish farms.  Provide heat for buildings.  Raising plants in greenhouses, drying crops.  Provides heat to industrial processes.
  8. 8. Indirect use of Geothermal Energy  Electricity Generation:
  9. 9. Electricity Generation (cont.) There are 3 types of power plants:-  Dry steam power plant Flash steam power plant Binary cycle power plant
  10. 10. Dry Steam power plant
  11. 11. Dry Steam power plant (cont.)  The oldest type of Geothermal power plant used.  Geothermal reservoir containing pure steam is required.  Pure dry steam drives turbine.  Very rare type of geothermal power plant.  Operating at California, Italy, and Japan.
  12. 12. Flash steam power plant
  13. 13. Flash steam power plant (cont.)  Commonly used geothermal power plant.  Geothermal reservoirs containing both hot water & steam is required.  Pressure changing system is required.  Operating at Hawaii, Nevada, Utah & some other places
  14. 14. Binary cycle power plant
  15. 15. Binary cycle power plant (cont.)  Does not use steam directly to spin turbines.  Only the heat of the underground water is used.  Vapourized hydrocarbons are used to spin the turbine.  Hydrocarbons having lower boiling point such as isopentane, isobutane and propane can be used.  No harmful gas is emitted to the atmosphere because the underground water is never disclosed to outside.  This’s the worldwide accepted power plant.
  16. 16. Turbine & generator:-
  17. 17. Cost  Direct use of geothermal energy is absolutely cheaper than other energy sources.  Cost of electricity generation depends upon certain factors: Temperature and depth of resource Type of resource (steam, liquid, mix) Available volume of resource Size and technology of plant
  18. 18. Cost (cont.)  The initial investment is high.  But after certain time period, the cost of electricity becomes comparable to other resources of energy.  US $0.05 to $0.08 (Rs. 2.772 to Rs. 4.4352) per kWh  Once the capital cost is recovered, the price can decrease to below US $0.05 (Rs 2.2772) per kWh
  19. 19. Geothermal Energy in India
  20. 20. Geothermal Energy in India (cont)  Geothermal provinces are estimated to produce 10,600 MW of power (experts are confident only to the extent of 100 MW)  Geothermal provinces in India: the Himalayas, Sohana, West coast, Cambay, Son-Narmada-Tapi , Godavari, and Mahanadi  Reykjavík Geothermal will assist Thermax to set up a pilot project in Puga Valley, Ladakh (Jammu & Kashmir)  First operational commercial geothermal power plant is likely to come up in AP with a capacity of 25 MW by Geosyndicate Pvt Ltd.
  21. 21. Advantages  Available all the year around.  Does not involve any combustion of fuel.  Independent of weather  Clean Resource – Very little emissions or overall environmental impact.  Economically Sound Alternative – The fuel is free, rate / KWh likely to be competitive  Overall, geothermal energy is a sustainable resource.
  22. 22. Disadvantages  Not widespread source of energy  High installation costs  Can run out of steam  May release harmful gases  Transportation  Earthquakes
  23. 23. Conclusion  Geothermal heating system can replace fossil fuel heating system in a particular area.  Annual costs for common heating purposes can be reduced by more than 60%.  Continued energy shortages have created added interest in geothermal energy for power generation.  Potential exists to provide all energy requirements in the U.S  Geothermal energy appears to be a partial solution to our energy needs.

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