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Bsnl project

  1. 1. 2011 PROJECT REPORT BSNL [3G and WCDMA]BY:NIBEDAN BHAWSINKABATCH: 53REG NO. 1333<br />PREFACE<br />Project method is an effective method of learning and doing. While doing the projects we learn the skills of planning and organising facts and materials. Knowledge gained by this method is long lasting unlike the knowledge gained by memorizing facts. It includes the process of research, thorough study and understanding and also includes the presentation of correct data in an effective way. In this project we attempt to study about the topic: 3G and WCDMA. We learn about the new technology “3G” and also the technology behind 3G i.e. WCDMA. <br /> This project covers all the GSM generations i.e. the evolution of the mobile communication. It also outlines the history of the communication. It also attempts to discuss about the need, vision, architecture, access networks, services provided and the applications of the 3G .<br />ACKNOLEDGEMENT<br />I would like to thank my batch incharge SHRI HARI HARA SHAOO for extending his helping hand towards this project and also assigning me the topic of “ 3G and WCDMA ” .<br /> I would also like to express my gratitude to all the teaching faculty for giving there valuable time for explaining all the topics clearly in a detailed manner.<br /> Not to forget my friends and parents for their constant love and support.<br />INTRODUCTION<br />3G is the next generation of mobile communications systems. It enhances the services such as multimedia, high speed mobile broadband, internet access with the ability to view video footage on your mobile handset. With a 3G phone and access to the 3G network you can make video calls, watch live TV, access the high speed internet, receive emails and download music tracks, as well as the usual voice call and messaging services found on a mobile phone, like person to person video, live streaming, downloadable video of entertainment, news, current affairs and sport content and video messaging.<br />Third generation (3G) networks were conceived from the Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) concept for high speed networks for enabling a variety of data intensive applications.<br /> 3G systems consist of the two main standards, CDMA2000 and W-CDMA, as well as other 3G variants such as NTT DoCoMo's Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access (FOMA) and Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA) used primarily in China.<br />WHAT IS 3G?<br />3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications, is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union.[1] Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment. To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s. <br />THINGS TO UNDERSTAND BEFORE DISCUSSING 3G<br />3G is a mobile standard which provides high data rate transfer. But don’t you think we must first understand about the communication?<br />Communication is the successful flow of data from one end(or device) to other end.<br />Man has been struggling a lot for the communication purpose and has always been in a search for an easier and smarter way to communicate.<br />He has made tremendous improvement and development in the communication sector in order to make the communication process simpler , faster , cheaper and advanced.<br />HISTORY<br />Previously during the kings age, in ancient times, their existed the concept of message bearers who used to take the message from the king, and delivered it to the emperor of the other throne.<br />Then came the concept of pigeon, when pigeon was used as a source of communication. The message was tied on pigeon’s neck and it was delivered to the receiver.<br />All these were adopted for long distance communication. There were significant improvement in the communication sector and man was able to create a wireline method of communication.<br />During its early stage for making the STD ( subscriber trunk dialling ) calls, user had to give the the telephone operator, then he would be connected to the receiver within 2-3 days at any time. <br />Then as the time passed by, communication sector witnessed significant improvement when the long distance communication became easier and cheaper, now there was no need to go to the operator and wait for 2-3 days, now it was a matter of 2-3 seconds.<br />This was possible by using the access network of PSTN.<br />PSTN stands for public switch telephone network. It is a landline network. Previously only voice communication was possible , but now data communication is also possible using DSL( digital subscriber line )<br />With this advancement, the telephone operators were convienced and determined to make communication wireless. With this the world saw the evolution of mobile technology. It used the access network known as PLMN( public land mobile network )<br /> <br /> GSM<br /> <br /> PLMN<br /> CDMA<br />EVOLUTION OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION<br />The GSM saw the following generations:-<br /><ul><li>1st generation (1G)
  2. 2. 2nd generation (2G)
  3. 3. 2.5G
  4. 4. 2.75G
  5. 5. 3rd generation (3G)</li></ul>The GSM Growth PhasesGSM2GHSCSDGPRS2.5GEDGE3G<br />1st generation<br />The first generation (1G) began in the early 80's with commercial deployment of Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) cellular networks. Early AMPS networks used Frequency Division Multiplexing Access (FDMA) to carry analog voice over channels in the 800 MHz frequency band.<br />OVERVIEW<br />􀁺 Mobile Phone Advanced Service (AMPS)<br />􀂄 US trials 1978; deployed in Japan (’79) & US (’83)<br />􀂄 800 MHz band — two 20 MHz bands<br />􀂄 TIA-553<br />􀂄 Still widely used in US and many parts of the world<br />􀁺 Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT)<br />􀂄 Sweden, Norway, Demark & Finland<br />􀂄 Launched 1981; now largely retired<br />􀂄 450 MHz; later at 900 MHz (NMT900)<br />􀁺 Total Access Communications System (TACS)<br />􀂄 British design; similar to AMPS; deployed 1985<br />􀂄 Some TACS-900 systems still in use in Europe.<br />It is an analog way of communication.<br />Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: first mobile radio telephone 1924<br />Limitations:<br /><ul><li>Roaming not possible
  6. 6. Only voice communication and not data communication
  7. 7. Absence of supplementary services such as call forwarding, number display
  8. 8. unprotected</li></ul>2nd generation ( 2G )<br />The second generation (2G) emerged in the 90's when mobile operators deployed two competing digital voice standards. In North America, some operators adopted IS-95, which used Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to multiplex up to 64 calls per channel in the 800 MHz band. Across the world, many operators adopted the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) standard, which used Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) to multiplex up to 8 calls per channel in the 900 and 1800 MHz bands.<br />2G Cellular Networks were first commercially launched in Finland by Radiolinja in 19912G Cellular Networks are fully digital2G Cellular Networks are very secure – use encryption2G Cellular Networks provide basic data services also2G Technologies can be divided into TDMA-based, FDMA-based, CDMA-based systemsUtilise the concept of ‘IN’Have advanced Fraud Mechanisms<br />2G ARCHITECTURE<br />OVERVIEW:<br /><ul><li>Data transfer rate increased to 64kbps
  9. 9. Roaming possible
  10. 10. Digital cellular system
  11. 11. Voice + slow rate data (9.6 kbps- SMS ) </li></ul>2.5G<br />Since 2G oferred very low data speeds, some upgradation was required to enable higher data speeds to meet the growing demands of accesing internet/data transfer using mobile handset. GSM network is upgraded to 2.5G by introducing General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) technology.<br />GPRS provides GSM with packet data interface and IP based core network.the theoretical data rate possible with GPRS is 171.2 kbps.<br /> ARCHITECTURE: <br />Extra components in 2.5G apart from 2G:<br />SGSN-serving GPRS support network<br />GGSN-gateway GPRS support network<br />2.75G<br />It involves EDGE ( enhanced data rate for GSM evolution ). <br />EDGE involves handling of data 3 times more than GPRS. It can be achieved through a very fast and cost effective implementation.<br />Overview:<br />􀁺 Increased data rates with GSM compatibility<br />􀂄 Still 200 KHz bands; still TDMA<br />􀂄 8-PSK modulation: 3 bits/symbol give 3X data rate<br />􀂄 Shorter range (more sensitive to noise/interference)<br />􀁺 GAIT — GSM/ANSI-136 interoperability team<br />􀂄 Allows IS-136 TDMA operators to migrate to EDGE<br />􀂄 New GSM/ EDGE radios but evolved ANSI-41 core network.<br />LIMITATIONS OF 2ND GENERATION SYSTEMSNo Global standardsNo common frequency bandLow information bit ratesLow voice qualityNo support of VideoLow information bit ratesVarious categories of systems to meet specific requirements<br />3RD GENERATION ( 3G )<br />In 3G wireless communication data rate reaches upto 2 mbps. To achieve the above data rate the core network and the access network are significantly changed to cater the high data requirement.<br />3G AWARENESS3G is the next generation mobile communications systems.3G is basically an ITU defined set of standards, which along with other specifications provides for minimum data speed of 384 kbps.It enhances the services such asMultimediaHigh speed mobile BroadbandInternet AccessAbility to view video footage on your mobile handset.<br />3G MOBILE SYSTEMS<br />3G is designed to enhance the end user experience many-fold<br />• Superior voice quality<br />• Broadband data speeds<br />Certain applications are possible only with 3G services<br />• Multimedia<br />• High speed mobile broadband<br />3G services allows simultaneous use of voice and high speed data rates<br />• In 2G, simultaneous voice and data usage is restricted<br />Spectrum for 3G systems:<br />The IMT 2000 band has been identified in most countries for launch of 3G services.<br />• Uplink: 1920-1980 MHz<br />• Downlink: 2110-2170 MHz<br />High data rates(384kbps-14.4 Mbps)+ 2ndgen. services199020001stGeneration2ndGeneration3rdGenerationAnalog speechDigital speech + low-rate data (£64 kbps)NMT, AMPS, TACSGSM, PDC, IS-136, IS-95UMTS/IMT-20001980What is Third Generation?<br />Third Generation SystemThird generation systems are designed for multimedia communications; With them person to person communication can be enhanced with high quality images and video, And access to information and services on public and private networks will be enhanced by higher data rates.<br />3G ARCHITECTURE:<br />W-CDMA uses the same CN as GPRS, utilizing existing infrastruture such as the GGSN and SGSN.  W-CDMA, however, does require new RAN infrastructure such as the Node B, which replaces the BTS, and the Radio Network Controller (RNC), which replaces the BSC.  Ultimately, the W-CDMA CN will evolve to comprise a full Mobile IP infrastructure including Media Gateway (MGW) and Media Gateway Controller (MGC) equipment for VoIP and other new equipment such as the HSS and CSDF.<br />CDMA2000 starts with new channel cards and then migrates to a full Mobile IP infrastructure requiring new Core Network (CN) infrastructure such as the AAA server and Packet Data Server Node (PDSN). <br />3G uses UMTS i.e. universal mobile telecom service.<br />It guarantees speed of 2Mbps practically.<br />Extra component added is UTRAN i.e. universal terrestrial radioactive network.<br /> RNC<br />UTRAN<br /> Node B<br />UMTS network structureUE = User EquipmentRAN = Radio Access NetworkCN = Core NetworkNMS = Network Management System<br />MSC ServerMGWHLR/AUCSGSNGGSNMobile Packet Backbone Network (MPBN)OSSLawful Intercept SystemUMTS network elements<br />Media Gateway (MGW) Handle PayloadMake IP/ATM/TDM transport possible in the back boneEcho CancellerTone sending<br />MSC Server (MSC-S) Connection managementMobility managementChargingSecurity<br />3GPP:<br />The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed in 1998 to foster deployment of 3G networks that descended from GSM. 3GPP technologies evolved as follows.<br />• General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) offered speeds up to 114 Kbps.<br />• Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) reached up to 384 Kbps.<br />• UMTS Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) offered downlink speeds up to 1.92 Mbps.<br />• High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) boosted the downlink to 14Mbps.<br />• LTE Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) is aiming for 100 Mbps.<br />GPRS deployments began in 2000, followed by EDGE in 2003. While these technologies are defined by IMT-2000, they are sometimes called "2.5G" because they did not offer multi-megabit data rates. EDGE has now been superceded by HSDPA (and its uplink partner HSUPA). According to the 3GPP, there were 166 HSDPA networks in 75 countries at the end of 2007. The next step for GSM operators: LTE E-UTRA, based on specifications completed in late 2008.<br />A second organization, the 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) -- was formed to help North American and Asian operators using CDMA2000 transition to 3G. 3GPP2 technologies evolved as follows.<br />• One Times Radio Transmission Technology (1xRTT) offered speeds up to 144 Kbps.<br />• Evolution Data Optimized (EV-DO) increased downlink speeds up to 2.4 Mbps.<br />• EV-DO Rev. A boosted downlink peak speed to 3.1 Mbps and reduced latency.<br />• EV-DO Rev. B can use 2 to 15 channels, with each downlink peaking at 4.9 Mbps.<br />• Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) was slated to reach 288 Mbps on the downlink.<br />1xRTT became available in 2002, followed by commercial EV-DO Rev. 0 in 2004. Here again, 1xRTT is referred to as "2.5G" because it served as a transitional step to EV-DO. EV-DO standards were extended twice – Revision A services emerged in 2006 and are now being succeeded by products that use Revision B to increase data rates by transmitting over multiple channels. The 3GPP2's next-generation technology, UMB, may not catch on, as many CDMA operators are now planning to evolve to LTE instead.<br />In fact, LTE and UMB are often called 4G (fourth generation) technologies because they increase downlink speeds an order of magnitude. This label is a bit premature because what constitutes "4G" has not yet been standardized. The ITU is currently considering candidate technologies for inclusion in the 4G IMT-Advanced standard, including LTE, UMB, and WiMAX II. Goals for 4G include data rates of least 100 Mbps, use of OFDMA transmission, and packet-switched delivery of IP-based voice, data, and streaming multimedia.<br />Monolithic MSCLayered ArchitectureIMSIMSR6R5R4R99 (R3)R98R97<br />In R99 only one MSC was used known as monolithic or classic MSC, i.e. both control and switching was done by this MSC.<br />MSCBSCBTSJaipur AlwarAlwar CityMonolithic MSC Architecture<br />In R4 two MSC’s were used: mobile media gateway- switching purpose, MSC server- control purpose.<br />It is a layered architecture:<br />1)Application layer<br />2)Control layer<br />3)Connectivity layer<br />Application Layer The “Application Layer” is responsible for providing services to users via applications regardless of the device and method in which the user accesses the network. The Application Layer itself is not a real network as such important operator parts of the application Layer may, however, be realized in what are called Service Networks. Control LayerThe “Control Layer” contains nodes that control and direct traffic (both Circuit and Packet Switched). The Control Layer is realized in a Core Network. The WCDMA Core Network will contain, for example, MSCs, HLR/HSS, GMSC/TSC, SGW and possibly IMS. <br />Connectivity LayerThe “connectivity Layer” consists of the transport nodes (M-MGW, SGSN and GGSN) and connects to the various access networks.<br />Connectivity LayerControl LayerApplication Layer<br />3)In R5, IP was introduced.( IMS network )<br />4)In R6, IPV6 was added to R5.<br /> Also, the MNPS i.e. mobile no.portability was introduced.<br />ACCESS MODES FOR 3G:<br /><ul><li>WCDMA
  12. 12. CDMA2000
  13. 13. Uw136</li></ul>1-1) Market is asking for more advanced services than what is available now( voice calls & low data rate services).Market requirements are classified in three different sectionsUMTS1) Why 3G?MobilityVideo conferencingVideo telephonyWide band data servicesComputer Data E-mailReal time image transferMultimediaMobile ComputingVideo on demandInteractive video servicesElectronic newspaperTeleshoppingValue added internet servicesTV & Radio contributionsTelecommunicationComputer dataAudio-Video content<br />Data speed:<br />The data speed of 3G is determined based on a combination of factors including the chip rate, channel structure, power control, and synchronization.<br />An example of calculating the theoretical 3G data speed is as follows: <br />W-CDMA assigned code 400-500 Kpbs/code.  6 codes X 400 > 2Mbps (UMTS target for 3G data speed in fixed location) <br />Actual data speeds will vary in accordance with several factors including: <br />Number of users in cell/sector <br />Distance of user from cell <br />User is moving or stationary <br />Network operator capacity and network optimization requirements <br />Radio Access Method is Wideband Code Division Multiple Access(WCDMA). In GSM, we use TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) as the transmission method between the different network elements. For UMTS, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) has been chosen as the transmission method in the radio access network. The basic difference between TDM and ATM is that in TDM, we use timeslots for conveying information between network elements. In ATM, on the other hand, the data is transmitted in cells (packets) of fixed size across the network. (An ATM cell has 48 octets of payload, 5 octets of headers.)<br />WCDMA technical characteristicsOptimized packet access on common or dedicated channel.High spectrum efficiency5 MHz carriersFrequency Division Duplex, FDD3.84 Mcps chip rateVariable spreading codes<br />COMPARISON OF WCDMA AND CDMA:<br />Both use a coding scheme that separates each subscriber from other subscribers<br />Both use control channels to manage the network<br />W-CDMA and CDMA2000 are not compatible from the perspective that they have different chip rates - 3.84 MCPS for W-CDMA vs. 1.2888 MCPS for CMDA2000.   W-CDMA uses a 5 MHz channel.  Initially, CDMA2000 uses only a 1.25 MHz channel, but with CDMA2000 3x, three 1.25 MHz channels can be combined to form a super channel structure.<br />W-CDMA is synchronous, relying on mobile station time measurements between two base stations, rather than using GPS as CDMA2000 does.<br />There are three modes of operation for W-CDMA/CDMA2000: <br />Direct Sequence (DS) W-CDMA (UMTS) for Frequency Divsion Duplex (FDD) <br />W-CDMA Time Division Duplex (TDD) <br />CDMA2000 Multi-carrier FDD <br />Each of the three radio interface methods may be employed on either a GSM or ANSI-based Core Network (CN).<br />IS-833 is a standard, developed by the 3GPP2, to support CDMA2000 1xRTT Radio Access Network (RAN) to interface with a GSM CN.  RAN upgrade required includes CDMA base station and BSC.  CN upgrade required includes CDMA PDSN and AAA server.<br />Services:<br />􀁺 SMS, EMS, MMS<br />􀁺 Location-based services<br />􀁺 3G-324M Video<br />􀁺 VoIP w/o QoS; Push-to-Talk<br />􀁺 IP Multimedia Services (w/ QoS)<br />􀁺 Converged “All IP” networks<br />Applications:<br />Mobile Interview <br />In today's global scenario, the 3G technology will enable organizations and qualifiedcandidates to have a telephonic interview in a modern way through video conferencing.Traditional telephonic interview and personal interviews may be replaced by 3G voiceand video conferencing. This will reduce the cost and save the time of both theorganizations and the candidates.<br />Conferences <br />3G technology provides for video conferencing which can help the Human ResourceDepartment interact with their seniors at the time of urgency without wasting otherresources. This can be very much helpful when the concerned person is out of state orcountry.<br />File Transfer <br />With the advent of video and audio multimedia and a faster rate of downloading e-mailattachments, employees in an organization can request any urgent file or report they needto present to the clients. This will again reduce the burden on organization's resources andincrease employee effectiveness.<br />E -learning & M-learning <br />3G technology provides for internet browsing that will help the employees to surf andlearn using their 3G cell phones while traveling (m-learning) or from home. Theorganizations can schedule training modules for the employees of other branches throughvideo conferences.<br />Some more applications:<br />􀁺 Travel information<br />􀂄 Make request via voice<br />􀂄 Receive response in text<br />􀁺 Directions<br />􀂄 Make request via voice<br />􀂄 Receive initial response in text<br />􀂄 Get updates while traveling via voice<br />or SMS or rich graphics<br />􀁺 One-to-many messaging<br />􀂄 Record message via voice or text<br />􀂄 Deliver message via voice, SMS,E-mail.<br />CONCLUSION<br />Voice was the driver for the second generation mobile and has been a considerable success. Today, video and TV services are driving forward third generation (3G) deployement and in the future, low cost , high speed data will drive forward the 4th generation new data services , interactive T.V.<br />REFERENCES<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />