Peer GroupCHLD 90.1 Child, Family, CommunityInterrelationshipsBy: Maria V, Alejandra F, Nia S, April H
Peers groups play a big role in the lives of children, while the parentsinfluence helps set in core values to their children. The influences oftheir peer groups are more powerful. Children socialize with their peersas young as six months of age. Infants can communicate with otherinfants by smiling, playing and touching. They have their own kind oflanguage at their age and are able to interact with one another. Theyinfluence each other if one of them cries the other one does too. It’sthe peer influence the mimicking and performing similar behaviors.Children will adopt and mimic certain behaviors in social settings inorder to get the approval of their peers. Making new friends is hard aswell as maintaining existing friends and also trying to fit into peergroups and avoid bullies. Children look for their own friends, who theyfeel like by and are nice and kind to them.
Peer relationships in childand adolescentdevelopment:* Peer acceptance andrejection.* Friendship development.* School adjustment.* Bullying.* Self-esteem.* Loneliness.* The roles that sexdifferences, emotions andculture play in peer relations.AssertivenessConflictmanagementHow to earnrespectControlaggression
The peer group influences development ofchildren’s socializing skills. These earlyfriendships help children learn how tonegotiate and relate to others, includingtheir siblings and other family members.They learn from peers how to cooperate andsocialize according to group norms andgroup-sanctioned modes of behavior. Thepeer group can influence what the values,knows, wears, eats, and learns.
· Peers are people of roughlythe same age (same stage ofdevelopment and maturity),similar social identity, and closesocial proximity. Learning to getalong with others who are thesame age and status isimportant.· Typically, children encounterpeer group influence around agethree or so.· The peer group functions sothat children learn to give andtake as equal.· The peer group has its ownsystem of modifying behaviorthrough rewards, andpunishments, which mostlycome in the form of acceptanceand rejection.
The peer group also teaches a set of lessons thatchildren don’t get from adults; some of theselessons lie in areas that are sensitive and taboo.Most of sex education comes from peers. The peer group serves as a step in developingindependence, as children move out from theirparents and family into a new set of circumstances. The peer group is centered around its ownconcerns and not necessarily bound by adultnorms. It has its own hierarchy
The main methods of socialization are: Operant Methods, Observational methods,Cognitive methods, Sociocultural methods, and Apprenticeship methods. Thesocialization process doesn’t start until a child starts an attachment to anotherperson. Attachment means the child cares and trusts a person and is able to startthe socialization process through developing relationships. Operant Methods: The child learns because of the response that he or she receivesas a result of his or her behavior. Examples of these methods are: reinforcement,extinction, punishment, feedback, learn by doing. Observational methods: Children learn by watching other people. They observewhat others do, and then imitate the behaviors they see (Modeling). Cognitive methods: The child’s learning and thinking emerges from informationprocessing. Examples of these methods are: instructions, setting standards, andreasoning. Sociocultural methods: Traditions, customs, symbols, habits, routines, and grouppressures that are passed down to our children. It affects children either because ofhow parents grew up so it is what they know or from other groups and peers whobelieve in those methods. Apprenticeship methods: The task or action is first taught by an expert, thenthrough guided participation, the child works with the expert to figure out the task.The expert only guides them with help, but the child attempts to do it on their ownand hopefully accomplishes the task.
Peers influence other peers in many ways. It first starts out as peersinteract or play near each other at school, they see each othersmovements and actions but might not form a group of friends just yet.They may influence their play and interactions but they don’t yet form agroup of friendships. Or there is sometimes the peer group that theparents set up, maybe a play date, which is controlled by the parents toset up their children to play together. Eventually children on their own will began to interact with one anotherand form groups or pairs of peers. These groups have their own activities,interests, rules, and expressions; which is called a “subculture” as itstates in chapter 2. The influence of gender is big for peers because mostof the time children choose their same gender to play with or form agroup with. You will usually see the girls playing with the girls around thecoloring or dramatic play area, or you will usually see the boys playingwith the boys around the Lego and block area. Another influence is behavior, peers will act out what they see their ownpeers doing, for instance “A child starts banging pots together pretendinghe is playing the drums, then the rest of the class sees that so they startbanging their pots together.” Another influence is communication andwhat their peers say. This definitely influences a child because if theirpeers say something, then they will usually repeat it back to theirparents. Children often take interest in what their friends have or what theirfriends want, for example, Johnny says: “My mom bought me a dreamlight, it’s so cool, all the cool kids have one!” Then the other child goeshome and says, “Mom, I want a dream light like Johnny and his mommybought it for him.”
Bullying is the act of hurting one person or a group of peoplerepeatedly as a way for the bully to feel superior. Usually the bullyis bigger or stronger than his/her victim.Bullying is not just having a single disagreement with someone; it iswhen someone continues to pick on someone else. Often, bullies donot care about their actions and the effects of their actions on theperson they are bullying. When being bullied, the victim usuallyfeels that he or she does not have any power to be able to stopbeing bullied.
Bullying occurs in every single country around the world. Unfortunatelyeveryone has probably experienced bullying themselves or knows someonewho has experienced being bullied. In the American school system, recentstatistics show that: 1 out of 4 kids is bullied. 1 out of 5 kids admits to being a bully, or doing some "bullying." 8% of students miss 1 day of class per month for fear of bullies. 43% of kids fear harassment in the bathroom at school. 100,000 students carry a gun to school. 282,000 students are physically attacked in secondary schools each month. More youth violence occurs on school grounds as opposed to on the way toschool. 80% of the time, an argument with a bully will end up in a physical fight. 1/3 of students surveyed said they heard another student threaten to killsomeone. 1 out of 5 teens knows someone who brings a gun to school. Playground statistics: Every 7 minutes a child is bullied; Adult intervention -4%; Peer intervention - 11%; No intervention - 85%.
People can get bullied for many reasons or for no reasonwhatsoever. Bullying can be very serious, or it can be assimple as name calling. People get bullied for many different reasons. People can getbullied because of: How fast or slow they learn Their choice of lifestyle Being perceived as being too tall, too short, too unattractive,too thin, too overweight or too plain Their race or religion Where they live Who their parents or siblings are Their choice of clothing or hairstyle Who their friends are The way they speak The fact that they wear glasses or have braces Their disability
Did you know that bullying isnt just someonepunching you in the face or a bully callingyou a name that you dont like? Bullying is alot more than that. There are even differenttypes of bullying.
1. Physical bullying includes any physical contact that would hurt or injure a personlike hitting, kicking, punching, etc. Taking something that belongs to someone elseand destroying it would also be considered a type of physical bullying. For example,if someone was walking down the street and someone came up to them and shovedthem to the ground, that would be physical bullying. In elementary and middleschools, 30.5% of all bullying is physical. 2. Verbal bullying is name-calling, making offensive remarks, or joking about apersons religion, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or the way they look. Forexample, if there was a group of kids who made fun of another kid because hecouldnt run as fast as everyone else, it would be an example of verbal bullying.46.5% of all bullying in schools is the verbal type. Verbal aggression is when a bullyteases someone. It can also include a bully making verbal threats of violence oraggression against someones personal property. 3. Indirect bullying includes spreading rumors or stories about someone, tellingothers about something that was told to you in private, and excluding others fromgroups. An example would be if you started a rumor that a boy in your class likesplaying with dolls, and if the reason that you made up the story was because youthought it was funny. This would be indirect bullying. Indirect bullying accounts for18.5% of all bullying. 4. Social alienation is when a bully excludes someone from a group on purpose. Italso includes a bully spreading rumors, and also making fun of someone by pointingout their differences. 5. Intimidation is when a bully threatens someone else and frightens that personenough to make him or her do what the bully wants. 6. Cyber bullying is done by sending messages, pictures, or information usingelectronic media, computers (email & instant messages), or cell phones (textmessaging & voicemail). For instance, if you sent a picture of a snake in an email toa person because you know that they are afraid of snakes, that would be an exampleof cyber bullying. According to a survey done in 2003 only 4% of bullying is listed as"other types" and this would include cyber bullying. Even though this number seemssmall, the growth of this type of bullying is going up fast because of the spread oftechnology around the world.
Many people think thatbullying is a normal part ofchildhood or that "kids willbe kids." However, researchshows that in fact, bullyingcan cause negativeacademic, physical, social,emotional, and psychologicalconsequences on victims,bullies, and witnesses. Theseconsequences can be short-term or long-term. Bullyingcan also greatly affect theoverall climate of a school.When Kids are Bullied….
In the social area, victims have few friends or none at all Being a victim can result in poor school attendance, because manyvictims become afraid of going to school. They are also scared of riding the school bus or using the bathroom atschool Victims often receive lower grades due to attendance problems, and alsodue to their stress and worry. Another possible result of being bullied isthat victims may become violent, towards themselves or others. Some experts believe that school shootings are related to bullying.Students who committed school shootings were over two times as likelyto have reported that they were victims of bullying. Victims are more likely to suffer from anxiety disorders and depression,and these disorders can continue into adulthood. Sometimes thedisorders can also cause difficulties with the victims family, friends, andco-workers in their futures. In some cases, the bullying may be so severe and may go on for so longthat the victim has thoughts of suicide, (which is also called suicidalideation), or he or she may actually commit suicide. Victims are alsomore likely to have attempted suicide than their non-bullied peers. Theterm "bullycide" is used to describe a victims suicide that occurs due toextreme bullying behavior by a bully toward that victim.
Children who bully others also experience many short term and long termconsequences of their bullying behavior. They are more likely to getinvolved in other harmful activities, both as a child and as an adult. Whilethey are still young, they may steal or vandalize property, start or join inon physical fights, become injured in a fight, skip school, carry a weaponin order to scare others, or use alcohol and other drugs. They are alsofive times more likely to be taken to criminal court and to be found guiltyof a crime than are their peers who do not participate in bullyingbehavior. Most bullies do not just "outgrow" their bullying behaviors when they getolder. Instead, the aggressive behavior continues into adulthood The bullies need for power tends to carry on into their grownup years. Asadults, these bullies misuse this power by becoming involved in sexualand racial harassment, child abuse, domestic violence, etc. Their needfor power can also show up in how they parent their own children. Inturn, their children may even bully other children in the future. Bullies are more likely to have an antisocial personality disorder, anantisocial personality disorder involves a long-term disregard for others,delinquent behavior, violence, aggression, and violation of the rights ofothers. In other words, since bullies do not learn appropriate social skillswhen they are young, they grow up to be antisocial adults. They will havepoor relationships with others, including family members, friends, co-workers, etc. Victims arent the only ones who may become depressed, think aboutsuicide, or carry out suicide; in some cases, the same can be true forbullies.
There are also consequences for children who arebystanders or witnesses to bullying. They suffer fromfrustration, fear, low self-esteem, and a loss of control.They may also feel a huge sense of guilt about the bullyingthey witness, especially if they do not "S.A.V.E." the victimand the bullying continues. Sometimes their guilt is toomuch for them to accept. In these cases, the witnessesmay go from empathizing with the victim to later thinkingthat the bullying is acceptable. This is their way ofpreventing themselves from feeling more guilt in thefuture; they will simply not even recognize that someoneis being hurt. Witnesses also develop a lot of anxiety and stress. Theyworry that they will also become a victim and thereforetheir feelings of safety and security at school decrease.This leads to negative feelings toward school, which canalso contribute to problems with learning andachievement.
There are many reasons why kids bully. Did you know that bullying behavior isoften a cry for help? According to Frank Peretti, there are two basic reasons why kids bully. One reason a child bullies is because he (or she) "has a deep troubling need of hisown" and is picked on or feels that he does not have a very successful life. Bulliesmay be experiencing trouble at home, be underachievers in school, and forwhatever reason they feel they have to make themselves better by picking onsomeone else. On the outside bullies may look fine, but they may be very lonely ormay deliberately try to hurt themselves or have trouble eating or sleeping. Another reason kids bully is that they may fall into a trap by thinking that bullyingis just "the cool thing to do," especially in front of their friends. Sometimes bulliesare those kids who are good students, athletes, or the kids who seem to haveeverything going for them. In Time Magazine, it was reported that even thoughbullies often will have high self-esteem, they "tend to be victims of physicaldamage as well." Most bullies live in families in which parents discipline them"inconsistently or through physical means." Unfortunately, there are people who reward others who bully. The bullies aremade to feel that they are "fitting in" with the others, or are "being cool" whenthey are acting like a bully. Another reason why kids bully others is that adults dont give kids the skills theyneed to be able to tolerate and appreciate the differences of others. Bullies also tend to continue their behavior throughout their lives. Their bullyingactions become a cycle, in that bullies have children that they bully, and thentheir children become aggressive, and then they bully others too.
Look for changes in the child. However, be aware that not allchildren who are bullied exhibit warning signs. Some signs that may point to a bullying problem are: Unexplainable injuries Lost or destroyed clothing, books, electronics, or jewelry Frequent headaches or stomach aches, feeling sick or fakingillness Changes in eating habits, like suddenly skipping meals or bingeeating. Kids may come home from school hungry because theydid not eat lunch. Difficulty sleeping or frequent nightmares Declining grades, loss of interest in schoolwork, or not wantingto go to school Sudden loss of friends or avoidance of social situations Feelings of helplessness or decreased self esteem Self-destructive behaviors such as running away from home,harming themselves, or talking about suicide
Kids may be bullying others if they: Get into physical or verbal fights Have friends who bully others Are increasingly aggressive Get sent to the principal’s office or to detentionfrequently Have unexplained extra money or new belongings Blame others for their problems Don’t accept responsibility for their actions Are competitive and worry about their reputationor popularity www.Stopbullying.gov
Kids Talk About Bullying http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=39fiuigmL-w http://library.thinkquest.org/07aug/00117/typesbullying.html
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