Creation, development and_management_of_an_entrepreneurial_culture
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Creation, development and_management_of_an_entrepreneurial_culture

on

  • 2,846 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,846
Views on SlideShare
2,843
Embed Views
3

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
147
Comments
0

2 Embeds 3

http://tnau.niabi.in 2
http://www.niabi.in 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Creation, development and_management_of_an_entrepreneurial_culture Creation, development and_management_of_an_entrepreneurial_culture Document Transcript

    • Creation, Development andManagement of an Entrepreneurial Culture By Dr. Fábio Queda Bueno da Silva, PhD. I.T. Center – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco September 2003
    • © iDISC 2003Applications for permission to reproduce or translate allor part of this work should be made to:infoDev Incubator Support Center (iDISC)SCN Qd.4 Bloco "B"Ed. Centro Empresarial VarigSala 1302, Brasília/DF - BrazilZip Code: 70710-926Tel./Fax: +55 (61)328-0779URL: http://www.idisc.netEmail: idisc@idisc.net
    • SUMMARYIn this work, Dr. Silva’s intention is to demonstrate a worldwide reading of the creation,development and management of an entrepreneurial culture. In order to do that, the authorfirst proposes a refined generic world-class conceptual model to be used as a starting pointfor the comparison of several experiences in various countries. Second, he chooses someworldwide samples of programs, projects, and other initiatives that act in a positive mannerto make the construction of an entrepreneurial culture feasible. Entrepreneurial education,policies, technology production and transfer, business networking, adequate financialstructure to meet the needs of all stages of an enterprise development, and the creation of atrust environment for the development and management of an entrepreneurial culture areother topics developed and properly exemplified by the author. This work does not intend toestablish a ready-made solution to the establishment of an entrepreneurial culture, but toemphasize that the implementation of such policies in other cultural realities has littlechances of success without careful adaptation to local needs.
    • This page was intentionally left blank
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture1. INTRODUCTIONEntrepreneurial culture is a vast and highly imprecise theme. Discussions on the themecoupled with the conceptual treatment applied to it are far from consolidating a trend andeven further still from precisely defining the varied concepts involved and the processesrequired for the creation, development and management of such a culture in a givenenvironment. Treatment of the theme must necessarily include considerations on values andculture in general, since the entrepreneurial culture cannot be analyzed outside itssociological, economic and, principally, cultural framework. In other words, theentrepreneurial culture must be viewed as a subculture within a much broader context.One possible approach to the compilation of correct and relevant information on the theme isthe definition of a flexible and extendable conceptual framework that would allow for atightly controlled process of additions, modifications and even elimination of information.There are two fundamental prerequisites for such a definition. In the first place, there existsat least a defined intention of fostering an entrepreneurial culture that is linked to the goalsof generating wealth and creating employment and income opportunities, particularly foryouth, ethnic minorities, women and other excluded segments. In the second place, thisintention can be brought to fruition by stimulating and supporting generation of newenterprises based on local manpower and its capacity to manage such businesses.Aside from these basic prerequisites, other underlying elements must be used inconstructing the model of support for development of an entrepreneurial culture, including: • Knowledge Society: the process of transforming the global economic base into an economy based on knowledge has become increasingly more dynamic. This transformation is evident in the developed nations where participation of knowledge- based industries1 in GDP rose from 45% in 1985 to more than 50% in 1999 (OEDC, 1999; OECD, 2000a). The growing intensity of knowledge in production processes and modern services has altered the variables of competition among companies and countries in the last two decades. • Globalization: the toppling of traditional trade and investments barriers that has been both a cause and consequence of globalization has, on a world scale, accelerated and disseminated competitive processes based on innovation.1 In OECD studies, the definition of knowledge-based industries was elaborated in such a way as to include high and medium-hightechnology manufacturing industries, as well as the sectors of financial services, insurance and communications. 1
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture • Innovation as an essential factor for Competitiveness: globalization and the knowledge-based economy have generated so many structural changes in the competitive environment that they demand that companies undertake constant and radical processes of innovation (Mytelka, L. and Farinelli, F., 2000).Therefore, development of an entrepreneurial culture must be seen in a context in whichentrepreneurs and their enterprises are subject to the competitive pressures of a globalizedeconomic environment, in which innovation is a factor of central importance to thesuccess of the process of “generating wealth for the individual and creating well-being forSociety”2In this context, success requires world class enterprises (Kanter, R.M., 1995) or, in otherwords, entrepreneurs and companies that are wealthy in at least three intangible assets:concepts – mastery of more advanced knowledge and technologies; competence – abilityto transform knowledge into innovative products and services; and connections – access toresources and markets throughout the world. Aside from this, capital must be viewed as anadditional asset required for world class enterprises, meaning that adequate capital must beavailable at all stages of the company’s development, including the stage in which it movesinto the international market. At the same time, innovation is an interactive process ofknowledge flows and learning that requires establishment of relations of trust among thepersons, companies and organizations involved.In this way, a possible conceptual base for the development of an entrepreneurial culture isthe world class five component model shown in Figure 1. Strategies for supportingdevelopment of an entrepreneurial culture in any environment must be structured andimplemented in such a way as to ensure that the five components will at least be availableto local entrepreneurs and their businesses.2 Definition of entrepreneurship, according to Raymond Kao in (Kao, R.W.Y., 1997)2
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture Capital Trust Connections Competence Concepts Figure 1: Extended World Class Model32. MODEL OF SUPPORT TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANENTREPRENEURIAL CULTUREThe generic world class model discussed above is an adequate starting point for dealing withthe question of support to the creation and development of an entrepreneurial culture.However, this model must be made more concrete in order to have some degree of practicalapplicability. Figure 2 presents a refinement of the generic model in which other elementsare incorporated: technology transfers and the specific legislative framework required fordevelopment of entrepreneurs and businesses. This model will be discussed in the remainderof this section.3 Presented in (da Silva, F.Q.B. et al, 2002) 3
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture Trust: local leaders, coordination, animation, promotion of entrepreneurial culture, certifications etc. Connections: with the Knowledge: Technology market. marketing, sales, Entrepreneurism and Transfer distribution and networking. technologies for business Entrepreneur Specific legislation: & Adequate Capital, incentives, protection of investment structure Enterprise and financing for the intellectual property, regulations, etc. undertaking Entrepreneurial Competence: incubation, management of innovation, quality and productivity programs, etc. Infrastructure and Basic Services: telecommunications, urban space, etc. Figure 2: A Model for Development of an Entrepreneurial Culture3. ELEMENTS OF THE SUPPORT MODELIn light of the model discussed above, this section will describe experiences in variouscountries involving the fostering of an entrepreneurial culture. These experiences will begrouped according to the world class asset on which the specific experience is focused.Whenever possible, the following information will be presented for each relevant initiative:3.1. NAME OF THE INITIATIVE OR OTHER RELEVANT IDENTIFICATION • Type of initiative • Available services • Contact for more information • Organization responsible • Geographic scope of the initiative • What the initiative does • What is the role of ICTs in the initiative • Link4
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial CultureConcepts: Entrepreneurism and Technologies for BusinessThis section presents programs, projects, actions and other initiatives that representexperiences in fostering entrepreneurism through entrepreneurial education and productionand transfer of technologies with the objective of supporting the birth of new enterprises.The discussions are structured according to the entrepreneurism development modelpresented in Figure 3: Market Knowledge of Knowledge of Knowledge Technologies Management Entrepreneur Educator and and Vision Vision Creation of Traditional Ideas Education Entrepreneurism and Technology for Business Conception of Entrepreneurial the Business Education Entrepreneur Training Training Trainers Figure 3: Entrepreneurism Development ModelIn the model shown in Figure 3, knowledge regarding the market, technologies andmanagement is at the heart of entrepreneurial training. Two complementary trainingprocesses are found in the initiatives studied: training of entrepreneurs and training oftrainers. In both processes, the point of departure is always an entrepreneur or educator witha vision of the future. In training the entrepreneur, the objective is to facilitate theentrepreneur’s access to the knowledge required to transform ideas into businesses. In bothcases, the primary goal is to develop an entrepreneurial culture based on an education modelthat stresses the skills and competences demanded for building entrepreneurial behavior.Most of the research that serves as a foundation for entrepreneurism follows the Anglo-American paradigm (Ray, Denis M. 1992): identify an opportunity, elaborate a business plan,raise seed money and make an IPO (Initial Public Offer). However, this paradigm is notadequate for all social, economic and cultural contexts. In the initiatives analyzed in thisdocument, teaching entrepreneurism is designed on the basis of the cultural specificities andcharacteristics of the countries in question. As of this study, it becomes clear that there is nosingle formula for the theme and that the model to be followed must be constructed with 5
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culturelocal needs as its starting point.The first five initiatives analyzed are related to programs that involve construction of anentrepreneurial culture based on the teaching of entrepreneurism in educational institutions.The survey deals with experiences in Brazil, Uganda, South Africa and New Zealand,revealing a broad spectrum of possibilities for teaching of entrepreneurism, listed inAppendix 1.The initiative found in Appendix 1.1 is a program put forward by the Development Agency ofGermany (GTZ) and has the primary objective of generating local wealth throughentrepreneurial training. This program can be viewed as a methodology for constructingprograms of entrepreneurial training that can be targeted to the needs of each local context.The next three initiatives found in Appendix 1.2 are studies of the impact of entrepreneurismteaching in Australia, Argentina and the United States. Studies such as those presented inthe Appendix cited above are important sources of information on the tendencies ofentrepreneurial education and on what is successful in each context.Finally, the two cases analyzed in Appendix 1.3 point to new approaches to the vision of thenature of entrepreneurism and how education can be used as an instrument fordisseminating the entrepreneurial culture.3.2. MANAGEMENT COMPETENCIES FOR ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITYThis section presents local, national and regional development policies and strategies, aswell as organizations, programs and projects focused on developing entrepreneurialmanagement competencies that provide support to the creation and development of newbusinesses.6
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture Knowledge of Technologies Knowledge of Knowledge of Market Management Creation of Entrepreneur Ideas Educator and and Vision Vision Conception of the Business Programs and Support Projects Organizations Business Business Training Consolidation Pre-incubation Development of Entrepreneurial Competence Figure 4: Entrepreneurial Competence Development ModelIn order to develop a successful undertaking, the entrepreneur requires a variety of inputsthat are complementary to the idea of business and his/her vision of the future. These inputsare principally related to the aspects of business management required for the process ofbusiness training and consolidation. Programs and projects are developed to provide theentrepreneur with access to these inputs with a minimum of bureaucracy and nonprohibitivecosts (Figure 4). In general, these projects are designed within broader developmentprograms that, as part of their strategy, provide support to the birth of new undertakings.Execution of support programs and projects can be achieved directly by national or localgovernments or by their respective development agencies. The existence of regionaldevelopment agencies that either partially or totally operate the activities of these programsis quite common. In some cases, it is possible to find third sector organizations to act asexecutors or partners in the execution of some activities.As part of the competencies available to entrepreneurs, there are various supportorganizations that aid in business development. For the most part, these organizations areattached to chambers of commerce, business and industrial associations, and so forth.Besides this, technological parks, business incubators and pre-incubators are primarysources of the type of management competence needed for these undertakings. The processof building an entrepreneurial culture will be all the more consistent when the links amongthese development programs and projects and public and private support organizations arestronger. 7
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial CultureThe first initiative analyzed is a business pre-incubation program carried out in Brazil for theareas of information and communications technologies. The program called GENESIS, hasestablished 19 business development centers around the country which have developed over200 small ICT companies. This program can be found in Appendix 2.The next three initiatives in Appendix 2.1 present examples of national or regionaldevelopment programs in Wales, Canada and Norway, in which there is some componentdedicated to the development of an entrepreneurial culture.3.3. MARKET CONNECTIONSThis section focuses on experiences that deal with the networking of businesses andinsertion of entrepreneurs into the market. Special attention will be given to programs andprojects that involve insertion of entrepreneurs and businesses into the global market. Knowledge of Technologies Knowledge of Knowledge of Market Management Creation of Entrepreneur Ideas Educator and and Vision Vision Conception of the Business Programs and Support Projects Organizations Business Business Training Consolidation Pre-incubation Clients Competitors Incubation Post- incubation Development of Market Connections Suppliers Partners Figure 5: Entrepreneurial Connections Development ModelOne of the major challenges faced by new entrepreneurs is placing the business on themarket. There are various factors related to the general and business culture of each countrythat can favor or, as is most common, hamper the access of new enterprises to the market.These factors are related to lack of knowledge regarding distribution channels, ignorance ofthe chain of suppliers, lack of client trust in unknown enterprises and difficulties in8
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Cultureencountering partners with the experience and capacity needed to ensure some competitiveedge to enterprises newly arrived on the market (Figure 5).Incubation processes play an important role in building relations of new entrepreneurs withthe market. Aside from this, there are experiences throughout the world that are targeted tobuilding networks of relations among entrepreneurs and among entrepreneurs and suchother actors as investors and partners.The problem of establishing connections is even more serious in the processes ofinternationalization. Aside from the difficulties discussed above, the entrepreneur whodesires or needs to penetrate international markets (for example, for reasons ofcompetitiveness) comes up against new barriers, including a lack of knowledge on thecultures of other nations, legislative obstacles and bureaucracies in both his/her country oforigin and destination, trade barriers, and others.The first study presented in Appendix 3 shows how small and medium companies buildconnections with the objective of preparing their move into international markets. Theconceptual foundation of the study considers that internationalization is one of the processesthrough which the entrepreneur is able to realize and consolidate his/her values andentrepreneurial culture through conversations and exchanges of information with actors inother countries.One element of essential importance to the construction of connections is access toinformation of importance to the development of the undertaking. The initiative discussed inAppendix 3.1 indicates the various types of services that contribute to the identification,construction and maintenance of networks of local, national and transnational relationsthrough Internet access to information.The two initiatives found in Appendix 3.2 are examples of development programs thatinvolve activities and projects targeted at aiding the entrepreneur and seeking out newmarkets. These programs have been implemented in Slovenia and the northeast of England.3.4. STRUCTURING CAPITAL ADEQUATE TO ENTREPRENEURSThe world class model presupposes the existence of financial resources in amounts that aresufficient to meet the needs of all the development stages of the enterprise: start up,survival, growth, take off and maturity (Churchill and Lewis, 1993). However, the needs forfinancial resources not only vary from one development stage to another (da Silva, F.Q.B.,1998), but also cannot effectively be met by local economic conditions or the structure of the 9
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culturelocal financial systems.This section deals with policies, strategies and actions related to the establishment of anadequate financial structure to meet the needs of all stages of enterprise development,including the stage of internationalization. This process is viewed as an element of essentialimportance to building an entrepreneurial culture. Knowledge of Technologies Knowledge of Knowledge of Market Management Creation of Entrepreneur Ideas Educator and and Vision Vision Conception of the Business Programs and Support Projects Organizations Business Business Training Consolidation Pre-incubation Clients Competitors Incubation P. incubation Structure of Business Investment and Financing Suppliers Partners Banks and Risk Investment Financial System Micro credit, Start up Funding, Seed Money, Risk Capital Figure 6: Capital Structure Sufficient to Meet the Development Needs of the EnterpriseFrom the first stages of creation of the idea and conception of the business, the entrepreneurmust have the financial resources required for enterprise development. However, the capitalstructure available to the entrepreneur is highly deficient, particularly in developing countries.When capital does exist, the barriers to its access on the part of inexperienced or low-income entrepreneurs tend to be impeditive and include demands for real guaranties orcharge interest so high as to make the business unfeasible.The initiatives analyzed point to an array of solutions for conception of financial andinvestment structure that can be used by entrepreneurs at all stages of development. Theseinitiatives indicate solutions capable of producing even greater impacts when implementedin a complementary and structured manner and include a variety of mechanisms ranging10
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culturefrom community start up funding to seed money investments in companies with highexpectations of profitability. Parallel to this, some organizations offer services designed toimprove the entrepreneur’s capacity to obtain needed financial resources, building a bridgebetween the new entrepreneur and local or even foreign investors.One important cultural element related to capital for entrepreneurs is local investors’tolerance level to risk. Measures aimed at fostering a culture of venture capital and angelmoney are essential to development of an entrepreneurial culture. The first initiative analyzedis shown in Appendix 4 and has played an important role in many nations around the worldand, primarily, in developing countries.Appendix 4.1 points to an initiative developed by the federal government of Brazil, whichstands as an example aimed at creating a venture capital culture in close connection to thedevelopment and efficient management of business incubators.Two initiatives, described in Appendix 4.2, show distinct and, at one and the same time,somewhat complementary forms of socially oriented financing.The final initiative analyzed is shown in Appendix 4.3 and is a study that includesrecommendations for development of an entrepreneurial culture in Mexico. Though therecommendations are generic, the emphasis given to financial mechanisms is better situatedin this section.3.5. CONSTRUCTION OF RELATIONS OF TRUST FOR DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENTREPRENEURIAL CULTUREThis section discusses the role of organizations in building an environment of trust fordevelopment of an entrepreneurial culture. More specifically, initiatives targeted atformulation of public policies aimed at building an institutional framework for a flourishingentrepreneurial culture are presented. 11
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture Knowledge of Technologies Knowledge of Knowledge of Market Management Creation of Entrepreneur Ideas Educator and and Vision Vision Conception of the Business Programs and Support Projects Organizations Business Business Training Consolidation Clients Pre-incubation Competitors Incubation Suppliers P. incubation Partners Legislation, Mediation, Arbitration, Banks and Social Responsibility Risk Investment Financial System Unions and Third Sector Association Governments Figure 7: Institutional Elements in Building TrustIn the development of an entrepreneurial culture, trust in the relations among the diverseactors involved is important for a number of reasons. Trust is required to diminish transactioncosts between individuals and organizations, thereby building a business environment thattends to be more competitive. Trust is also essential in exchanges of information andknowledge that are at the core of innovation processes. At the same time, the newentrepreneur, mainly younger ones, benefit from this environment since they may foundlesser difficulty in connecting to other market elements.Viewed in this light, trust is an asset that unifies all other world class assets discussed inprevious sections, facilitating exchanges, increasing the speed of interactions and supplyinga fuel that is vital to the development of the entrepreneurial culture.Social entrepreneurism is an element of importance to building trust-based relations. In muchthe same way, actions and initiatives supported by international and multilateralorganizations tend to stress the building of this asset as an important objective. Appendix 5describes several initiatives around the world that contribute to the development of a climateof trust for the creation and management of an entrepreneurial culture.12
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture4. CONCLUSIONConstruction and development of an entrepreneurial culture in any socio-economic-culturalframework is a systemic and multifaceted process. Innumerable elements exist that are partof this process and their interrelations are complex and sometimes conflicting. Figure 8,which was constructed in the course of the previous sections, lists the major actors andelements that must act in a positive fashion to make construction of an entrepreneurialculture feasible. Knowledge of Knowledge of Technologies Knowledge of Market Management Entrepreneur and Creation of Educator and Vision Vision Ideas Conception of Programs and the Business Support Projects Organizations Business Business Training Consolidation Clients Competitors Pre-incubation Suppliers Partners Incubation P. incubation Risk Investments Banks and Financial System Unions and Third Sector Associations Governments Figure 8: Core Elements in the Building of an Entrepreneurial CultureThe entrepreneurial culture occurs at the intersection of the interests of the various actorsinvolved. Policies, strategies, programs and measures taken to foster development ofentrepreneurism and entrepreneurial culture must be structured in a holistic manner in orderto achieve the positive participation of all the required elements. Even though it was createdin a highly specific reality – North America, the Triple Helix model (Etzkowitz, H. 1994) is atool that can be employed to verify the interaction among the various actors in thedevelopment of an entrepreneurial culture (Figure 9). With this model, one can understandand structure relations among three fundamental sets of actors in the entrepreneurialprocess: Productive Sector, Academia and Government. 13
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture Productive Academia Sector Government Figure 9: Model of Government, Academia and Productive Sector InteractionSuccess in the implementation of policies designed to develop an entrepreneurial culture alsodepends on a careful analysis of local values and culture. Any program or measure taken tofoster entrepreneurism must be carefully designed in order to take due account of thepeculiarities of the environment in which it will be implemented. Utilization of ready-madesolutions generated by other cultural realities has little chance of success without carefuladaptation to local needs.14
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture5. REFERENCESCURTAIN, R. (1992) Richard Curtain. Generating Youth Employment through Information andCommunication Technologies: Best Practice Examples and Strategies. © 2002 Education andDevelopment Center, Inc. (These materials may be reproduced and distributed foreducational purposes). Produced for the Youth Employment Summit (YES 2002), Alexandria,Egypt, 2002. http://www.yesweb.org/gkr/res/bg.ict.ta.doc.CHAGAS, F. C. D. and da Silva, F.Q.B. (1997). University Teaching of the Setting up ofBusinesses in the Area of Software. The Discipline: `New Venture Creation in Software`From the Program SoftEx 2000. 42nd. International Conference on Small Business WorldConference. San Francisco, United States, 06/1997.CHIGUNTA, F. (1992) Francis Chigunta, Wolfson College, Oxford University. YouthEntrepreneurship: Meeting the Key Policy Challenges.http://www.yesweb.org/gkr/res/bg.entrep.ta.doc.CHURCHILL and LEWIS (1993). The Five Stages of Small Business Growth, Harvard BusinessReview, May/June, vol. 61, no. 3, pp: 30-50.ETZKOWITZ, H. (1994). The Triple Helix: A North American Innovation Environment.Presented at the opening session of the NAFTA Institute on Innovation, August 14-21, BritishColumbia, Canada.DA SILVA, F.Q.B. and Araújo, E. E. R. (1996). Enterprise Start-ups in Academic Departments:the Genesis Project. V World Conference on Science Parks. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 10/1996.DA SILVA, F.Q.B and Chagas, F. C. D. (1997). A Fábrica de Empresas: a Experiência deGeração de Novos Empreendimentos em Pernambuco (The Business Factory: Experiences inGenerating New Enterprises in Pernambuco). VII Seminário Nacional de ParquesTecnológicos e Incubadoras de Empresas (VII National Seminar on Technological Parks andBusiness Incubators), pp. 168-177, Salvador, BA, 09/1997.DA SILVA, F.Q.B. (1998). The Setting Up of Environmental Conditions for the Creation ofSoftware Enterprises in Brazil: the GENESIS Project and its Results. 43rd ICSB WorldConference on Entrepreneurship, Singapore, June 1998.DA SILVA, F.Q.B. (1998). The Creation of World Class Companies in Brazil: the Setting Up andOperation of a Distributed and Networked Enterprise Generation Program. Fabio Q. B. daSilva. VII World Conference on Science Parks. Austrália, 10/1998. 15
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial CultureDA SILVA, F.Q.B. (2002) Fabio Q. B. da Silva et al. Porto Digital: Um Ambiente deEmpreendedorismo, Inovação e Negócios de Tecnologia da Informação e Comunicação (inPortuguese) (Digital Port: an Environment of Information and Communication TechnologyEntrepreneurship, Innovation and Business). 2002.KANTER, R. M. (1995). World Class. Simon & Schuster.KAO, W. Y. Kao (1997). Raymond W. Y. Kao. An Entrepreneurial Approach to CorporateManagement. Simon & Schuster (Asia) Pte Ltd, 1997.MYTELKA, L. and Farinelli, F. (2000). Local Clusters, Innovation Systems and SustainedCompetitiveness. UNU/INTECH discussion paper #2005. http://www.intech.unu.edu.OECD 1999. Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard: Benchmarking Knowledge-BasedEconomies. Paris, France: OECD.OECD 2000a. Science, Technology and Industry Outlook. Paris, France: OECD.RAY, Denis M. (1992). Assessing Entrepreneurship Training as a Strategy of EconomicDevelopment. Asian Entrepreneur, Volume II, number 1.16
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture APPENDIX 1SOFTEX Project/SoftStartType of initiative: promotion of entrepreneurship education.Available services: teacher training course in entrepreneurship; financial support for start-upentrepreneurship teaching activities.Contact for more information: SOFTEX Society at http://www.softex.brOrganization in charge: SOFTEX Society.Geographic scope of the initiative: Brazil.What the initiative does: The SoftStart Project was conceived in the field of action of theBrazilian Software for Exports Program (SOFTEX 2000) and was financed by the Braziliangovernment, for three years, through the National Council for Scientific and TechnologicalDevelopment. The project’s objective was to disseminate the entrepreneurship training as acourse of study in Brazilian institutions of technical and higher education in the areas ofcomputer technology and science. The methodology used was that of the students’constructing business plans and being evaluated by a jury of professionals active in theareas of entrepreneurial management, finances and marketing, in addition to their beingexperienced entrepreneurs. In order to disseminate the methodology, SoftStart held a coursein the training of trainers, called “Training the Trainers” (TTT). Through this course, theteachers in the educational institutions were qualified to act as facilitators in theentrepreneurship course of study. SoftStart qualified over 200 teachers in 150 educationalinstitutions in the country. Currently, most of those institutions have definitely incorporatedthe entrepreneurship course of study in their education curriculum. The project has producedsignificant results in developing the entrepreneurship culture in the area of computertechnology and science in Brazil, arousing the interest of thousands of students to structureand initiate their own businesses. In addition, it has disseminated the business planmethodology with the objective of giving the entrepreneur an important planning andmanagement tool for the development of his/her business. The success of the initiative hasinspired the National Confederation of Industry, through the Euvaldo Lodi Institute (IEL), tocarry out a similar project but, this time, not restricted to computer technology and science.The IEL entrepreneurship program has already disseminated the entrepreneurship course ofstudy among hundreds of educational institutions in Brazil, in several areas of knowledge,chiefly in engineering. A description of the project’s methodology can be found in (Chagas,F.C.D. and Da Silva, F.Q.B. 1997)What is the role of the ICT in the initiative: the project was conceived to qualify teachers inthe courses of information technology to become facilitators in the entrepreneurship coursesof study for students in vocational schools and higher education courses.Link: htto://www.softex.br 17
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial CultureEuvaldo Lodi Institute (IEL): Entrepreneurship in Educational Institutions and otherProjects.Type of initiative: training of entrepreneursAvailable services: training of multipliers in the entrepreneurship courses of study atvocational schools and higher education institutions.Contact for more information: fale@iel.cni.org.brOrganization in charge: Euvaldo Lodi Institute (IEL), Brazil’s National Confederation of Industry(CNI).Geographic scope of the initiative: BrazilWhat the initiative does: The objective of this initiative, implemented by IEL in Brazil, is “togive incentive to the dissemination of entrepreneurial culture in the country’s highereducation institutions through the establishment of entrepreneurship courses of study in theregular curricula of the several courses.” The National IEL sponsors courses for the “Trainingof Trainers”, which train the university professors to act as facilitators in courses of study onentrepreneurship teaching. The project “Entrepreneurship University Teaching” sponsorscourses that train university professors who wish to set up and teach entrepreneurshipsubjects in their courses. The project has qualified over 600 professors in 126 highereducation institutions in the country. Other projects within the initiative aim at givingincentive to the development of junior companies, the publication of teaching materials, theholding of events and the granting of awards to the young entrepreneurs, as a way todisseminate entrepreneurship culture in the higher education institutions of Brazil.What is the role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis.Link: http://www.iel.org.br/home.htmEntrepreneurship Curriculum at Secondary and Vocational SchoolsType of initiative: entrepreneurs training programAvailable services: definition of a curriculum for the training of young entrepreneurs.Contact for more information: The curriculum has been sent by Mr. Fred Clark,Communications Manager, Youth Employment Summit, 55 Chapel St, Newton, Ma 02458,U.S.A. Phone: 1 617 618 2743, Fax: 1 617 969 4902.Organization in charge: UNIDOGeographic scope of the initiative: UgandaWhat the initiative has done: Up until March, 2003, 8,000 students in 10 secondary schoolsand 270 other students per semester in vocational schools have been taking theentrepreneurship pilot program in Uganda as a mandatory subject in their courses. TheUnited Nations Organization has developed the curriculum for Industrial Development(UNIDO) for the Uganda Ministry of Education. Its objective is to have the curriculumintroduced in all public secondary schools by January 2005, increasing the number ofstudents involved to 400,000. The project’s objective is to develop an entrepreneurial cultureby which the young person can build a positive attitude regarding to business,18
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Cultureentrepreneurship and self-employment, and to give him/her the knowledge and skills todevelop his/her own business or a successful business career, be it as a businessperson oras an employee. In order to reach those objectives of entrepreneurship training, the teachersare qualified to make use of the general conditions in which the student lives, taking intoaccount the familiar aspects of the community, the villages, and the cities, besides thedifferences in income level, education and employment. Therefore, all the elements ofentrepreneurship present in the curriculum, that involve concepts, skills, values and behaviorshould be brought about, integrated with the culture and the natural logic of the student andnot as imported theories from other contexts.What is the role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis.The Foundation for Economic and Business Development (FEBDEV)Type of initiative: Organization of entrepreneurs’ qualification.Available services: entrepreneurs training courseContact for more information:Organization in charge: FEBDEVGeographic scope of the initiative: South AfricaWhat the initiative does: FEBDEV provides training in entrepreneurial skills and opportunitiesof network development for individuals, businesses and educational institutions throughworkshops and distribution of resources. There are eight ongoing projects. The “Hands-onEnterprise” program gives support to educational institutions in the development ofstructured entrepreneurship projects. Several other programs are designed to disseminateentrepreneurial competences and skills in educational institutions. Particularly, the program“Enterprise Education through Action Learning” seeks to qualify trainers, educators andteachers in entrepreneurial education. According to FEBDEV, over one million people will takethe course and over five thousand teachers and trainers have been qualified.What is the role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasisLink: http://www.febdev.org.za/home.htmlPrimary Enterprise and Young EntrepreneursType of initiative: Entrepreneurs training programAvailable services: entrepreneurs training courses in primary and secondary schoolsContact for more information: Enterprise North Shore Trust, Unit 3, 100 Bush Road, Albany,North Shore City, New Zealand, Phone: 64-9 414 1341, Fax: 64-9 414 1340, Email:team@enterprisens.org.nz.Organization in charge: Enterprise New Zealand Trust, Enterprise North Shore.Geographic scope of the initiative: New ZealandWhat the initiative does: The initiative involves two educational programs for thedevelopment of entrepreneurial culture, carried out in primary and secondary schools in theNorth Shore region, New Zealand. The programs were developed by a non-profit 19
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Cultureorganization, Enterprise New Zealand. The program Primary Enterprise was developed forprimary schools and the Young Entrepreneurs is addressed to secondary schools. Theprograms design is inspired in the Global Entrepreneurial Monitor (GEM) results andrecommendations.What is the role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasisLink: http//www.enterprisens.org.nz/mediareleases/2002/dec_02.htm APPENDIX 1.1Competency based Economies through Formation of Enterprise (CEFE)Type of initiative: qualifying program.Available services: qualifying methodology; publications; support to long-term projects.Contact for more information: CEFE International, Wallstrasse 28, 61348 Bad Homburgv.d.H., Germany. Phone: +49 – 6172 – 21516. Email: info@cefe.net.Organization in charge: GTZGeographic scope of the initiative: global.What the initiative does: CEFE is a whole set of qualifying tools that use a system orientedtowards action and experimental learning methods with the objective of carrying out andenhancing business administration and personal competences for a wide variety ofbeneficiary groups, mainly in the area of job creation and economic development. CEFE is anadaptive concept that has been used to promote a great diversity of different social groups,such as demobilized soldiers in Ethiopia, refugees in Mozambique, women under vocationalorientation in Tunisia, ex-convicts in Chile, micro-entrepreneurs in Brazil, university studentscoming back from Vietnam and private enterprise staff in Uzbekistan. The addresshttp://www.cefe.net/scripts/userl.asp?Sprache=l&DoklD=2864 has a series of publicationson entrepreneurship.What is the role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasisLink: http://www.cefe.net APPENDIX 1.21. Encouraging an Enterprising Culture in Australia Type of initiative: training of entrepreneurs. Available services: study on entrepreneurship teaching actions. Contact for further information: Professor John Breen. Organization in charge: small Business Research Unit, Victoria University of Technology. Geographic scope of the initiative: Australia What the initiative does: the paper presents the results of a research among Australian20
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture secondary school students on their level of understanding about small businesses and their experiences in that sector. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in the United States and Canada. The results point out to the need for developing curricula that focus on entrepreneurship and on the promotion of activities that foster contact between students and entrepreneurs. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.sbaer.uca.edu/Research/1998/ICSB/b001.htm2. University Entrepreneurship Education in Argentina: A Decade of Analysis. Type of initiative: training of entrepreneurs. Available services: study on entrepreneurship teaching actions and on the factors that led to their emergence. Contact for further information: Sergio Postigo, spostigo@udesa.edu.ar and Fernanda Tamborini, ftamborini@udesa.edu.ar, Vito Dumas 284, (1644) Victoria, Argentina, Phone: +54 11 4725-7057/Fax: +54 11 4725-7010 http://www.udesa.edu.ar/entrepreneurship. Organization in charge: University of San Andrés, Argentina. Geographic scope of the initiative: Argentina. What the initiative does: this paper studied 70 academic units of the Argentinean university system. Only those units that had undergraduate or graduate entrepreneurship education courses or programs were selected. The objective of the study was to analyze the evolution of entrepreneurship education in Argentina and the reasons that contribute to the development and consolidation of that phenomenon in the country. The results show that, just as in other countries, entrepreneurship has a favorable development environment in Argentinean universities. Around 33% of the public institutions and 25% of the private ones are involved with some type of entrepreneurship activity. However, this development concentrates in the most developed regions of the country. The chief obstacles to the dissemination of the enterprising culture are the strict curricula; the absence of specific fostering to the entrepreneurial training programs and the lack of professors specialized in the area. Therefore, there are several aspects to be dealt with in order to facilitate the development of an enterprising culture: academic legitimacy of the area, fostering of educational programs, and training of specialists and development of local case studies. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.sbaer.uca.edu/Research/2003/ICSB/papers /12.doc3. Entrepreneurial Education in the United States: an Empirical Review of the Past Twenty Years. Type of initiative: training of entrepreneurs. Available services: study on entrepreneurship teaching actions Contact for further information: George Solomon. 21
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture Organization in charge: George Washington University, United States of America. Geographic scope of the initiative: United States. What the initiative does: the paper presents a study on the results and entrepreneurship teaching trends in the United States since 1978. In addition, it compares those results with those of educational institutions in other parts of the world. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.sbaer.uca.edu/Research/1998/ICSB/i002.htm APPENDIX 1.31. Disclosing New Worlds: Entrepreneurship, Democratic Action, and the Cultivation of Solidarity. Type of initiative: book on the subject of entrepreneurship. Available services: concepts that may be used in structuring entrepreneurship courses. Authors: Charles Spinosa, Fernando Flores and Hubert L. Dreyfus. Publishers: The MIT Press. Geographic scope of the initiative: global. What the initiative does: a recent, innovative text on entrepreneurship and the construction of cultural innovation values. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis.2. Entrepreneurship: a Philosophy and a Sensible Alternative for the Market Economy Type of initiative: book on entrepreneurship. Available services: concepts that may be used in structuring entrepreneurship courses. Authors: Raymond W. Y. Kao, Kenneth R. Kao and Rowland R; Kao. Publishers: Imperial College Press, 2002. Geographic scope of the initiative: global. What the initiative does: textbook on entrepreneurship that presents a modern view of the subject and places emphasis on the construction of entrepreneurship values and culture with a social view and long term support of the environment. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis.22
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture APPENDIX 21. SOFTEX/GENESIS Project. Type of initiative: support to the emergence of new enterprises. Available services: pre-incubation of new businesses through an infrastructure for entrepreneurial development; seed-money; entrepreneurial advisory; networking. Contact for further information: SOFTEX Society – http://www.softex.br Organization in charge: SOFTEX Society. Geographic scope of the initiative: Brazil. What the initiative does: the objective of the GENESIS project is to stimulate the creation of world-class software businesses and information technology services by young entrepreneurs in Brazil. In order to reach that objective, 19 centers have been set up and financed to create enterprises in Brazilian universities. Between 1996 and 1998, GENESIS invested US$2 million per year in the structuring and operation of new enterprises creation centers. The funds came from the Federal Government and private partners, through the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and the SOFTEX Program. During that time, 120 new enterprises were created, with over 300 entrepreneurs involved. These companies’ billing, in 1997, was over US$600,000. Most of the centers for the creation of new enterprises are still in operation, complementing the pre-incubation services with entrepreneurship education and business incubation. The project’s methodology and results have been published in several national and international papers listed in the bibliographical reference. The role of the ICT in the initiative: the project was conceived to stimulate the creation of new businesses, in ICT, at the Brazilian universities and vocational schools. Link: http://www.genesis.org.br (in Portuguese). APPENDIX 2.11. Promoting an Entrepreneurial Culture: the Challenge of Cultural Change. Type of initiative: support to the emergence of new enterprises. Available services: Contact for further information: EAP Culture Manager, Daniel Jones, daniel.jones@wda.co.uk Organization in charge: Welsh Development Agency – WDA. Geographic scope of the initiative: Wales, United Kingdom. What the initiative does: the project “Promoting an Entrepreneurial Culture” is an activity of the Action 1, Plan of Action for the Wales Entrepreneurship. The project objectives are: to enhance the awareness and positive attitudes regarding to entrepreneurship; to 23
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture encourage the growth of entrepreneurship through the creation of new businesses and the growth of existing ones; to encourage entrepreneurship in the public sector and in the social economy. The project is based on a research used to assess attitudes and perceptions of entrepreneurship in Wales and their evolution throughout the project. In addition, given that the greatest challenge of the project is widespread cultural change, a specific entrepreneurship model was developed to deal with that change, which is used in the project’s educational and marketing actions. The motivational model developed emphasizes the opportunities that arise for any individual to become an entrepreneur throughout his/her life: when he/she changes jobs, moves, during a period of discontentment with his/her work environment, after being fired or after premature retirement. The model is based on entrepreneurs’ experiences and allows individuals to appraise the risks of developing their own businesses in view of other aspects of their lives. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.wda.co.uk/en/start _your_own_business/entrepreneurial_culture.cfm2. The Center for Entrepreneurship Education and Development. Type of initiative: organization to support entrepreneurship. Available services: analysis of the support initiative impact on the development of an entrepreneurial culture; information on entrepreneurship support mechanisms; entrepreneurship support in general. Contact for further information: P.O. Box 515, 1521 Grafton Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and B3J 2R7. Phone: (902) 421-CEED (2333)or 1-800-590-8481, Fax: (902) 482- 0291, Email: info@ceed.ca Organization in charge: The Center for Entrepreneurship Education and Development, Nova Scotia, Canada. Geographic scope of the initiative: Nova Scotia, Canada. What the initiative does: The Center for Entrepreneurship Education and Development (CEED) of Canada is an innovation center that aids governments, organizations and communities in the development of entrepreneurship. The CEED helps build “local qualification for local solutions”. The center’s mission is to develop entrepreneurship in individuals through Entrepreneurial Education, Program Development and Research, Professional Development and Entrepreneurial Culture in the Community. The CEED has carried out two important researches on the development of the entrepreneurial culture in Nova Scotia, Canada. The study “Growing an Entrepreneurial Culture”, (http://www.ceed.info/programs/pdfs/chayter_report.pdf) presents an evaluation report of entrepreneurial development among the Nova Scotia youth. Its objective was to assess the impact of the programs to promote entrepreneurship among the young people, carried out by several government departments and agencies in the region. Particularly, the study focuses on evaluating the effectiveness of four programs, specifically: (1)24
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture Entrepreneurship 12, (2) Open for Business (OFB), (3) Youth Entrepreneur Program (YEP), and (4) African/Nova Scotian/Jamaican Youth Exchange Program (ANS/JYEP). The second study, “Supporting an Entrepreneurial Culture” (http://www.ceed.info/programs/pdfs/Final_Report_March_2003.pdf), presents the final report on a regional consultation of the entrepreneurship support mechanisms in Nova Scotia, carried out by CEED for the “Nova Scotia Department of Economic Development.” The objective of the consultation is to evaluate the elements of support to the entrepreneurial culture in all the sectors of society: public, private, and volunteer. A framework for the analysis of the nature, scope and amount of support given to entrepreneurship was developed in the evaluation. The framework allows for detailed examination of the support available for entrepreneurs and it can be used in other contexts. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there was no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.ceed.info3. The Alchemist - Norwegian Government Entrepreneurship Programme Type of initiative: entrepreneurship development program. Services available: support to entrepreneurs for the creation of business; financing. Contact for more information: Innovation Architects, Kenneth Winther, Dicks vei 12, 1366 Lysaker, Norway. Phone: (+47) 900 70 900. Fax: (+47) 67 10 20 01. Email: Kenneth@i- a.no. Organization in charge: Innovation Architects & Global Entrepreneurs. Geographical scope of the initiative: Norway. What the initiative does: Alchemist is a State Development Fund program of the Norwegian Government, created to promote and give support to the development of new businesses and the promotion of entrepreneurship. Norway ‘s Ministry of Business and Commerce has defined policies for the allocation of funds from the State Development Fund to promote and give support to entrepreneurs, as a special target group, with the objective of developing business and commerce and the sustainability of rural dwellings. The program’s target group are individuals who are considering creating a new business or who already manage their own enterprises. The program’s objective is to enhance entrepreneurship motivation, competence and opportunities, contributing to the emergence of new businesses. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.paginas.net.co/global/images/admin/Brief%20Alchemist.PDF. 25
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture APPENDIX 31. International Enactment of Entrepreneurial Values: Mapping Internationalization Processes in Small Firms. Type of initiative: study on the factors of small firm internationalization. Available services: conclusions on the internationalization and globalization of small and medium-sized companies, as part of the values and the entrepreneurial culture construction process. Contact for further information: Dr. Denise Fletcher and Prof. Shai Vyakarnam, The Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham, NG1 3BU, United Kingdom, Email: denise.fletcher@ntu.ac.uk, Phone: +44 115 8418 418. Organization in charge: The BDO Stoy Hayward Center for Growing Businesses, Nottingham Business School. Geographic scope of the initiative: United Kingdom. What the initiative does: the paper presents 5 case studies on the small businesses’ internalization process. The exploratory study shows that the international transactions are learning experiences on the conversations and exchanges in different socio- economic-cultural contexts. From the point of view of the entrepreneur, this learning refers to intuitive answers to unexpected, emerging situations, to the skills for dealing with cultural diversity, to the disposition to build and keep relationships between borders and reaching access to market information outside one’s country. Based on this learning, the entrepreneur’s vision of internationalization is built, and the external exchange process is carried out. This paper describes entrepreneurship as a process that is built interactively by means of conversation and discourse. Something that is constantly evolving, changing and being reconstructed through the different experiences and learning opportunities. Therefore, the development of networks, the connection with other local and international entrepreneurs, is of fundamental importance for the creation of an entrepreneurial culture and the development of business. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.nbs.ntu.ac.uk/depts/cgb/research/pdf/int_enact.pdf APPENDIX 3.11. Development Gateway Type of initiative: Web gateway. Available services: studies, information on financing sources, relationships network construction. Contact for further information: 815 Connecticut Av., NW, Suite 620, Washington, DC26
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture 20006, United States. Phone: +1 202 458 7226, Fax: +1 202 522 7479, Email: info@developmentgateway.org. Organization in charge: Development Gateway Foundation. Geographic scope of the initiative: global. There are Country Gateways in several countries of Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin and Central America, and the Middle East. What the initiative does: Development Gateway is a Web gateway that provides information, products and services focused on issues of development, including resources that may benefit entrepreneurs in developing countries. Its goal is to help communities, organizations and individuals to build partnerships, share ideas and work together to reduce poverty. Among the services rendered, are: (1) virtual communities; (2)AIDA – Access to Information on Development Activities; (3) dgMarket, a global information market on development activities; (4) Country Gateways, initiatives operated locally that explore the use of ICT for the development of their countries. The role of the ICT in the initiative: it is a Web gateway. Link: http://www.developmentgateway.org APPENDIX 3.21. Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Type of activity: new businesses development and support program. Services available: programs, projects and actions in support of entrepreneurship and development of the entrepreneurial culture; plan of action for 2002-2003. Contact for further information: Small Business Development Center, Ljubljana, Dunajska 156, Slovenia. Organization in charge: Slovenia’s Small Business Development Center (SBDC). Geographic scope of the initiative: Slovenia. What the initiative does: The SBDC is an organization created by the Government of Slovenia and directly connected with the Ministry of the Economy. Its mission is the development of efficient support services for business, with the objective of promoting commerce, entrepreneurship, self-employment and the entrepreneurial culture in Slovenia. The SBDC’s Operational Program for 2002-2003 presents two action components: “Implementation of Permanent Activities” and “Implementation of Entrepreneurship Development Programs and Projects of the Government and the European Union (EU)”. Among the ten Programs and Projects, the following are included: “Promotion of Entrepreneurial Culture”, “Promotion of Women’s Entrepreneurship” and “Development of Entrepreneurship and Creativity in the Youth”. Objectives, key-activities, expected results and success indicators are presented for the Permanent Activities and the Projects and Programs. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. 27
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture Link: http://www.pcmg.si/admin/upload/ostalo/ProgrammeSBDC.pdf2. Realizing Our Potential – The Revised Regional Economic Strategy. Type of initiative: regional development program. Services available: regional development programs; entrepreneurial culture development actions and projects. Contact for further information: The Strategy Team at One NorthEast, Andrew Sugden, andrew.sugden@onenortheast.co.uk (Phone: 0191 229 6608) or Kirsten Young, kirsten.young@onenortheast.co.uk (Phone: 0191 229 6611). Organization in charge: The Development Agency for the Northeast of England. Geographic scope of the initiative: Northeast of England. What the initiative does: It defines England’s Northeastern region’s strategic development plan, through actions carried out by the Development Agency for the Northeast of England. The emphasis is on entrepreneurship development and on the creation of new businesses. Action B2 – Establishing a New Entrepreneurial Culture develops the theme of stimulating and supporting entrepreneurial culture. This action is detailed in “Policy Implementation Framework” for 2002-2010. (http://www.onenortheast.co.uk/strategyreview/pif.cfm). This action contains detailed projects for: entrepreneurial attitude reconstruction, creation of business networks, creation of 200 new businesses up until 2010, combination of entrepreneurs with ideas, access to financing sources, creation of an international business center, promotion of enterprises based on local communities. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.onenortheast.co.uk/strategyreview/index.cfm.28
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture APPENDIX 41. Endeavor Global. Type of initiative: organization of services for the entrepreneur. Services available: studies, business planning and financial support, development of networks and relations. Contact for further information: 601 West 26th Street, 17th Floor, New York NY 10001, United States, Phone: +1 212 352 3200, Fax: +1 212 352 1892, Email: info@endeavor.org. Organization in charge: Endeavor Global, a non-profit organization. Geographic scope of the initiative: global. What the initiative does: Endeavor has several branches in the world, particularly in developing countries. Its action is carried out in the supplying of information to the entrepreneur, construction of relationship networks and support to attract venture capital. Endeavor also encourages international investors to finance high risk enterprises in developing countries and teaches local community investment members how to act as “Angel Investors”. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.endeavor.org. APPENDIX 4.11. INOVAR Project – FINEP Type of initiative: support to the development of risk capital funds. Services available: investor qualification; Risk Capital Harbor; innovation forums. Contact for further information: Luiz Martins de Melo, Superintendent of the Innovation and Investment Area, Phone: +55 21 -2555-0621/+55 21- 2555-1313/+55 21 2555- 0322. http://www.finep.gov.br. Organization in charge: Financer of Studies and Projects – FINEP. Geographic scope of the initiative: Brazil. What the initiative does: The INOVAR PROJECT was created in May, 2000, by FINEP, a Brazilian Governmental agency to foster projects. This project has the objective of promoting the development of small and medium-size Brazilian technology-based businesses through the development of financing tools, especially risk capital. The actions of the INOVAR Project are: (1) Risk Capital Funds Incubator; (2) Brazil Innovation Forum; (3) Brazil Risk Capital Gateway (http://www.venturecapital.com.br); (4) INOVAR Network of Business Tapping and Development; (5) Development of Risk Capital agent training and qualification programs. Through the Risk Capital Harbor, investors and 29
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture entrepreneurs can enlist themselves. The Gateway services give support to the initial negotiation processes between the entrepreneur and the risk investor, those services being complemented by the meetings held at the Brazil Innovation Forums. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.venturecapital.com.br APPENDIX 4.2 1. DevelopmentSpace Type of initiative: investment and social entrepreneurship enterprise. Available services: support to entrepreneurial planning; financial support; relationships network construction. Contact for further information: 1828 L Street, Suite 1030, Washington, DC, 20036 USA. Email: questions@developmentspace.com Phone: +1 202 3317710. Organization in charge: Acumen Fund, non-profit organization. Geographic scope of the initiative: Africa and South of Asia. What the initiative does: It is a market of investment and social entrepreneurship opportunities created to make the access of social entrepreneurs to sources of financing easier, thus reducing entry barriers and enhancing the efficiency of funding programs. This is done through a web-based platform, which consists of three points of view. The social entrepreneur presents his ideas, which are authenticated and go through a business plan construction process. The social investor (donor) finds, chooses and finances the projects in its several stages of development. Service providers find the opportunities for services resulting from the financed projects, creating a market for the solutions developed. The role of the ICT in the initiative: all services are provided on the Internet. Link: http://www.developmentspace.com 2. The Grameen Organizations. Type of initiative: seed money; financial support to small businesses. Available services: financial, planning and business management support. Contact for further information: Grameen Bank Bhabn, Mirpur, Section-2, Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh. Email: grameen.bank@grameen.net. Phone: +88 (0) 2 900 5257 68. Organization in charge: Grameen Family of Organizations Geographic scope of the initiative: Bangladesh. What the initiative does: The first of the twelve Grameen Organizations was the Grameen Bank (GB), which introduced the concept of micro-credit in Bangladesh. The core objective of the GB is to lend money, without collateral security, to the poor population of the country. The structure set up for the credit is that of small groups of30
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture five people who give mutual guaranty. The GB has already lent over US$1 billion to over 1 million clients. The model has been replicated in fifty other countries and consists of the micro-credit initiative best known in the world. Starting from the GB, its founders have expanded their focus area to other profit companies and non-profit organizations, making up a total of twelve organizations. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there are 68 information management centers and two ICT-related initiatives, Grameen Telcom and Grameen Cybernet, that work towards bringing ICT to the people of Bangladesh Link: http://www.grameen-info.org/index.html APPENDIX 4.31. Construction of an Entrepreneurial Culture in Mexico Type of initiative: study and proposal of policy and action. Available services: observations and recommendations for the development of an entrepreneurial culture. Contact for further information: Fernando Fabre, Director, Venture Finance Institute of Mexico, Anahuac del Sur University, Mexico City, Email: ffabre@ds.uas.mx Organization in charge: Nacional Financiera, SNC. Geographic scope of the initiative: Mexico. What the initiative does: The Nacional Financiera of Mexico’s initiative has produced a study with the objective of drawing conclusions and offering recommendations to the public authorities and to the Mexican investment sector in order to accelerate the rate of transformation in the Mexican business culture and to allow Mexico to anticipate and prevent possible delays and restrictions to the Mexican economy potential growth. The study presents observations on the entrepreneurship current practices and risk investment in Mexico, and, by way of comparison, in the United States. Also, a set of recommendations to stimulate entrepreneurial culture in Mexico is described. Among such recommendations, the study remarks on the need to give support to governmental entities for the creation of risk capital funds and the regulation of their actions. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.uas.mx/escuelas/ADMEMP/EntrepreneurshipinMexico.pdf 31
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture APPENDIX 51. Social Entrepreneurship: Towards an Entrepreneurial Culture for Social and Economic Development. Type of initiative: social entrepreneurship. Available services: proposals for the development of a global entrepreneurial culture. Contact for further information: Ashoka Headquarters Office, 1700 North Moore Street, Suite 2000, Arlington, VA 22209, USA. Phone: 703-527-8300, Fax: 703-527-8383. Organization in charge: Ashoka: Innovators for the Public. Geographic scope of the initiative: global. What the initiative does: The paper “Social Entrepreneurship: Towards an Entrepreneurial Culture for Social and Economic Development” was presented at the Youth Employment Summit (YES), in September 1992, and it discusses, in depth, the entrepreneurial culture from the point of view of social entrepreneurship development. The paper describes the role of social entrepreneurship in the creation of value for society and in income distribution for individuals. Five recommendations are then made for the development of a global entrepreneurial culture: (1) constructing a vision of work throughout an individual’s whole life; (2) changing the focus from the neo-liberal macro-economic policies to the promotion of decent work with ecologically sustainable growth capable of creating jobs intensively; (3) removing the barriers that block or discourage entrepreneurship, mainly those that are caused by government actions or policies; (4) ensuring the poor population access to credit without collateral security; (5) promoting social entrepreneurship professionally. Starting from those recommendations, entrepreneurship case studies are presented as a way of constructing trust relationships in Society in several parts in the world. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.ashoka.org/global/yespaper.pdf2. Corporate Social Responsibility Forum: Enterprise and Economic Development. Type of initiative: promotion of social responsibility in large multinational corporations. Services available: The CSR Forum acts on seven themes with the objective of studying and disseminating models, practices and tools to enhance large corporations’ social responsibility. Contact for further information: The Prince of Wales International Business Leaders Forum (IBLF), 15-16 Cornwall Terrace, Regent’s Park, London, NW1 4QP, United Kingdom. Phone: +44 (0) 20 7467 3600. Facsimile: +44 (0) 20 7467 3610. Email: info@iblf.org Organization in charge: Corporate Social Responsibility Forum. Geographic scope of the initiative: global. What the initiative does: The acronym CSR represents the name “Corporate Social32
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture Responsibility” in English. Its broad meaning may be understood as open and transparent business practices based on ethical values and respect for employees, the community and the environment. CSR has been conceived to produce sustainable values for the society at large, as well as for the entrepreneur. The CSR Forum develops actions towards promoting corporate social responsibility in businesses, mainly multinational corporations that operate in developing countries. For that matter, the theme “Enterprise and Economic Development” develops actions associated to the construction of sustainable links among large corporations and small local businesses, forming a link of trust whose objective is to promote sustainable business for all the actors involved. In its program “Business and Enterprise” the CSR has produced a study on the best practices of this kind of relationship whose executive summary can be found in: http://www.csrforum.com/csr/csrwebassist.nsf/content/flc2a3g4.html. Initiatives such as the CSR Forum are in line with the most recent and innovative thoughts about entrepreneurship, like the ones presented by Raymond Kao et al and Charles Spinosa et al. Such initiatives confirm the importance of the development of trust relationships, on all levels of Society, to build an entrepreneurial culture. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.csrforum.com3. Charter for Innovation and Company Start-up in Europe. Type of initiative: action proposal. Available services: proposals for programs, projects and actions towards the development of an entrepreneurial culture. Contact for further information: http://www.ccip.fr Organization in charge: Chambre de Commerce et D’Industrie de Paris. Geographic scope of the initiative: European Union. What the initiative does: The paper has the objective of proposing programs, projects and actions to stimulate the emergence of new innovative enterprises in the European Union, starting from the combination of existing initiatives and the development of new actions. In order to promote entrepreneurial culture, this paper proposes actions to enhance awareness of entrepreneurship in education and in the public opinion. Therefore, it is necessary that there be a mobilization of the whole Society and, particularly, of the media. Four concrete proposals have, hence, been defined: (1) organization of yearly visitation events to enterprises: “company open-house day”; (2) inclusion of business internship training for educators and teachers in all areas and on all levels of education; (3) promotion of an entrepreneurial spirit among the youth during all their formal education; (4) support to and perpetuation of innovation assistance policies. Although the paper is not directly linked to programs or effective actions, the ideas presented provide orientation and a source of reference for the development of those actions in other contexts and countries. 33
    • Creation, Development and Management of an Entrepreneurial Culture The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www3.ccip.fr/dircom/entrep_uk.htm http://www3.ccip.fr/dircom/Charter.pdf4. The Youth Employment Summit Campaign – The YES Campaign. Type of initiative: global campaign to promote the creation of youth employment. Available services: events, construction of knowledge and creation of qualification. Contact for further information: Mr. Fred Clark (Fred@yesweb.org) or Ms. Poonam Ahluwalia, Youth Employment Summit Campaign, 55 Chapel Street, Newton, MA 02458, United States. Organization in charge: YES Campaign. Geographic scope of the initiative: global. What the initiative does: YES Campaign (The Youth Employment Summit Campaign) was launched in September 1992, with the objective of promoting youth development. The campaign focuses on two central elements: (1) construction of capability and qualification for the youth to become leaders; (2) construction of an entrepreneurial culture to promote youth employment. The YES Campaign keeps a Web-based global knowledge repository of information on the job market and effective practices for individuals and their partnership networks. The YES Campaign works with the following activities: (1) learning events carried out on the regional level (YES Regional Forum) and on the global level (YES Second Youth Employment Summit) to be held in Mexico, in 2004; (2) construction of knowledge about practices that work effectively (know what works) for the creation of job opportunities and wealth for the youth. Hence, YES has created an online data bank of good practices and other ICT tools for the dissemination of knowledge; (3) construction of competencies in sectors such as renewable energy, water supply and sanitation. During the First Youth Employment Summit, several papers were presented that give examples of entrepreneurial culture promotion. Curtain, R 1992 and Chigunta, F 1992 are particularly relevant for this paper. The former shows better practices of ICT use in the creation of jobs and local income. The latter presents the great challenges to the development of youth entrepreneurship. The role of the ICT in the initiative: there is no ICT emphasis. Link: http://www.yesweb.org34
    • This page was intentionally left blank
    • Information for Development ProgramPARTNERS: