TCVN

tiªu chuÈn quèc gia

tcvn 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
XuÊt b¶n lÇn 2

Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vμ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt
hÖ ...
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007

2
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007

Lêi nãi ®Çu
Bé tiªu chuÈn Quèc gia tõ TCVN 6475-1: 2007 ®Õn TCVN 6475-13:2007 thay
t...
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007

Lêi giíi thiÖu
HÖ thèng quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng bi...
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
7. TCVN 6475-7: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn...
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
Môc lôc
Lêi nãi ®Çu………………………………………………………………………………………………...………. 3
Lêi giíi thiÖu………………...
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
5. Gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt trong giai ®o¹n thiÕt kÕ s¬ bé ....................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
6.5. KiÓm tra ph©n cÊp ®èi víi c¸c ®−êng èng hiÖn cã....................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
7.3.3. §−êng èng vμ èng ®øng trong vïng ngËp n−íc .................................…....
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
1.4. KÐo dμi thêi gian sö dông ®−êng èng................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
4.5. Ph−¬ng ph¸p hÖ sè an toμn riªng phÇn ..............................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
3.2. C¸c hiÖu øng t¶i träng ®Æc tr−ng ..................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
4.2. TÝnh to¸n hiÖu øng t¶i träng ......................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
8.1. KÕt cÊu ®ì èng ®øng ...............................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
4.6. Thö ®é dai va ®Ëp víi vÕt c¾t ch÷ V ...............................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
8.2. §Æc tÝnh kü thuËt cña quy tr×nh chÕ t¹o (MPS) vμ chøng nhËn........................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
4.1. C¸c ®Æc tÝnh c¬ häc................................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
8.4. Chøng nhËn quy tr×nh uèn ..........................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
4. Bäc ngoμi èng........................................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
10.5. B¶o vÖ chèng ¨n mßn bªn trong b»ng c¸ch xö lý ho¸ häc ............................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
TCVN 6475-11: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn
P...
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
5.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ....................................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
9. KÐo bê (Shore pull)..................................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
12.2. Söa ch÷a nhÞp hÉng................................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
16.7. Thö hÖ thèng......................................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
6.2. Chøng nhËn quy tr×nh hμn söa ch÷a .................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
PhÇn 13: KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy
1. Quy ®Þnh chung ......................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
5.2. KiÓm tra siªu ©m tù ®éng...........................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007
10.1. Quy ®Þnh chung....................................................................
TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007

30
TCVN 6475-1:2007

t i ª u c h u È n quèc gia

Tcvn 6475-1: 2007
XuÊt b¶n lÇn 2

Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ ...
TCVN 6475-1:2007
1.5. Cho phÐp ¸p dông c¸c yªu cÇu trong c¸c quy ph¹m, tiªu chuÈn kü thuËt t−¬ng ®−¬ng kh¸c nÕu
®−îc §¨ng ...
TCVN 6475-1:2007
3.3. C¸c ®−êng èng ®· ®−îc thiÕt kÕ hoÆc chÕ t¹o theo c¸c tiªu chuÈn hoÆc Quy ®Þnh kh¸c víi c¸c
yªu cÇu c...
TCVN 6475-1:2007
5.1.1. C«ng t¸c gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt lµ mét ho¹t ®éng kiÓm tra ®éc lËp vµ mang tÝnh hÖ thèng ®èi víi c¸c
gia...
TCVN 6475-1:2007
5.1.11. Trong qu¸ tr×nh thùc hiÖn gi¸m s¸t, §¨ng kiÓm cã thÓ tiÕn hµnh kiÓm tra sù phï hîp cña kÕt
cÊu, c...
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Quy phạm phân cấp và giám sát kỹ thuật hệ thống đường ống biển
(Rules for classification technical supervision ò subsea pipeline system)

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  1. 1. TCVN tiªu chuÈn quèc gia tcvn 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 XuÊt b¶n lÇn 2 Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vμ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn Rules for Classification and Technical Supervision of Subsea Pipeline System hμ néi - 2007 1
  2. 2. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 2
  3. 3. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 Lêi nãi ®Çu Bé tiªu chuÈn Quèc gia tõ TCVN 6475-1: 2007 ®Õn TCVN 6475-13:2007 thay thÕ cho TCVN 6475: 1999. Bé tiªu chuÈn Quèc gia tõ TCVN 6475-1: 2007 ®Õn TCVN 6475 –13: 2007 Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn do Côc §¨ng kiÓm ViÖt Nam vµ Ban Kü thuËt tiªu chuÈn TCVN/TC8 - §ãng tµu vµ C«ng tr×nh biÓn - phèi hîp biªn so¹n, Tæng côc Tiªu chuÈn §o l−êng ChÊt l−îng ®Ò nghÞ, Bé Khoa häc vµ C«ng nghÖ c«ng bè. 3
  4. 4. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 Lêi giíi thiÖu HÖ thèng quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn ®−îc biªn so¹n trªn c¬ së TCVN 6475: 1999 vµ c¸c tµi liÖu chÝnh sau: • DNV-OSS-F301: Certification and Verification of Pipelines (Chøng nhËn vµ kiÓm tra hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn - §¨ng kiÓm Nauy); • Offshore Standard - DNV-OS-F101 - Submarine Pipeline Systems (HÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn §¨ng kiÓm Nauy); • DNV RP E305 On-bottom Stability Design of Submarine Pipelines (ThiÕt kÕ æn ®Þnh ®¸y biÓn cña hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn - §¨ng kiÓm Nauy); • DNV RP B401: Cathodic Protection Design (ThiÕt kÕ b¶o vÖ ca tèt); • DNV Guideline 13: Interference Between Trawl Gear and Pipelines (H−íng dÉn 13: T−¬ng t¸c gi÷a l−íi ®¸nh c¸ vµ ®−êng èng - §¨ng kiÓm Nauy); • DNV Guideline 14: Free Spanning Pipelines (H−íng dÉn 14: NhÞp hÉng cña ®−êng èng - §¨ng kiÓm Nauy); • ABS – Guide for Building and Classing: Subsea Pipeline Systems and Riser (H−íng dÉn ph©n cÊp vµ chÕ t¹o: HÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn vµ èng ®øng - §¨ng kiÓm Hoa Kú); HÖ thèng quy ph¹m nµy bao gåm 13 tiªu chuÈn Quèc gia tõ TCVN 6475-1: 2007 ®Õn TCVN 647513:2007: 1. TCVN 6475-1: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 1: Quy ®Þnh chung. 2. TCVN 6475-2: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 2: Ph©n cÊp hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn 3. TCVN 6475-3: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 3. §¸nh gi¸ ®Ó cÊp l¹i giÊy chøng nhËn 4. TCVN 6475-4: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 4. Nguyªn t¾c thiÕt kÕ 5. TCVN 6475-5: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 5. C¬ së thiÕt kÕ 6. TCVN 6475-6: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 6. T¶i träng 4
  5. 5. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 7. TCVN 6475-7: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 7. ChØ tiªu thiÕt kÕ 8. TCVN 6475-8: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 8. §−êng èng 9. TCVN 6475-9: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 9. C¸c bé phËn cña ®−êng èng vµ l¾p r¸p 10. TCVN 6475-10: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 10. Chèng ¨n mßn vµ bäc gia t¶i 11. TCVN 6475-11: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 11. L¾p ®Æt 12. TCVN 6475-12: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 12. Hµn 13. TCVN 6475-13: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 13. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy 5
  6. 6. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 Môc lôc Lêi nãi ®Çu………………………………………………………………………………………………...………. 3 Lêi giíi thiÖu……………………………………………………………………………………………...….……. 4 TCVN 6475-1: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 1: Quy ®Þnh chung. 1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông ..........................................................................................................…....………… 31 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn................................................................................................………….......….. 32 3. §èi t−îng gi¸m s¸t cña §¨ng kiÓm ....................................................…...........…………................... 32 4. TiÕn tr×nh thùc hiÖn ph©n cÊp...................................................................….…………....................... 33 5. Nguyªn t¾c gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt......................................................................……………..................... 33 5.1. Quy ®Þnh chung vÒ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt ................................................……….................….............. 33 5.2. Gi¸m s¸t trùc tiÕp ..............................................................................………...............…................ 35 5.3. Gi¸m s¸t gi¸n tiÕp ........................................................................................……….......…............. 35 5.4. Gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt theo ®é rñi ro .............................................................………................….......... 36 5.5. Lùa chän møc gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt .........................................................………................…............. 38 6. ThuËt ng÷, gi¶i thÝch vμ ký hiÖu..............................................................…………...........…............... 40 6.1. ThuËt ng÷ vμ gi¶i thÝch ................................................................................................………........ 40 6.2. C¸c ký hiÖu vμ viÕt t¾t ................................................................................................………......... 47 TCVN 6475-2: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 2: Ph©n cÊp hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn 1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông ....................................................................................…….....................................53 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn.................................................................................……....................................53 3. §iÒu kiÖn ®Ó ph©n cÊp ®−êng èng ......................................................................................…….........54 4. CÊp cña ®−êng èng........................................................................................................……..............54 4.1. Ký hiÖu cÊp .............................................................................................................……..................54 4.2. Ghi chó cÊp ............................................................................................................…......................54 6
  7. 7. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 5. Gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt trong giai ®o¹n thiÕt kÕ s¬ bé .............................................……............................55 6. Ph©n cÊp ...............................................................................................................……......................55 6.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .....................................................................................................….......................55 6.2. Hå s¬ kü thuËt ........................................................................................................…......................56 6.2.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ................................................................................................….........................56 6.2.2. C¬ së thiÕt kÕ vμ thiÕt kÕ chi tiÕt...................................................................…….........................56 6.2.3. ChÕ t¹o ®−êng èng vμ bé phËn ®−êng èng ..................................................................….............60 6.2.4. HÖ thèng kiÓm so¸t ¨n mßn vμ chÕ t¹o líp bäc gia t¶i ..............................................…...............61 6.2.5. L¾p ®Æt vμ ch¹y thö ....................................................................................…...............................62 6.2.6. VËn hμnh ........................................................................................................…….......................62 6.2.7. Sæ khai th¸c..................................................................................................……..........................63 6.3. Ph©n cÊp trong qu¸ tr×nh duyÖt thiÕt kÕ ..........................................................................….............63 6.3.1. DuyÖt thiÕt kÕ.................................................................................................……….....................63 6.3.2. DuyÖt thiÕt kÕ ë møc thÊp.......................................................................................…..…..............65 6.3.3. DuyÖt thiÕt kÕ ë møc võa ........................................................................................…....…...........65 6.3.4. DuyÖt thiÕt kÕ ë møc cao ......................................................................................….…................65 6.3.5. Néi dung duyÖt thiÕt kÕ..........................................................................................…..…..............65 6.4. Gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt trong qu¸ tr×nh chÕ t¹o míi ......................................................……....................74 6.4.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ....................................................................................................….....................75 6.4.2. Gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt, kiÓm tra trong qu¸ tr×nh chÕ t¹o ....................................................…............. 76 6.4.3. Gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt, kiÓm tra trong chÕ t¹o ë møc thÊp ........................................…..................... 80 6.4.4. Gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt, kiÓm tra trong chÕ t¹o ë møc võa.............................................…................... 80 6.4.5. Gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt, kiÓm tra trong chÕ t¹o ë møc cao..........................................…...................... 81 6.4.6. BIªn b¶n kiÓm tra cuèi cïng ...................................................................................…................. 81 6.4.7. Néi dung gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt, kiÓm tra trong chÕ t¹o...............................................…................... 81 7
  8. 8. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 6.5. KiÓm tra ph©n cÊp ®èi víi c¸c ®−êng èng hiÖn cã.............................................…........................ 114 6.6. Hå s¬ ph©n cÊp ....................................................................................................….................... 114 6.6.1. Quy ®Þnh chung......................................................................................................…................ 114 6.6.2. Hå s¬ ph©n cÊp trong c¸c giai ®o¹n cña dù ¸n.....................................................…................. 115 6.6.3. HiÖu lùc cña hå s¬ ph©n cÊp......................................................................................…............ 116 6.6.4. GiÊy chøng nhËn ph©n cÊp .......................................................................................…............ 116 6.6.5. GiÊy chøng nhËn giai ®o¹n ...........................................................................................…......... 117 6.6.6. B¸o c¸o kiÓm tra ....................................................................................................…................ 117 6.6.7. Th«ng b¸o vÒ ho¹t ®éng gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt, kiÓm tra ..................................................…........... 118 6.6.8. B¸o c¸o tham dù kiÓm tra (Visit reports).........................................................................…........ 118 6.6.9. CÊp giÊy chøng nhËn ................................................................................................…............. 118 7. C¸c yªu cÇu vÒ vËn hμnh, kiÓm tra vμ söa ch÷a.................................................................……..... 119 7.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................…............ 119 7.1.1. C¸c quy tr×nh..................................................................................................................…......... 119 7.1.2. Hå s¬ ®−êng èng ®ang vËn hμnh......................................................................................…...... 120 7.1.3. VËn hμnh..........................................................................................................................……... 120 7.1.4. Nguyªn t¾c theo dâi vμ kiÓm tra ..............................................................................….............. 122 7.1.5. ThÈm ®Þnh khai th¸c................................................................................................…............... 122 7.1.6. KiÓm tra bÊt th−êng................................................................................................…................ 122 7.2. Kh¶o s¸t cÊu h×nh ®−êng èng ................................................................................................…....123 7.2.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ...................................................................................................................…...123 7.2.2. Ch−¬ng tr×nh kiÓm tra .....................................................................................................…........123 7.3. KiÓm tra vμ theo dâi ¨n mßn bªn ngoμi ............................................................................….........125 7.3.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .................................................................................................................…......125 7.3.2. èng ®øng trong vïng cã mùc n−íc biÕn ®æi vμ vïng khÝ quyÓn......................................…….....126 8
  9. 9. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 7.3.3. §−êng èng vμ èng ®øng trong vïng ngËp n−íc .................................….........…........................126 7.4. KiÓm tra vμ theo dâi ¨n mßn bªn trong ..................................................................…....................126 7.4.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ..................................................................................................….....................127 7.4.2. KiÓm tra ¨n mßn ............................................................................................…..........................127 7.4.3. Theo dâi ¨n mßn......................................................................................................…................128 7.5. KhuyÕt tËt vμ söa ch÷a.................................................................................................…..............128 7.5.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................…...........128 7.5.2. MÊt æn ®Þnh tæng thÓ........................................................................................................…….....130 7.5.3. C¸c r·nh, lç, nøt vμ vÕt khÝa ..................................................................................….................130 7.5.4. C¸c khuyÕt tËt do khuyÕt kim lo¹i.................................................................……........................130 7.5.5. VÕt lâm .................................................................................................................……...............130 7.5.6. Rß rØ ..........................................................................................................................……...........130 7.5.7. Söa ch÷a b»ng hμn ..................................................................................................…...............131 8. Duy tr× hiÖu lùc cña giÊy chøng nhËn .......................................................................................…….131 8.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ...........................................................................................................…...............131 8.2. Duy tr× hiÖu lùc cña giÊy chøng nhËn ...............................................................................…..........132 8.3. Gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt, kiÓm tra trong qu¸ tr×nh khai th¸c...........................................................….......133 8.4. NghÜa vô cña chñ ®−êng èng ...................................................................................…..................134 8.5. Hå s¬ ph©n cÊp trong khai th¸c ....................................................................................….............135 TCVN 6475-3: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 3: §¸nh gi¸ ®Ó cÊp l¹i giÊy chøng nhËn 1. Quy ®Þnh chung ......................................……...................................................................................137 1.1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông ........................................................................................…................................137 1.2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn................................................................................................…...................138 1.3. Sù ¸p dông tiªu chuÈn khi ®¸nh gi¸ ®Ó cÊp l¹i giÊy chøng nhËn ........................................…......138 9
  10. 10. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 1.4. KÐo dμi thêi gian sö dông ®−êng èng.....................................................................…....................139 1.4.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ....................................................................................................……...............139 1.4.2. Xem xÐt c¸c tμi liÖu thiÕt kÕ.........................................................................................…….........140 1.4.3. KiÓm tra .....................................................................................................................……..........140 1.4.4. Ph©n tÝch ®é bÒn.......................................................................................................…...............140 1.4.5. TiÕn hμnh söa ch÷a/ kiÓm tra l¹i..................................................................................……........141 2. ChØ tiªu thiÕt kÕ ..........................................................................................................……................141 2.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .........................................................................................................….................141 2.2. Thö ¸p lùc hÖ thèng ......................................................................................................….............141 2.3. Sù tho¸i ho¸ ..................................................................................................................….............141 TCVN 6475-4: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 4: Nguyªn t¾c thiÕt kÕ 1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông ...............................................................................................................................143 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn..........................................................................................................................143 3. Nguyªn t¾c an toμn ..........................................................................................................................143 3.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................143 3.2. Môc tiªu an toμn.............................................................................................................................144 3.3. Xem xÐt cã hÖ thèng ......................................................................................................................145 3.4. Ph−¬ng ph¸p x¸c ®Þnh cÊp an toμn................................................................................................145 3.5. §¶m b¶o chÊt l−îng ......................................................................................................................145 4. Lùa chän ph−¬ng ph¸p thiÕt kÕ.........................................................................................................146 4.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................146 4.2. Ph©n lo¹i s¶n phÈm chÊt láng dÉn trong ®−êng èng......................................................................146 4.3. CÊp vÞ trÝ ........................................................................................................................................147 4.4. C¸c cÊp an toμn ............................................................................................................................147 10
  11. 11. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 4.5. Ph−¬ng ph¸p hÖ sè an toμn riªng phÇn ........................................................................................148 4.6. §¸nh gi¸ ®é tin cËy ........................................................................................................................149 TCVN 6475-5: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 5: C¬ së thiÕt kÕ 1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông ...............................................................................................................................143 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn..........................................................................................................................143 3. Nguyªn t¾c an toμn ..........................................................................................................................143 3.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................143 3.2. Môc tiªu an toμn.............................................................................................................................144 3.3. Xem xÐt cã hÖ thèng ......................................................................................................................145 3.4. Ph−¬ng ph¸p x¸c ®Þnh cÊp an toμn................................................................................................145 3.5. §¶m b¶o chÊt l−îng ......................................................................................................................145 4. Lùa chän ph−¬ng ph¸p thiÕt kÕ.........................................................................................................146 4.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................146 4.2. Ph©n lo¹i s¶n phÈm chÊt láng dÉn trong ®−êng èng......................................................................146 4.3. CÊp vÞ trÝ ........................................................................................................................................147 4.4. C¸c cÊp an toμn ............................................................................................................................147 4.5. Ph−¬ng ph¸p hÖ sè an toμn riªng phÇn ........................................................................................148 4.6. §¸nh gi¸ ®é tin cËy .......................................................................................................................149 TCVN 6475-6: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 6: T¶i träng 1. Quy ®Þnh chung ................................................................................................................................163 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn..........................................................................................................................164 3. T¶i träng chøc n¨ng ..........................................................................................................................164 3.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................164 11
  12. 12. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 3.2. C¸c hiÖu øng t¶i träng ®Æc tr−ng ...................................................................................................165 4. T¶i träng m«i tr−êng .........................................................................................................................165 4.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................165 4.2. T¶i träng giã ..................................................................................................................................165 4.3. T¶i träng thuû ®éng .......................................................................................................................166 4.4. T¶i träng do sãng vμ dßng ch¶y.....................................................................................................166 4.5. C¸c hiÖu øng cña t¶i träng ®Æc tr−ng .............................................................................................168 5. T¶i träng x©y l¾p................................................................................................................................169 6. T¶i träng sù cè ..................................................................................................................................170 7. C¸c t¶i träng kh¸c .............................................................................................................................171 7.1. T¶i träng do l−íi ®¸nh c¸................................................................................................................171 7.2. §éng ®Êt.........................................................................................................................................172 TCVN 6475-7: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 7: ChØ tiªu thiÕt kÕ 1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông ...............................................................................................................................173 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn..........................................................................................................................173 3. C¸c nguyªn t¾c thiÕt kÕ vμ vËt liÖu ...................................................................................................174 3.1. Bè trÝ ®−êng èng.............................................................................................................................174 3.2. Thö ¸p lùc t¹i nhμ m¸y vμ thö ¸p lùc hÖ thèng ..............................................................................176 3.3. ChiÒu dμy thμnh èng tèi thiÓu ........................................................................................................177 3.4. Lùa chän vËt liÖu ...........................................................................................................................177 3.5. C¸c tÝnh chÊt ®Æc tr−ng cña vËt liÖu ..............................................................................................179 3.6. Dù tr÷ ¨n mßn ...............................................................................................................................181 4. TÝnh to¸n t¶i träng vμ kh¶ n¨ng chÞu lùc ..........................................................................................182 4.1. C¸c ®iÒu kiÖn t¶i träng ..................................................................................................................182 12
  13. 13. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 4.2. TÝnh to¸n hiÖu øng t¶i träng ..........................................................................................................182 4.3. §é dμy thμnh èng ®Æc tr−ng...........................................................................................................184 4.4. TÝnh to¸n øng suÊt vμ biÕn d¹ng....................................................................................................185 5. C¸c tr¹ng th¸i giíi h¹n ......................................................................................................................186 5.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................187 5.2. §Þnh d¹ng tr¹ng th¸i giíi h¹n .........................................................................................................188 5.3. HÖ sè hiÖu øng t¶i träng vμ tæ hîp t¶i träng ...................................................................................190 5.4. Kh¶ n¨ng chÞu ¸p lùc (næ) ..............................................................................................................192 5.5. MÊt æn ®Þnh côc bé.........................................................................................................................192 5.6. MÊt æn ®Þnh tæng thÓ ......................................................................................................................198 5.7. Mái .................................................................................................................................................199 5.8. §é «van cña èng ...........................................................................................................................201 5.9. BiÕn d¹ng dÎo tÝch lòy....................................................................................................................202 5.10. Nøt g·y.................................................................................................................................. …..203 5.11. Tr¹ng th¸i giíi h¹n sù cè........................................................................................................ ….204 6. C¸c vÊn ®Ò cÇn ®Æc biÖt quan t©m ............................................................................................ …..205 6.1. T−¬ng t¸c gi÷a ®Êt vμ èng ............................................................................................................ 205 6.2. NhÞp hÉng cña èng ®øng/ ®−êng èng ........................................................................................ …205 6.3. æn ®Þnh ®¸y biÓn .......................................................................................................................... 216 6.4. T−¬ng t¸c víi l−íi ®¸nh c¸............................................................................................................ 221 6.5. C¸c t¶i träng kh¸c, vËt r¬i.......................................................................................................... …225 6.6. Bäc c¸ch nhiÖt .............................................................................................................................. 225 6.7. èng lång trong èng vμ bã èng .................................................................................................. ….226 7. C¸c bé phËn vμ phô tïng cña ®−êng èng.................................................................................. …...226 8. KÕt cÊu ®ì ....................................................................................................................................... 226 13
  14. 14. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 8.1. KÕt cÊu ®ì èng ®øng .................................................................................................................... 226 8.2. C¸c èng ch÷ J............................................................................................................................... 226 8.3. TÝnh æn ®Þnh cña sái ..................................................................................................................... 227 9. L¾p ®Æt vμ söa ch÷a ........................................................................................................................ 227 9.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 227 9.2. §é th¼ng cña èng ......................................................................................................................... 228 9.3. Líp bäc.......................................................................................................................................... 229 TCVN 6475-8: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 8: §−êng èng 1. Quy ®Þnh chung ................................................................................................................................231 1.1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông ...........................................................................................................................231 1.2. B¶n ghi c¸c ®Æc tÝnh kü thuËt cña vËt liÖu .....................................................................................231 1.3. Chøng nhËn tr−íc vËt liÖu vμ nhμ chÕ t¹o.....................................................................................232 1.4. Qu¸ tr×nh chÕ t¹o...........................................................................................................................232 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn.........................................................................................................................233 3. Ký hiÖu cña èng ..............................................................................................................................234 3.1. CÊp NDT cña èng ........................................................................................................................234 3.2. C¸c yªu cÇu bæ sung ...................................................................................................................234 3.3. Ký hiÖu èng ..................................................................................................................................235 4. Thö tÝnh chÊt c¬ häc.........................................................................................................................236 4.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................236 4.2. Lùa chän vμ chuÈn bÞ mÉu thö .....................................................................................................236 4.3. Ph©n tÝch thμnh phÇn hãa häc .....................................................................................................237 4.4. Thö kÐo ........................................................................................................................................237 4.5. Thö uèn ........................................................................................................................................239 14
  15. 15. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 4.6. Thö ®é dai va ®Ëp víi vÕt c¾t ch÷ V .................................................…..........................................241 4.7. Thö vÕt xÐ do vËt r¬i (Drop weight tear test) ......…........................................................................242 4.8. Thö ®é dai g·y ......................................................................….....................................................242 4.9. Thö ®é bÒn c¾t .......................................................................................…....................................244 4.10. KiÓm tra cÊu tróc kim lo¹i vμ thö ®é cøng.....................................................................................244 4.11. Thö biÕn d¹ng giμ ho¸ vËt liÖu c¬ b¶n..........................................................................................247 5. Thö ¨n mßn ......................................................................................................................................247 5.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................247 5.2. Thö ¨n mßn rç .............................................................................................................................. 248 5.3. Thö nøt do ¸p suÊt hy®ro............................................................................................................... 249 6. C¸c ®Æc tÝnh cña vËt liÖu ................................................................................................................. 249 6.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 249 6.2. èng thÐp c¸c bon – m¨ng gan (C-Mn) ......................................................................................... 250 6.3. ThÐp ferrit-austenit (ThÐp duplex) ................................................................................................ 255 6.4. §−êng èng b»ng c¸c lo¹i thÐp kh«ng gØ kh¸c vμ hîp kim Ni chèng ¨n mßn ................................ 257 6.5. §−êng èng thÐp cã líp phñ/líp lãt................................................................................................. 258 6.6. TÝnh hμn......................................................................................................................................... 260 7. C¸c yªu cÇu bæ sung................................................................................................................. ……261 7.1. C¸c yªu cÇu bæ sung S, ®−êng èng vËn chuyÓn chÊt cã chøa khÝ chua ...................................... 261 7.2. C¸c yªu cÇu bæ sung F, c¸c tÝnh chÊt h·m g·y............................................................................. 264 7.3. C¸c yªu cÇu bæ sung P, ®−êng èng chÞu biÕn d¹ng dÎo .............................................................. 266 7.4. C¸c yªu cÇu bæ sung D, kÝch th−íc .............................................................................................. 267 7.5. C¸c yªu cÇu bæ sung U, hÖ sè sö dông cao.................................................................................. 267 8. Qu¸ tr×nh chÕ t¹o ............................................................................................................................. 269 8.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 269 15
  16. 16. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 8.2. §Æc tÝnh kü thuËt cña quy tr×nh chÕ t¹o (MPS) vμ chøng nhËn..................................................... 269 8.3. LuyÖn thÐp.................................................................................................................................... 271 8.4. Quy tr×nh chÕ t¹o tÊm (plate and strip) ......................................................................................... 271 8.5. Qu¸ tr×nh chÕ t¹o ®−êng èng ........................................................................................................ 272 8.6. Ph©n tÝch thμnh phÇn hãa häc....................................................................................................... 275 8.7. Thö tÝnh chÊt c¬ häc vμ tÝnh chèng ¨n mßn................................................................................... 275 8.8. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy................................................................................................................. 280 8.9. KiÓm tra b»ng m¾t th−êng, tr×nh ®é tay nghÒ thî vμ söa ch÷a c¸c khuyÕt tËt. ............................. 282 8.10. Thö ¸p lùc t¹i nhμ m¸y ................................................................................................................284 8.11. KÝch th−íc, khèi l−îng vμ chiÒu dμi .............................................................................................285 TCVN 6475-9: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 9: C¸c bé phËn cña ®−êng èng vµ l¾p r¸p 1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông ...............................................................................................................................291 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn..........................................................................................................................291 3. C¸c yªu cÇu ®èi víi thiÕt kÕ c¸c bé phËn ®−êng èng........................................................................292 3.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................292 3.2. Lùa chän vËt liÖu ...........................................................................................................................294 3.3. C¸c ®Çu nèi b»ng mÆt bÝch vμ c¸c ®Çu nèi c¬ khÝ. ........................................................................295 3.4. Bu l«ng ..........................................................................................................................................295 3.5. Van................................................................................................................................................297 3.6. B×nh chÞu ¸p lùc.............................................................................................................................298 3.7. C¸c bé phËn ®−îc chÕ t¹o b»ng ph−¬ng ph¸p hμn .....................................................................298 3.8. C¸c mèi nèi c¸ch ®iÖn...................................................................................................................299 3.9. C¸c h¹ng môc kÕt cÊu ..................................................................................................................299 4. VËt liÖu vμ b¶n ghi ®Æc tÝnh kü thuËt cña qu¸ tr×nh chÕ t¹o c¸c bé phËn ®−êng èng. ......................300 16
  17. 17. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 4.1. C¸c ®Æc tÝnh c¬ häc.......................................................................................................................300 4.2. ChÕ t¹o vμ thö nghiÖm .................................................................................................................300 5. VËt liÖu dïng cho c¸c bé phËn rÌn, ®óc vμ t¹o h×nh nãng ..............................................................301 5.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................301 5.2. C¸c bé phËn b»ng thÐp C- Mn hîp kim thÊp ...............................................................................302 5.3. C¸c bé phËn b»ng thÐp ferÝt – Austernit (duplex), thÐp kh«ng gØ kh¸c vμ hîp kim niken chèng ¨n mßn (CRA). ...........................................................................................................................................304 5.4. NhiÖt luyÖn. ....................................................................................................................................304 6. Qu¸ tr×nh t¹o h×nh nãng, rÌn, ®óc vμ xö lý nhiÖt................................................................................304 6.1. T¹o h×nh nãng ................................................................................................................................304 6.2. RÌn.................................................................................................................................................305 6.3. §óc ............................................................................................................................................... 305 6.4. Xö lý nhiÖt...................................................................................................................................... 305 7. Qu¸ tr×nh chÕ t¹o c¸c bé phËn, thiÕt bÞ vμ h¹ng môc kÕt cÊu.......................................................... 306 7.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 306 7.2. ChÕ t¹o c¸c mÆt bÝch..................................................................................................................... 307 7.3. ChÕ t¹o van .............................................................................................................….................. 308 7.4. ChÕ t¹o c¸c thiÕt bÞ vμ c¸c bé phËn chÞu ¸p lùc b»ng ph−¬ng ph¸p hμn. .......….......................... 308 7.5. ChÕ t¹o c¸c thiÕt bÞ vμ bé phËn kh¸c. ........................................................…............................... 308 7.6. ChÕ t¹o c¸c chi tiÕt kÕt cÊu ........................................................................…............................... 309 7.7. Thö tÝnh chÊt c¬ häc cho c¸c bé phËn t¹o h×nh nãng, ®óc vμ rÌn. ...........…................................. 309 8. ChÕ t¹o c¸c èng cong (Bend).....................................................................….................................. 310 8.1. Quy ®Þnh chung. ....................................................................…................................................... 310 8.2. èng mÑ dïng cho c¸c øng dông cã n−íc biÓn. ........................................................................... 312 8.3. NhiÖt luyÖn sau khi uèn. .....................................................................................…...................... 312 17
  18. 18. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 8.4. Chøng nhËn quy tr×nh uèn ...................................................................................…..................... 313 8.5. Uèn vμ nhiÖt luyÖn sau khi uèn ............................................................................….................... 317 8.6. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ huû vμ kiÓm tra b»ng thÞ gi¸c.................................................….................... 317 8.7. KiÓm tra trong chÕ t¹o c¸c èng cong................................................................................…......... 318 8.8. KÝch th−íc, dung sai ......................................................................................................…............ 320 9. ChÕ t¹o c¸c èng ®øng, c¸c vßng èng d·n në, c¸c ®o¹n èng ®Ó cuén (reeling) vμ kÐo (towing)……321 9.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 321 9.2. VËt liÖu dïng cho c¸c èng ®øng, c¸c vßng èng d·n në, c¸c ®o¹n èng ®Ó cuén (reeling) vμ kÐo (towing)................................................................................................................................................. 321 9.3. Quy tr×nh chÕ t¹o .......................................................................................................................... 321 9.4. NhËn vËt liÖu, nhËn d¹ng vμ truy t×m vËt liÖu................................................................................. 322 9.5. C¾t, t¹o h×nh, l¾p r¸p, hμn vμ xö lý nhiÖt........................................................................................322 9.6. Thö thñy tÜnh ..................................................................................................................................323 9.7. KiÓm tra b»ng thÞ gi¸c vμ kiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy .........................................................................324 9.8. KiÓm tra kÝch th−íc.........................................................................................................................324 9.9. B¶o vÖ chèng ¨n mßn ....................................................................................................................324 TCVN 6475-10: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 10: Chèng ¨n mßn vµ bäc gia t¶i 1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................... 325 1.1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông........................................................................................................................... 325 1.2. §Þnh nghÜa .................................................................................................................................... 325 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn ........................................................................................................................ 326 3. Nguyªn lý chung ®Ó kiÓm so¸t ¨n mßn trong thiÕt kÕ...................................................................... 326 3.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 326 3.2. §¸nh gi¸ c¸c biÖn ph¸p chèng ¨n mßn ........................................................................................ 327 18
  19. 19. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 4. Bäc ngoμi èng................................................................................................................................... 327 4.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 327 4.2. C¸c yªu cÇu ®èi víi c«ng t¸c chÕ t¹o líp bäc .............................................................................. 329 4.3. C¸c yªu cÇu ®èi víi HÖ thèng bäc polypropylene hoÆc Polyethylene 3 líp ................................. 334 5. Bäc èng ®øng ®Æc biÖt..................................................................................................................... 336 5.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 336 5.2. VËt liÖu bäc, chuÈn bÞ bÒ mÆt vμ bäc............................................................................................ 337 6. Bäc mèi nèi hiÖn tr−êng................................................................................................................... 337 6.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 337 6.2. VËt liÖu bäc, chuÈn bÞ bÒ mÆt vμ bäc............................................................................................ 338 7. Bäc bª t«ng gia t¶i........................................................................................................................... 339 7.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 339 7.2. VËt liÖu lμm bª t«ng vμ chÕ t¹o líp bäc......................................................................................... 339 7.3. KiÓm tra vμ thö nghiÖm.................................................................................................................. 341 8. ThiÕt kÕ b¶o vÖ catèt ....................................................................................................................... 341 8.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 341 8.2. Th«ng sè thiÕt kÕ vμ tÝnh to¸n ...................................................................................................... 342 9. ChÕ t¹o vμ l¾p ®Æt anèt tù huû .........................................................................................................343 9.1. ChÕ t¹o anèt...................................................................................................................................343 9.2. L¾p ®Æt anèt ..................................................................................................................................343 10. ThiÕt kÕ, chÕ t¹o líp b¶o vÖ chèng ¨n mßn bªn trong ...................................................................344 10.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ...........................................................................................................................344 10.2. B¶o vÖ chèng ¨n mßn bªn trong b»ng c¸ch xö lý dung chÊt ......................................................344 10.3. B¶o vÖ chèng ¨n mßn bªn trong b»ng c¸ch sö dông èng b»ng hîp kim chèng ¨n mßn (CRA)..345 10.4. B¶o vÖ chèng ¨n mßn bªn trong b»ng líp bäc hoÆc líp lãt h÷u c¬ ............................................345 19
  20. 20. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 10.5. B¶o vÖ chèng ¨n mßn bªn trong b»ng c¸ch xö lý ho¸ häc .........................................................345 A1. Xem xÐt chung trong thiÕt kÕ .........................................................................................................347 A1.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ...........................................................................................................................347 A1.2. §iÖn thÕ b¶o vÖ ...........................................................................................................................347 A1.3. VËt liÖu chÕ t¹o anèt hy sinh .......................................................................................................347 A1.4. H×nh d¹ng anèt.............................................................................................................................348 A1.5. Sö dông líp bäc kÕt hîp víi b¶o vÖ catèt ...................................................................................349 A2. C¸c th«ng sè thiÕt kÕ .....................................................................................................................349 A2.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ...........................................................................................................................349 A2.2. Tuæi thä thiÕt kÕ............................................................................................................................349 A2.3. MËt ®é dßng ®iÖn thiÕt kÕ.............................................................................................................350 A2.4. HÖ sè suy gi¶m líp bäc vμ s¬n phñ ............................................................................................351 A2.5. Líp bäc ®−êng èng .....................................................................................................................353 A2.6. C«ng thøc ®iÖn trë cho anèt ........................................................................................................353 A2.7. §iÖn trë suÊt.................................................................................................................................355 A2.8. HÖ sè sö dông anèt .....................................................................................................................356 A3. C¸c b−íc thiÕt kÕ ...........................................................................................................................357 A3.1. Ph©n lo¹i vËt ®−îc b¶o vÖ .......................................................................................................... 357 A3.2. TÝnh to¸n diÖn tÝch bÒ mÆt .......................................................................................................... 357 A3.3. TÝnh to¸n dßng ®iÖn cÇn thiÕt ..................................................................................................... 357 A3.4. Lùa chän lo¹i vμ kÝch th−íc anèt ................................................................................................ 358 A3.5. TÝnh to¸n khèi l−îng anèt ........................................................................................................... 358 A3.6. TÝnh to¸n sè l−îng anèt .............................................................................................................. 358 A3.7. ThiÕt kÕ anèt chi tiÕt ................................................................................................................... 359 A3.8. Bè trÝ anèt ................................................................................................................................... 360 20
  21. 21. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 TCVN 6475-11: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 11: L¾p ®Æt 1. Quy ®Þnh chung ................................................................................................................................361 1.1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông ...........................................................................................................................361 1.2. Ph©n tÝch hËu qu¶ cña c¸c lo¹i h− háng (FMEA) vμ nghiªn cøu møc ®é nguy hiÓm vμ kh¶ n¨ng vËn hμnh ®−îc(HAZOP)........................................................................................................................361 1.3. C¸c b¶n vÏ vμ chi tiÕt kÜ thuËt cho l¾p ®Æt vμ thö...........................................................................361 1.4. Sæ tay l¾p ®Æt .................................................................................................................................362 1.5. Hμn.................................................................................................................................................363 1.6. KiÓm tra b»ng m¾t vμ kiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ huû (NDT)....................................................................364 1.7. Thö chÕ t¹o ....................................................................................................................................365 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn..........................................................................................................................366 3. TuyÕn èng, kh¶o s¸t vμ chuÈn bÞ ......................................................................................................367 3.1. Kh¶o s¸t tuyÕn tr−íc khi l¾p ®Æt.....................................................................................................367 3.2. ChuÈn bÞ ®¸y biÓn ..........................................................................................................................367 3.3. Giao c¾t ®−êng èng vμ c¸p ............................................................................................................368 3.4. ChuÈn bÞ tiÕp cËn vμo bê ...............................................................................................................368 4. C¸c ho¹t ®éng trªn biÓn....................................................................................................................369 4.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................369 4.2. Tμu r¶i èng ....................................................................................................................................369 4.3. C¸c hÖ thèng neo, kiÓu neo vμ ®Þnh vÞ neo ...................................................................................370 4.4. C¸c hÖ thèng ®Þnh vÞ .....................................................................................................................370 4.5. HÖ thèng ®Þnh vÞ ®éng ...................................................................................................................371 4.6. CÇn trôc vμ c¸c thiÕt bÞ n©ng.........................................................................................................372 5. L¾p ®Æt ®−êng èng ...........................................................................................................................372 21
  22. 22. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 5.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................372 5.2. Sæ tay l¾p ®Æt................................................................................................................................. 372 5.3. XÐt duyÖt, chøng nhËn sæ tay l¾p ®Æt, c¸c tham sè quan träng vμ tÝnh hiÖu lùc cña chóng …..... 374 5.4. Tr¹ng th¸i giíi h¹n ho¹t ®éng........................................................................................................ 376 5.5. Quy tr×nh l¾p ®Æt ........................................................................................................................... 376 5.6. Quy tr×nh khÈn cÊp ....................................................................................................................... 376 5.7. Bè trÝ tμu r¶i èng, thiÕt bÞ r¶i èng vμ dông cô ................................................................................ 377 5.8. C¸c yªu cÇu l¾p ®Æt....................................................................................................................... 380 6. C¸c yªu cÇu bæ sung ®èi víi c¸c ph−¬ng ph¸p l¾p ®Æt g©y biÕn d¹ng dÎo..................................... 381 6.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 381 6.2. Sæ tay l¾p ®Æt................................................................................................................................. 382 6.3. Chøng nhËn sæ tay l¾p ®Æt............................................................................................................. 382 6.4. Quy tr×nh l¾p ®Æt ........................................................................................................................... 383 6.5. C¸c yªu cÇu l¾p ®Æt...................................................................................................................... 383 7. L¾p ®Æt ®−êng èng b»ng ph−¬ng ph¸p kÐo..................................................................................... 384 7.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 384 7.2. Sæ tay l¾p ®Æt................................................................................................................................ 384 7.3. Chøng nhËn sæ tay l¾p ®Æt............................................................................................................ 385 7.4. Tr¹ng th¸i giíi h¹n ho¹t ®éng....................................................................................................... 385 7.5. Quy tr×nh l¾p ®Æt ........................................................................................................................... 385 7.6. C¸c quy tr×nh khÈn cÊp................................................................................................................. 385 7.7. Bè trÝ, thiÕt bÞ vμ dông cô .............................................................................................................. 386 7.8. KÐo vμ l¾p ®Æt ®o¹n èng............................................................................................................... 386 8. C¸c ph−¬ng ph¸p l¾p ®Æt kh¸c........................................................................................................ 386 8.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 386 22
  23. 23. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 9. KÐo bê (Shore pull).......................................................................................................................... 387 9.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................387 9.2. Sæ tay l¾p ®Æt ................................................................................................................................387 9.3. Chøng nhËn sæ tay l¾p ®Æt ............................................................................................................387 9.4. Tr¹ng th¸i giíi h¹n ho¹t ®éng .......................................................................................................387 9.5. Quy tr×nh l¾p ®Æt.............................................................................................................................387 9.6. Quy tr×nh khÈn cÊp ........................................................................................................................388 9.7. Bè trÝ, thiÕt bÞ vμ dông cô................................................................................................................388 9.8. C¸c yªu cÇu l¾p ®Æt .......................................................................................................................389 10. C¸c ho¹t ®éng nèi ghÐp (tie-in).......................................................................................................389 10.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ...........................................................................................................................389 10.2. Sæ tay l¾p ®Æt...............................................................................................................................389 10.3. Chøng nhËn sæ tay l¾p ®Æt...........................................................................................................389 10.4. Tr¹ng th¸i giíi h¹n ho¹t ®éng......................................................................................................390 10.5. Quy tr×nh nèi ghÐp ......................................................................................................................390 10.6. Quy tr×nh khÈn cÊp .....................................................................................................................390 10.7. Ho¹t ®éng nèi ghÐp trªn mÆt n−íc .............................................................................................390 10.8. Ho¹t ®éng nèi ghÐp d−íi mÆt n−íc..............................................................................................391 11. Kh¶o s¸t khi r¶i èng .......................................................................................................................391 11.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ...........................................................................................................................391 11.2. B¶n ghi c¸c chi tiÕt kÜ thuËt cho viÖc kh¶o s¸t khi r¶i èng ...........................................................391 11.3. Kh¶o s¸t khi r¶i èng......................................................................................................................392 11.4. Kh¶o s¸t hÖ thèng b¶o vÖ ¨n mßn khi r¶i èng .............................................................................392 12. Söa ch÷a nhÞp hÉng vμ b¶o vÖ ®−êng èng......................................................................................392 12.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ...........................................................................................................................392 23
  24. 24. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 12.2. Söa ch÷a nhÞp hÉng.....................................................................................................................393 12.3. §μo hμo ...................................................................................................................................... 393 12.4. §æ sái sau khi l¾p ®Æt.................................................................................................................. 394 12.5. C¸c bao c¸t (v÷a) vμ tÊm ®Öm bª t«ng....................................................................................... 395 13. L¾p ®Æt c¸c kÕt cÊu neo vμ b¶o vÖ................................................................................................ 396 13.1. Quy ®Þnh chung........................................................................................................................... 396 14. L¾p ®Æt c¸c èng ®øng .................................................................................................................... 396 14.1. Quy ®Þnh chung........................................................................................................................... 396 14.2. Sæ tay l¾p ®Æt ............................................................................................................................. 396 14.3. Chøng nhËn sæ tay l¾p ®Æt ......................................................................................................... 397 14.4. C¸c tr¹ng th¸i giíi h¹n ho¹t ®éng .............................................................................................. 397 14.5. C¸c quy tr×nh khÈn cÊp .............................................................................................................. 397 14.6. C¸c yªu cÇu l¾p ®Æt ................................................................................................................... 397 15. Kh¶o s¸t hoμn c«ng....................................................................................................................... 398 15.1. Quy ®Þnh chung........................................................................................................................... 398 15.2. B¶n ghi c¸c chi tiÕt kÜ thuËt kh¶o s¸t hoμn c«ng......................................................................... 398 15.3. C¸c yªu cÇu ®èi víi kh¶o s¸t hoμn c«ng ................................................................................... 399 15.4. KiÓm tra hÖ thèng b¶o vÖ ¨n mßn catèt dßng c¶m øng ............................................................. 399 16. Thö nghiÖm cuèi cïng vμ chuÈn bÞ cho khai th¸c.......................................................................... 399 16.1. Quy ®Þnh chung........................................................................................................................... 399 16.2. B¶n ghi c¸c chi tiÕt kÜ thuËt thö nghiÖm cuèi cïng vμ chuÈn bÞ cho khai th¸c............................ 400 16.3. C¸c quy tr×nh dïng cho thö nghiÖm cuèi cïng vμ chuÈn bÞ cho khai th¸c ................................. 400 16.4. Lμm s¹ch vμ ®o ®¹c.................................................................................................................... 400 16.5. Thö ¸p lùc hÖ thèng ................................................................................................................... 401 16.6. Lμm s¹ch, th¸o n−íc vμ sÊy kh« ................................................................................................ 404 24
  25. 25. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 16.7. Thö hÖ thèng............................................................................................................................... 405 TCVN 6475-12: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn PhÇn 12: Hµn 1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông ...............................................................................................................................407 1.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................407 1.2. C¸c qu¸ tr×nh hμn...........................................................................................................................407 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn..........................................................................................................................408 3. ThiÕt bÞ hμn, c¸c c«ng cô vμ nh©n sù................................................................................................409 3.1. ThiÕt bÞ hμn vμ c«ng cô .................................................................................................................409 3.2. Nh©n sù..........................................................................................................................................409 4. VËt liÖu hμn .......................................................................................................................................410 4.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................410 4.2. Thμnh phÇn ho¸ häc ......................................................................................................................411 4.3. C¸c tÝnh chÊt c¬ häc.......................................................................................................................411 4.4. Thö l« - C¸c mèi hμn trßn...............................................................................................................412 4.5. Xö lý vμ b¶o qu¶n vËt liÖu hμn. .....................................................................................................412 5. Quy tr×nh hμn.....................................................................................................................................413 5.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................413 5.2. B¶n ghi ®Æc tÝnh kü thuËt quy tr×nh hμn s¬ bé (pWPS)...................................................................414 5.3. B¸o c¸o chøng nhËn quy tr×nh hμn (WPQR)..................................................................................414 5.4. B¶n ghi ®Æc tÝnh kü thuËt quy tr×nh hμn (WPS) ..............................................................................415 5.5. WPS ®èi víi hμn söa ch÷a ............................................................................................................415 5.6. C¸c ®é biÕn thiªn th«ng sè quan träng trong c¸c quy tr×nh hμn.....................................................415 6. Chøng nhËn quy tr×nh hμn.................................................................................................................418 6.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................418 25
  26. 26. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 6.2. Chøng nhËn quy tr×nh hμn söa ch÷a ..............................................................................................419 6.3. Chøng nhËn c¸c mèi hμn däc vμ mèi hμn xo¾n èc trªn ®−êng èng vμ bé phËn ®−êng èng. ….....420 6.4. Chøng nhËn c¸c mèi hμn trßn trªn èng ®øng, c¸c vßng gi·n në vμ c¸c ®o¹n èng ®Ó kÐo............ 422 6.5. Chøng nhËn c¸c mèi hμn trßn trong l¾p ®Æt vμ nèi ghÐp (tie – in) ................................................ 423 6.6. Chøng nhËn c¸c mèi hμn trßn ph¶i chÞu søc c¨ng dÎo tÝch luü. ................................................... 424 6.7. Chøng nhËn hμn d−íi n−íc cho c¸c mèi nèi ghÐp (tie – in) ......................................................... 426 7. Thö vμ kiÓm tra................................................................................................................................. 426 7.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 426 7.2. KiÓm tra b»ng m¾t th−êng vμ kiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ huû ................................................................. 426 7.3. Thö ph¸ huû mèi hμn gi¸p mÐp .................................................................................................... 426 7.4. Thö øng suÊt sunphua g©y nøt ..................................................................................................... 430 7.5. Thö tÝnh ¨n mßn vμ kiÓm tra cÊu tróc vi m«................................................................................... 430 8. ChÕ t¹o vμ c¸c yªu cÇu vÒ hμn ....................................................................................................... 431 8.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 431 8.2. Hμn chÕ t¹o .................................................................................................................................. 431 8.3. Hμn söa ch÷a ............................................................................................................................... 432 8.4. Xö lý nhiÖt sau khi hμn ................................................................................................................. 433 8.5. Hμn ®−êng èng vμ c¸c bé phËn ®−êng èng.................................................................................. 433 8.6. ChÕ t¹o èng ®øng, vßng d·n në vμ ®o¹n èng ®Ó kÐo................................................................... 433 8.7. Hμn l¾p ®Æt vμ nèi ghÐp................................................................................................................ 433 9. C¸c yªu cÇu ®Æc biÖt ®èi víi vËt liÖu vμ c¸c qu¸ tr×nh hμn.............................................................. 434 9.1. ThÐp c¸c bon cã líp phñ /líp lãt bªn trong èng ........................................................................... 434 9.2. ThÐp kh«ng gØ duplex ................................................................................................................... 435 9.3. ThÐp kh«ng gØ martensit (13 % Cr)............................................................................................... 435 TCVN 6475-13: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn 26
  27. 27. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 PhÇn 13: KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy 1. Quy ®Þnh chung ................................................................................................................................437 1.1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông ...........................................................................................................................437 1.2. C¸c ph−¬ng ph¸p kiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy ...................................................................................437 1.3. C¸c quy tr×nh kiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy............................................................................................438 1.4. Chøng nhËn nh©n sù kiÓm tra .......................................................................................................439 1.5. B¸o c¸o .........................................................................................................................................440 1.6. Thêi gian thùc hiÖn NDT ................................................................................................................440 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn..........................................................................................................................440 3. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy thñ c«ng vμ kiÓm tra b»ng m¾t th−êng c¸c mèi hμn..................................443 3.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................443 3.2. KiÓm tra b»ng kü thuËt chôp ¶nh phãng x¹....................................................................................443 3.3. KiÓm tra siªu ©m ............................................................................................................................445 3.4. KiÓm tra b»ng c¸c h¹t tõ ................................................................................................................448 3.5. KiÓm tra chÊt láng thÈm thÊu .........................................................................................................449 3.6. KiÓm tra b»ng dßng xo¸y ...............................................................................................................450 3.7. KiÓm tra b»ng m¾t th−êng..............................................................................................................452 4. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy c¸c vËt liÖu c¬ b¶n vμ mèi hμn phñ............................................................452 4.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................452 4.2. KiÓm tra c¸c tÊm vμ èng ................................................................................................................452 4.3. VËt liÖu rÌn ....................................................................................................................................453 4.4. C¸c vËt liÖu ®óc.............................................................................................................................454 4.5. C¸c mèi hμn phñ ...........................................................................................................................455 5. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy tù ®éng ......................................................................................................455 5.1. Quy ®Þnh chung .............................................................................................................................455 27
  28. 28. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 5.2. KiÓm tra siªu ©m tù ®éng.............................................................................................................. 455 6. ChØ tiªu chÊp nhËn cña kiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy ............................................................................. 458 6.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 458 6.2. ChØ tiªu chÊp nhËn dùa trªn ®¸nh gi¸ tíi h¹n kü thuËt (ECA)....................................................... 459 7. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy c¸c tÊm vμ d¶i t¹i nhμ m¸y chÕ t¹o .......................................................... 459 7.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 459 7.2. KiÓm tra siªu ©m c¸c tÊm vμ d¶i b»ng thÐp C-Mn vμ thÐp duplex ............................................... 459 7.3. KiÓm tra siªu ©m tÊm vμ d¶i cã líp phñ ....................................................................................... 461 8. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy èng t¹i nhμ m¸y chÕ t¹o èng .................................................................... 461 8.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 462 8.2. C¸c ®Çu èng ch−a ®−îc kiÓm tra.................................................................................................. 462 8.3. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy cÇn thùc hiÖn cho tÊt c¶ c¸c èng .......................................................... 462 8.4. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy ®èi víi èng ®óc liÒn................................................................................ 463 8.5. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy c¸c èng hμn hå quang d−íi líp trî dung (SAW).................................... 469 8.6. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy thñ c«ng................................................................................................. 473 8.7. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy c¸c mèi hμn söa ch÷a trªn ®−êng èng. ................................................. 476 8.8. KiÓm tra b»ng m¾t th−êng c¸c mèi hμn trªn ®−êng èng............................................................... 476 9. KiÓm tra c¸c mèi hμn trßn trong l¾p ®Æt, c¸c mèi hμn cña bé phËn ®−êng èng vμ c¸c bé phËn chÞu ¸p lùc kh¸c.................................................................................................................................... 477 9.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ............................................................................................................................ 477 9.2. KiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy vμ kiÓm tra b»ng m¾t th−êng ................................................................. 477 9.3. ChØ tiªu chÊp nhËn......................................................................................................................... 478 9.4. Söa ch÷a mèi hμn.......................................................................................................................... 484 10. ChØ tiªu chÊp nhËn ®èi víi c¸c bé phËn ®−êng èng, thiÕt bÞ, c¸c h¹ng môc kÕt cÊu, vËt liÖu c¬ b¶n vμ c¸c mèi hμn phñ ...................................................................................................................... 484 28
  29. 29. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 10.1. Quy ®Þnh chung........................................................................................................................... 484 10.2. ChØ tiªu chÊp nhËn cña kiÓm tra kh«ng ph¸ hñy thñ c«ng ®èi víi tÊm vμ d¶i...............................485 10.3. ChØ tiªu chÊp nhËn ®èi víi c¸c vËt rÌn..........................................................................................485 10.4. ChØ tiªu chÊp nhËn ®èi víi vËt ®óc................................................................................................486 10.5. ChØ tiªu chÊp nhËn ®èi víi c¸c mèi hμn phñ.................................................................................487 11. KiÓm tra siªu ©m tù ®éng c¸c mèi hμn trßn.....................................................................................487 11.1. Quy ®Þnh chung ...........................................................................................................................487 11.2. C¸c yªu cÇu c¬ b¶n.....................................................................................................................487 11.3. Quy tr×nh ......................................................................................................................................494 11.4. HiÖu chuÈn ..................................................................................................................................496 11.5. KiÓm tra t¹i hiÖn tr−êng ...............................................................................................................497 11.6. KiÓm tra l¹i...................................................................................................................................499 11.7. §¸nh gi¸ vμ b¸o c¸o....................................................................................................................500 11.8. Chøng nhËn ................................................................................................................................501 11.9. HiÖu lùc cña chøng nhËn .............................................................................................................505 Phô lôc A. Yªu cÇu ®èi víi ®Çu dß………………………………………………………………………..….507 Phô lôc B. X¸c ®Þnh tèc ®é sãng ngang trong èng thÐp………………………………………………..…..509 29
  30. 30. TCVN 6475-1:2007 ÷ TCVN 6475-13:2007 30
  31. 31. TCVN 6475-1:2007 t i ª u c h u È n quèc gia Tcvn 6475-1: 2007 XuÊt b¶n lÇn 2 Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn – PhÇn 1: Quy ®Þnh chung Rules for Classification and Technical Supervision of Subsea Pipeline Systems – Part 1: General Requirement 1. Ph¹m vi ¸p dông 1.1. Tiªu chuÈn nµy quy ®Þnh c¸c yªu cÇu vÒ ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt trong qu¸ tr×nh thiÕt kÕ, chÕ t¹o vµ khai th¸c c¸c hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn, kÓ c¶ c¸c hÖ thèng ®−êng èng ®Æt ë c¸c cöa s«ng vµ vïng biÓn ViÖt Nam dïng ®Ó vËn chuyÓn riªng lÎ hoÆc hçn hîp c¸c chÊt hydr« c¸cbon ë tr¹ng th¸i láng hoÆc khÝ, nh− dÇu th«, c¸c s¶n phÈm cña dÇu, c¸c lo¹i khÝ. 1.2. HÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn (sau ®©y gäi t¾t lµ ®−êng èng) bao gåm toµn bé c¸c ®−êng èng, èng ®øng, c¸c van, c¸c thiÕt bÞ phô trî, c¸c thiÕt bÞ an toµn, hÖ thèng chèng ¨n mßn vµ c¸c hÖ thèng liªn quan kh¸c. 1.3. Tiªu chuÈn nµy lµ c¬ së kü thuËt ®−îc ¸p dông cho c¸c giai ®o¹n vµ ho¹t ®éng: thiÕt kÕ, chÕ t¹o, l¾p ®Æt, vËn hµnh, b¶o d−ìng, gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt vµ ph©n cÊp ®−êng èng. 1.4. C¸c ho¹t ®éng gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt vµ ph©n cÊp c¸c ®−êng èng do c¬ quan §¨ng kiÓm ViÖt Nam (sau ®©y viÕt t¾t lµ §¨ng kiÓm) thùc hiÖn. Ngoµi §¨ng kiÓm ViÖt Nam, chñ ®Çu t− ®−îc phÐp sö dông thªm ®¨ng kiÓm n−íc ngoµi tïy thuéc vµo quy m« vµ ®Æc ®iÓm cña c«ng tr×nh (nÕu cÇn). Ho¹t ®éng gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt ®−îc tiÕn hµnh trªn c¬ së c¸c quy ®Þnh cña tiªu chuÈn nµy vµ c¸c tiªu chuÈn kh¸c cã liªn quan. 31
  32. 32. TCVN 6475-1:2007 1.5. Cho phÐp ¸p dông c¸c yªu cÇu trong c¸c quy ph¹m, tiªu chuÈn kü thuËt t−¬ng ®−¬ng kh¸c nÕu ®−îc §¨ng kiÓm chÊp nhËn. 1.6. Tiªu chuÈn nµy kh«ng ¸p dông cho c¸c èng mÒm, èng ®øng ®éng, c¸c ®−êng c¸p ®iÒu khiÓn ngÇm d−íi biÓn vµ c¸c ®−êng èng kh«ng ph¶i b»ng thÐp. 1.7. Tiªu chuÈn nµy ¸p dông cho c¸c ph−¬ng ph¸p r¶i èng h×nh ch÷ S (S-lay), h×nh ch÷ J (J-lay), kÐo èng (towing), vµ c¸c ph−¬ng ph¸p r¶i èng g©y ra biÕn d¹ng dÎo. Ngoµi ra tiªu chuÈn nµy cßn ®−a ra c¸c yªu cÇu vÒ l¾p ®Æt èng ®øng còng nh− c¸c yªu cÇu vÒ kÕt cÊu b¶o vÖ vµ g¾n gi÷ c¸c èng ®øng. 2. Tµi liÖu viÖn dÉn Trong tiªu chuÈn nµy, c¸c tiªu chuÈn sau ®©y ®−îc viÖn dÉn: • TCVN 6475-6: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn – PhÇn 6: T¶I träng • TCVN 6475-7: 2007 - Quy ph¹m ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn – PhÇn 7: ChØ tiªu thiÕt kÕ; 3. §èi t−îng gi¸m s¸t cña §¨ng kiÓm 3.1. Tiªu chuÈn nµy ¸p dông cho c¸c ®èi t−îng sau ®©y: • C¸c ®−êng èng thÐp hµn; • C¸c èng ®øng thÐp hµn; • C¸c buång phãng vµ nhËn thoi (pig trap); • C¸c van, c¸c thiÕt bÞ ®iÒu khiÓn vµ phô tïng; • C¸c thiÕt bÞ an toµn; • C¸c líp phñ b¶o vÖ; • HÖ thèng b¶o vÖ catèt. 3.2. Trong tiªu chuÈn nµy, khi ®Ò cËp tíi ®−êng èng cã nghÜa lµ ®Ò cËp tíi mét hoÆc toµn bé c¸c ®èi t−îng nªu trong 3.1. Tiªu chuÈn nµy kh«ng chØ giíi h¹n ¸p dông cho nh÷ng ®èi t−îng ®· kÓ trªn mµ cã thÓ bæ sung nh÷ng ®èi t−îng kh¸c mét c¸ch thÝch hîp theo yªu cÇu cña c¸c c¬ quan cã thÈm quyÒn hoÆc chñ ®−êng èng. 32
  33. 33. TCVN 6475-1:2007 3.3. C¸c ®−êng èng ®· ®−îc thiÕt kÕ hoÆc chÕ t¹o theo c¸c tiªu chuÈn hoÆc Quy ®Þnh kh¸c víi c¸c yªu cÇu cña tiªu chuÈn nµy ph¶i ®−îc xem xÐt ®Ó ph©n cÊp tïy thuéc vµo sù t−¬ng ®−¬ng gi÷a c¸c tiªu chuÈn thiÕt kÕ vµ chÕ t¹o. Trong nh÷ng tr−êng hîp ®ã, cÇn th«ng b¸o cho §¨ng kiÓm biÕt ngay ë giai ®o¹n ban ®Çu ®Ó cã c¬ së ph©n cÊp. 4. TiÕn tr×nh thùc hiÖn ph©n cÊp 4.1. ViÖc ph©n cÊp vµ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt mét hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn ®−îc tiÕn hµnh theo c¸c giai ®o¹n cña dù ¸n vµ theo tiÕn ®é ®· ®Ò ra. C«ng t¸c gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt do §¨ng kiÓm ViÖt Nam thùc hiÖn lµ mét phÇn cña qu¸ tr×nh ph©n cÊp. C«ng t¸c gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt ®−îc tiÕn hµnh trong tÊt c¶ c¸c giai ®o¹n cña dù ¸n vµ ph¶i bao hµm tÊt c¶ c¸c khÝa c¹nh trong dù ¸n ®ã. 4.2. C¸c b−íc ®Ó tiÕn hµnh c«ng t¸c ph©n cÊp bao gåm: 4.2.1. TiÒn ph©n cÊp (nÕu cã): • Xem xÐt thiÕt kÕ s¬ bé (conceptual design). 4.2.2. Ph©n cÊp: • XÐt duyÖt thiÕt kÕ bao gåm c¶ thiÕt kÕ chi tiÕt (detail design); • Gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt trong qu¸ tr×nh thi c«ng: o o S¶n xuÊt vµ gia c«ng c¸c bé phËn cña ®−êng èng; o ChÕ t¹o hÖ thèng b¶o vÖ chèng ¨n mßn vµ líp bäc gia t¶i; o L¾p ®Æt ®−êng èng; o • S¶n xuÊt èng; Hoµn thiÖn ®−êng èng. CÊp giÊy chøng nhËn. 4.2.3. Duy tr× hiÖu lùc cña GiÊy chøng nhËn: • KiÓm tra trong khai th¸c, b¶o d−ìng vµ söa ch÷a. 5. Nguyªn t¾c gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt 5.1. Quy ®Þnh chung vÒ gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt 33
  34. 34. TCVN 6475-1:2007 5.1.1. C«ng t¸c gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt lµ mét ho¹t ®éng kiÓm tra ®éc lËp vµ mang tÝnh hÖ thèng ®èi víi c¸c giai ®o¹n kh¸c nhau trong qu¸ tr×nh thiÕt kÕ, chÕ t¹o vµ ho¹t ®éng cña mét hÖ thèng ®−êng èng biÓn nh»m x¸c ®Þnh hÖ thèng ®−êng èng ®ã cã ®¸p øng ®−îc c¸c yªu cÇu vµ môc ®Ých ®Ò ra kh«ng. 5.1.2. C«ng t¸c gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt ®−îc §¨ng kiÓm tiÕn hµnh nh»m x¸c ®Þnh c¸c lçi hoÆc h− háng liªn quan ®Õn ®−êng èng, nh»m lµm gi¶m rñi ro trong vËn hµnh hÖ thèng ®−êng èng, søc kháe vµ an toµn cho con ng−êi cã liªn quan còng nh− ë vïng phô cËn víi hÖ thèng ®−êng èng. 5.1.3. C«ng t¸c gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt chñ yÕu nh»m vµo tÝnh toµn vÑn cña hÖ thèng ®−êng èng, an toµn cho con ng−êi vµ b¶o vÖ m«i tr−êng. 5.1.4. Ph−¬ng ph¸p gi¸m s¸t chÝnh cña §¨ng kiÓm: §¨ng kiÓm thùc hiÖn viÖc gi¸m s¸t theo nh÷ng tr×nh tù ®−îc quy ®Þnh trong tiªu chuÈn nµy, ®ång thêi §¨ng kiÓm còng cã thÓ tiÕn hµnh kiÓm tra bÊt th−êng bÊt cø h¹ng môc nµo phï hîp víi tiªu chuÈn nµy trong tr−êng hîp §¨ng kiÓm thÊy cÇn thiÕt. 5.1.5. §Ó thùc hiÖn c«ng t¸c gi¸m s¸t, chñ c«ng tr×nh, nhµ thÇu ph¶i t¹o mäi ®iÒu kiÖn thuËn lîi cho §¨ng kiÓm viªn tiÕn hµnh kiÓm tra, thö nghiÖm vËt liÖu vµ c¸c s¶n phÈm chÞu sù gi¸m s¸t cña §¨ng kiÓm kÓ c¶ viÖc §¨ng kiÓm viªn ®−îc tù do ®Õn tÊt c¶ nh÷ng n¬i s¶n xuÊt vµ thö nghiÖm vËt liÖu vµ c¸c s¶n phÈm ®ã. 5.1.6. C¸c c¬ quan thiÕt kÕ, chñ c«ng tr×nh, nhµ thÇu vµ nhµ m¸y chÕ t¹o c¸c s¶n phÈm c«ng nghiÖp ph¶i thùc hiÖn c¸c yªu cÇu cña §¨ng kiÓm trªn c¬ së c¸c quy ®Þnh hiÖn hµnh cã liªn quan khi thùc hiÖn c«ng t¸c gi¸m s¸t kü thuËt. 5.1.7. NÕu dù ®Þnh cã nh÷ng söa ®æi trong qu¸ tr×nh chÕ t¹o liªn quan ®Õn vËt liÖu, kÕt cÊu, m¸y mãc, trang thiÕt bÞ vµ s¶n phÈm c«ng nghiÖp kh¸c víi c¸c b¶n vÏ vµ tµi liÖu ®· ®−îc duyÖt th× c¸c b¶n vÏ hoÆc tµi liÖu söa ®æi ph¶i ®−îc tr×nh cho §¨ng kiÓm xem xÐt vµ duyÖt thiÕt kÕ söa ®æi tr−íc khi thi c«ng. 5.1.8. NÕu cã nh÷ng tranh chÊp x¶y ra trong qu¸ tr×nh gi¸m s¸t gi÷a §¨ng kiÓm viªn vµ c¸c c¬ quan xÝ nghiÖp (chñ c«ng tr×nh, nhµ thÇu, nhµ chÕ t¹o vËt liÖu vµ s¶n phÈm) th× c¸c c¬ quan xÝ nghiÖp nµy cã quyÒn ®Ò xuÊt ý kiÕn cña m×nh trùc tiÕp víi tõng cÊp tõ thÊp lªn cao cña §¨ng kiÓm ®Ó gi¶i quyÕt. 5.1.9. §¨ng kiÓm cã thÓ tõ chèi kh«ng thùc hiÖn c«ng t¸c gi¸m s¸t, nÕu nhµ thÇu hoÆc x−ëng chÕ t¹o vi ph¹m cã hÖ thèng c¸c yªu cÇu cña tiªu chuÈn nµy hoÆc vi ph¹m hîp ®ång vÒ gi¸m s¸t víi §¨ng kiÓm. 5.1.10. Trong tr−êng hîp ph¸t hiÖn thÊy vËt liÖu hoÆc s¶n phÈm cã khuyÕt tËt, tuy ®· ®−îc cÊp GiÊy chøng nhËn hîp lÖ, §¨ng kiÓm vÉn cã quyÒn yªu cÇu tiÕn hµnh thö nghiÖm l¹i hoÆc kh¾c phôc nh÷ng khuyÕt tËt ®ã, §¨ng kiÓm cã thÓ thu håi vµ hñy bá GiÊy chøng nhËn ®· cÊp. 34
  35. 35. TCVN 6475-1:2007 5.1.11. Trong qu¸ tr×nh thùc hiÖn gi¸m s¸t, §¨ng kiÓm cã thÓ tiÕn hµnh kiÓm tra sù phï hîp cña kÕt cÊu, c«ng nghÖ theo c¸c tiªu chuÈn vµ quy tr×nh kh«ng ®−îc quy ®Þnh trong tiªu chuÈn nµy nh−ng nh»m môc ®Ých thùc hiÖn c¸c yªu cÇu cña tiªu chuÈn nµy. 5.1.12. §¨ng kiÓm cö §¨ng kiÓm viªn trùc tiÕp thùc hiÖn viÖc kiÓm tra chÕ t¹o vËt liÖu vµ s¶n phÈm hoÆc cã thÓ ñy quyÒn viÖc kiÓm tra nµy cho c¸c tæ chøc ph©n cÊp kh¸c phï hîp víi c¸c tháa thuËn thay thÕ lÉn nhau trong gi¸m s¸t. 5.2. Gi¸m s¸t trùc tiÕp 5.2.1. Gi¸m s¸t trùc tiÕp lµ h×nh thøc gi¸m s¸t do §¨ng kiÓm viªn trùc tiÕp tiÕn hµnh, dùa trªn c¸c hå s¬ kü thuËt ®· ®−îc §¨ng kiÓm duyÖt còng nh− nh÷ng tiªu chuÈn vµ yªu cÇu bæ sung ®· ®−îc §¨ng kiÓm chÊp nhËn. Dùa vµo tiªu chuÈn nµy vµ tïy thuéc vµo ®iÒu kiÖn cô thÓ, §¨ng kiÓm sÏ quy ®Þnh khèi l−îng kiÓm tra, ®o ®¹c vµ thö nghiÖm trong qu¸ tr×nh gi¸m s¸t. 5.2.2. Sau khi thùc hiÖn gi¸m s¸t vµ nhËn ®−îc nh÷ng kÕt qu¶ tháa ®¸ng vÒ thö nghiÖm vËt liÖu vµ s¶n phÈm, §¨ng kiÓm sÏ cÊp hoÆc x¸c nhËn GiÊy chøng nhËn. 5.3. Gi¸m s¸t gi¸n tiÕp 5.3.1. Gi¸m s¸t gi¸n tiÕp lµ gi¸m s¸t do nh÷ng ng−êi cña c¸c Tæ chøc kiÓm tra kü thuËt hoÆc c¸n bé kü thuËt cña nhµ m¸y ®−îc §¨ng kiÓm ñy quyÒn thùc hiÖn dùa theo hå s¬ kü thuËt ®· ®−îc §¨ng kiÓm duyÖt. 5.3.2. Gi¸m s¸t gi¸n tiÕp ®−îc thùc hiÖn theo nh÷ng h×nh thøc sau: • C¸n bé ®−îc §¨ng kiÓm uû quyÒn; • XÝ nghiÖp ®−îc §¨ng kiÓm uû quyÒn; • Hå s¬ ®−îc §¨ng kiÓm c«ng nhËn. 5.3.3. Dùa vµo c¸c yªu cÇu cña tiªu chuÈn nµy vµ tïy thuéc vµo ®iÒu kiÖn cô thÓ, §¨ng kiÓm sÏ quy ®Þnh c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn tiÕn hµnh gi¸m s¸t gi¸n tiÕp, khèi l 

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