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Insect Morphology And Identification Carlton
 

Insect Morphology And Identification Carlton

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Dr. Chris Carlton, LSU AgCenter Department of Entomology

Dr. Chris Carlton, LSU AgCenter Department of Entomology

* Insect collection techniques.
* Identification & classification of key rice pests

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    Insect Morphology And Identification Carlton Insect Morphology And Identification Carlton Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Rice Insects Taxonomy and Morphology: Personal Details of Some Old and New Foes Dr. Chris Carlton, Louisiana State Arthropod Museum LSU AgCenter, Dept of Entomology 9 to 9:45 am
    • Insects that we will deal with
      • Beetles-rice water weevils, rice levee billbug, colaspis leaf beetles, lady beetles
      • True bugs-stink bugs, aphids
      • Moths-borer complex
      • Flies-leafminers
      • Mites-panicle rice mite
    • Beetles (order Coleoptera): adults http://quasimodo.versailles. inra.fr/…/famtot.htm www.zin.ru/.../Coleoptera/ images/ M. Ferro www.zin.ru/.../Coleoptera/ images/ www.zin.ru/.../Coleoptera/ images/ www.zin.ru/.../Coleoptera/ images/
    • Beetles (order Coleoptera): adults Elytra completely covering flight wings Elytra partially exposing flight wings Thorax Abdomen Elytra Head Beetles of the World 1. Lawrence et al. 1999. Copyright CSIRO 1999.
    • Beetles (order Coleoptera): larvae Head Thorax Abdomen Head Thorax Abdomen
    • Rice water weevils: family Curculionidae http://www.padil.gov.au/pbt/files/uall/38RWW.jpg http://www.aragriculture.org/images/insects /rice/ricewaterweevillarva.jpg Adult Larva Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel Lissorhoptrus simplex (Say) + 17 others in Central and South America
    • How to distinguish L. oryzophilus and L. simplex Have a look at this part of the hind leg (metatibia). L. oryzophilus L. simplex
    • What do rice water weevil larvae use to inflict feeding damage on rice? Like a combination of pointed, cutting, and gouging chisels. Mandibles Larval head, bottom view.
    • Rice water weevils cannot breath water, but live under it. How do they breath? Like a can opener + scuba gear, sorta. Larval spiracle used to access air pockets inside stem.
    • Rice levee billbug: family Curculionidae Sphenophorus spp. At least nine species occur in Louisiana. Species identification is important.
    • Colaspis leaf beetles: family Chrysomelidae Adult Larva
    • Their respective male sex organs (aedeagus). Colaspis louisianae Blake Colaspis brunnea (F.) Distinguishing Colaspis species
    • Colaspis feeding damage in Louisiana rice seems to mainly be caused by C. louisianae
    • And now for some good news, lady beetles: family Coccinellidae What people usually think of…
    • … but a lot of lady beetles are quite small and drab in appearance Diomus terminatus (Say)
    • … and are important as natural control agents of aphids. What is this Diomus larva doing to consume the aphid? Photo series, M. Ferro and W. Akbar Mandible
    • + + Piercing body wall, injecting digestive fluids, sucking down liquified contents… Like a combination of tongs, a syringe, and a shop vac.
    • True bugs (order Hemiptera)
    • Head Thorax Abdomen True bugs Beak Immatures similar to adults, only lacking wings.
    • Rice stink bug: family Pentatomidae Oebalus pugnax (F.)
    • Rice stink bug beak A simple straw?
    • Dissection reveals a more complex apparatus. The beak comprises six individual components. Labrum=upper lip Mand. stylets=catheter Max. stylets=straw Labium=sheath
    • Southern green stink bug: family Pentatomidae http://insects.tamu.edu/images/insects/color/sgstink1.jpg Nezara viridula (L.) Adult Immature (nymph) http://ipm.ncsu….Southern_green_stink_bug_nymph2.jpg Compare with: green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) http:// www.ent.iastate.edu/.../greenstinkbug.html
    • Aphids: family Aphidae
      • Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L.
      • Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum Rondani
      http:// extension.entm.purdue.edu/pestcrop/2007/issue10/ http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3159/2900753778_69b01dcb30.jpg
    • Identifying aphids requires microscope slidemounts of WINGED aphids
    • Detail showing sensory structures on antenna used in identification Slide mounted greenbug collected in 1969
    • Moths, butterflies, and skippers (order Lepidoptera ) www.images.on.ca/.../ Zebra_Swallowtail.jpg www.floridata.com/.../ cloudless_sulphur.jpg www.ybis.at/natur/ …Pa163070.jpg www.fcps.k12.va.us/.. /ppolblue.jpg www.leps.it/indexjs.htm?.../ThymeSylve.htm www.fcps.k12.va.us/. ../ppolblue.jpg
    • Lepidoptera characters http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/butterfly-proboscis.jpg http:// www.greenville.k12.ny.us/.../cateranat.htm
    • Caterpiller feeding Like pinking shears. Mandibles Head, rear view.
    • The borer complex
      • Mexican rice borer: Euroma lofteni (Dyar)
      • Rice stalk borer: Chilo plejadellus Zincken
      • Sugarcane borer: Diatraea saccharalis (F.)
      • European corn borer: Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)
    • http:// www.ipm.iastate.edu/.../armyworm.html http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu/…Crambid%201a.jpg http:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adult_sugarca... Mexican ricer borer Rice stalk borer Sugarcane borer European corn borer
    • Comparing personal details of sugarcane borer and Mexican rice borer…male genitalia. Mexican ricer borer Sugarcane borer Slide mounted male genitalia of Mexican ricer borer 1 1 2 2 2 1 Reiss, 1981
    • What about the worms? rice stalk borer Sugarcane borer Often, live specimens are easier to identify than preserved. From Stehr’s Immature Insects
    • European corn borer Mexican rice borer Worms, cont. Fall armyworm entweb.clemson.edu/.../pages/EuroCornBorer.htm
    • True flies, mosquitos, midges (order Diptera) www.sfu.ca/~fankbone/ biol/diptera.jpg
    • http:// animals.howstuffworks.com/.../printable Typical fly adult Typical fly larva, maggot http:// www.fishing-hotspot.co.uk/fishing-with-maggots/ Mosquito larva, also a kind of fly Head Thorax Abdomen
      • South American rice miner: family Ephydridae
      Hydrellia wirthi Korytkowski Adult Larva with damage Egg
    • Like these swan-necked mortise chisels, sorta.
    • Mites (Acarina): very different from insects
      • 8 legs, not 6
      • Body not divided into head, thorax, and abdomen
      • Mouthparts completely different…chelicerate no mandibles
      • More closely related to spiders, ticks and scorpions
      http:// bugsinmybed.com/mite-biology.php
    • Rice panicle mite: family Tarsonemidae Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley mites Male Female
    • http:// keys.lucidcentral.org/.../Mite_Glossary.htm Drill + syringe on a minute (cellular) level
    • J. Saichuk mites Brown discoloration of sheath
    • www.panoramio.com/photo/1057758
      • Taxonomic services: how you can help us help you
      • Identification and classification: the FIRST step in dealing with pest problems
      • We rely of first responders to document new pests and pest outbreaks
      • The first responder’s toolkit
      Your local taxonomist, always cheerful and ready to help
    • The first responder’s toolkit Specimen vials/bottles/ziplocks Labeling supplies Field notebook Preservative: ethanol Knife w/scissors, handlens
    • A digital camera is also quite useful
      • Images rapidly transmittable
      • Live color shots often valuable clues in identification
      • Associated damage easy to document
      • You don’t have to be a great photographer
    • Accurate, precise data are essential, at minimum…
      • State and parish or county
      • General location (e.g., distance/direction to nearest town)
      • Specific location, GIS coords. if available!
      • Crop and specific location on plant or other habitat information (e.g., assoc. with damage)
      • Date of collection
      • Name of collector
    • Take home messages
      • Taxonomists and diagnosticians need your help in early detection of pests and pest outbreaks
      • Specialized methods are often necessary to correctly identify species and inform appropriate responses
      • The mechanics of feeding and nature of damage differ greatly among different insect groups and even between stages
    • Acknowledgments and Sources
      • Thanks to Natalie Hummel, staff and students at the LSAM and the LSU AgCenter for paying the bills.
      • Images by CEC, AgCenter, or online sources, as indicated in small print.
      • Louisiana State Arthropod Museum http://entomology.lsu.edu/lsam/
      • Identification service help page: http://entomology.lsu.edu/lsam/public.htm
    • Questions?