Insect Morphology And Identification Carlton

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Dr. Chris Carlton, LSU AgCenter Department of Entomology

* Insect collection techniques.
* Identification & classification of key rice pests

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Insect Morphology And Identification Carlton

  1. 2. Rice Insects Taxonomy and Morphology: Personal Details of Some Old and New Foes Dr. Chris Carlton, Louisiana State Arthropod Museum LSU AgCenter, Dept of Entomology 9 to 9:45 am
  2. 3. Insects that we will deal with <ul><li>Beetles-rice water weevils, rice levee billbug, colaspis leaf beetles, lady beetles </li></ul><ul><li>True bugs-stink bugs, aphids </li></ul><ul><li>Moths-borer complex </li></ul><ul><li>Flies-leafminers </li></ul><ul><li>Mites-panicle rice mite </li></ul>
  3. 4. Beetles (order Coleoptera): adults http://quasimodo.versailles. inra.fr/…/famtot.htm www.zin.ru/.../Coleoptera/ images/ M. Ferro www.zin.ru/.../Coleoptera/ images/ www.zin.ru/.../Coleoptera/ images/ www.zin.ru/.../Coleoptera/ images/
  4. 5. Beetles (order Coleoptera): adults Elytra completely covering flight wings Elytra partially exposing flight wings Thorax Abdomen Elytra Head Beetles of the World 1. Lawrence et al. 1999. Copyright CSIRO 1999.
  5. 6. Beetles (order Coleoptera): larvae Head Thorax Abdomen Head Thorax Abdomen
  6. 7. Rice water weevils: family Curculionidae http://www.padil.gov.au/pbt/files/uall/38RWW.jpg http://www.aragriculture.org/images/insects /rice/ricewaterweevillarva.jpg Adult Larva Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel Lissorhoptrus simplex (Say) + 17 others in Central and South America
  7. 8. How to distinguish L. oryzophilus and L. simplex Have a look at this part of the hind leg (metatibia). L. oryzophilus L. simplex
  8. 9. What do rice water weevil larvae use to inflict feeding damage on rice? Like a combination of pointed, cutting, and gouging chisels. Mandibles Larval head, bottom view.
  9. 10. Rice water weevils cannot breath water, but live under it. How do they breath? Like a can opener + scuba gear, sorta. Larval spiracle used to access air pockets inside stem.
  10. 11. Rice levee billbug: family Curculionidae Sphenophorus spp. At least nine species occur in Louisiana. Species identification is important.
  11. 12. Colaspis leaf beetles: family Chrysomelidae Adult Larva
  12. 13. Their respective male sex organs (aedeagus). Colaspis louisianae Blake Colaspis brunnea (F.) Distinguishing Colaspis species
  13. 14. Colaspis feeding damage in Louisiana rice seems to mainly be caused by C. louisianae
  14. 15. And now for some good news, lady beetles: family Coccinellidae What people usually think of…
  15. 16. … but a lot of lady beetles are quite small and drab in appearance Diomus terminatus (Say)
  16. 17. … and are important as natural control agents of aphids. What is this Diomus larva doing to consume the aphid? Photo series, M. Ferro and W. Akbar Mandible
  17. 18. + + Piercing body wall, injecting digestive fluids, sucking down liquified contents… Like a combination of tongs, a syringe, and a shop vac.
  18. 19. True bugs (order Hemiptera)
  19. 20. Head Thorax Abdomen True bugs Beak Immatures similar to adults, only lacking wings.
  20. 21. Rice stink bug: family Pentatomidae Oebalus pugnax (F.)
  21. 22. Rice stink bug beak A simple straw?
  22. 23. Dissection reveals a more complex apparatus. The beak comprises six individual components. Labrum=upper lip Mand. stylets=catheter Max. stylets=straw Labium=sheath
  23. 24. Southern green stink bug: family Pentatomidae http://insects.tamu.edu/images/insects/color/sgstink1.jpg Nezara viridula (L.) Adult Immature (nymph) http://ipm.ncsu….Southern_green_stink_bug_nymph2.jpg Compare with: green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) http:// www.ent.iastate.edu/.../greenstinkbug.html
  24. 25. Aphids: family Aphidae <ul><li>Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L. </li></ul><ul><li>Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum Rondani </li></ul>http:// extension.entm.purdue.edu/pestcrop/2007/issue10/ http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3159/2900753778_69b01dcb30.jpg
  25. 26. Identifying aphids requires microscope slidemounts of WINGED aphids
  26. 27. Detail showing sensory structures on antenna used in identification Slide mounted greenbug collected in 1969
  27. 28. Moths, butterflies, and skippers (order Lepidoptera ) www.images.on.ca/.../ Zebra_Swallowtail.jpg www.floridata.com/.../ cloudless_sulphur.jpg www.ybis.at/natur/ …Pa163070.jpg www.fcps.k12.va.us/.. /ppolblue.jpg www.leps.it/indexjs.htm?.../ThymeSylve.htm www.fcps.k12.va.us/. ../ppolblue.jpg
  28. 29. Lepidoptera characters http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/butterfly-proboscis.jpg http:// www.greenville.k12.ny.us/.../cateranat.htm
  29. 30. Caterpiller feeding Like pinking shears. Mandibles Head, rear view.
  30. 31. The borer complex <ul><li>Mexican rice borer: Euroma lofteni (Dyar) </li></ul><ul><li>Rice stalk borer: Chilo plejadellus Zincken </li></ul><ul><li>Sugarcane borer: Diatraea saccharalis (F.) </li></ul><ul><li>European corn borer: Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) </li></ul>
  31. 32. http:// www.ipm.iastate.edu/.../armyworm.html http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu/…Crambid%201a.jpg http:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adult_sugarca... Mexican ricer borer Rice stalk borer Sugarcane borer European corn borer
  32. 33. Comparing personal details of sugarcane borer and Mexican rice borer…male genitalia. Mexican ricer borer Sugarcane borer Slide mounted male genitalia of Mexican ricer borer 1 1 2 2 2 1 Reiss, 1981
  33. 34. What about the worms? rice stalk borer Sugarcane borer Often, live specimens are easier to identify than preserved. From Stehr’s Immature Insects
  34. 35. European corn borer Mexican rice borer Worms, cont. Fall armyworm entweb.clemson.edu/.../pages/EuroCornBorer.htm
  35. 36. True flies, mosquitos, midges (order Diptera) www.sfu.ca/~fankbone/ biol/diptera.jpg
  36. 37. http:// animals.howstuffworks.com/.../printable Typical fly adult Typical fly larva, maggot http:// www.fishing-hotspot.co.uk/fishing-with-maggots/ Mosquito larva, also a kind of fly Head Thorax Abdomen
  37. 38. <ul><li>South American rice miner: family Ephydridae </li></ul>Hydrellia wirthi Korytkowski Adult Larva with damage Egg
  38. 39. Like these swan-necked mortise chisels, sorta.
  39. 40. Mites (Acarina): very different from insects <ul><li>8 legs, not 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Body not divided into head, thorax, and abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Mouthparts completely different…chelicerate no mandibles </li></ul><ul><li>More closely related to spiders, ticks and scorpions </li></ul>http:// bugsinmybed.com/mite-biology.php
  40. 41. Rice panicle mite: family Tarsonemidae Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley mites Male Female
  41. 42. http:// keys.lucidcentral.org/.../Mite_Glossary.htm Drill + syringe on a minute (cellular) level
  42. 43. J. Saichuk mites Brown discoloration of sheath
  43. 44. www.panoramio.com/photo/1057758
  44. 45. <ul><li>Taxonomic services: how you can help us help you </li></ul><ul><li>Identification and classification: the FIRST step in dealing with pest problems </li></ul><ul><li>We rely of first responders to document new pests and pest outbreaks </li></ul><ul><li>The first responder’s toolkit </li></ul>Your local taxonomist, always cheerful and ready to help
  45. 46. The first responder’s toolkit Specimen vials/bottles/ziplocks Labeling supplies Field notebook Preservative: ethanol Knife w/scissors, handlens
  46. 47. A digital camera is also quite useful <ul><li>Images rapidly transmittable </li></ul><ul><li>Live color shots often valuable clues in identification </li></ul><ul><li>Associated damage easy to document </li></ul><ul><li>You don’t have to be a great photographer </li></ul>
  47. 48. Accurate, precise data are essential, at minimum… <ul><li>State and parish or county </li></ul><ul><li>General location (e.g., distance/direction to nearest town) </li></ul><ul><li>Specific location, GIS coords. if available! </li></ul><ul><li>Crop and specific location on plant or other habitat information (e.g., assoc. with damage) </li></ul><ul><li>Date of collection </li></ul><ul><li>Name of collector </li></ul>
  48. 49. Take home messages <ul><li>Taxonomists and diagnosticians need your help in early detection of pests and pest outbreaks </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized methods are often necessary to correctly identify species and inform appropriate responses </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanics of feeding and nature of damage differ greatly among different insect groups and even between stages </li></ul>
  49. 50. Acknowledgments and Sources <ul><li>Thanks to Natalie Hummel, staff and students at the LSAM and the LSU AgCenter for paying the bills. </li></ul><ul><li>Images by CEC, AgCenter, or online sources, as indicated in small print. </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana State Arthropod Museum http://entomology.lsu.edu/lsam/ </li></ul><ul><li>Identification service help page: http://entomology.lsu.edu/lsam/public.htm </li></ul>
  50. 51. Questions?

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